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中英文翻译锯削.doc

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中英文翻译锯削.doc

1英文资料SAWINGSAWINGISTHEPARTINGOFMATERIALBYUSINGMETALDISKS,BLADES,BANDS,ORABRASIVEDISKSASTHECUTTINGTOOLSSAWINGAPIECEFROMSTOCKFORFURTHERMACHININGISCALLEDCUTOFFSAWING,WHILESHAPINGOFFORMINGAPIECEISREFERREDTOASCONTOURSAWINGMACHINESAWINGOFMETALISPERFORMEDBYFIVETYPESOFSAWSORPROCESSESHACKSAWING,BABDSAWING,COLDSAWING,FRICTIONSAWING,ANDABRASIVESAWINGHACKSAWSAREUSEDPRINCIPALLYASCUTOFFTOOLSTHETOOTHEDBLADE,HELDINTENSION,ISRECIPROCATEDACROSSTHEWORKPIECEAVISEHOLDSTHESTOCKINPOSITIONTHEBLADEISFEDINTOTHEWORKBYGRAVITYORSPRINGSOMETIMESAMECHANICALORHYDRAULICFEEDISUSEDAUTOMATICMACHINES,HANDLINGBARLENGTHSTOCK,AREUSEDFORCONTINUOUSPRODUCTIONBANDSAWSCUTRAPIDLYANDARESUITEDFOREITHERCUTOFFORCONTOURSAWINGTHEPLANEINWHICHTHEBLADEOPERATESCLASSIFIESTHEMACHINEASBEINGEITHERVERTICALORHORIZONTALBANDSAWSAREBASICALLYAFLEXIBLEENDLESSBANDOFSTEELRUNNINGOVERPULLEYSORWHEELSTHEBANDHASTEETHONONESIDEANDISOPERATEDUNDERTENSIONGUIDESKEEPITRUNNINGTRUETHEFRAMEOFTHEHORIZONTALTYPEISPIVOTEDTOALLOWPOSITIONINGOFTHEWORKPIECEINTHEVISEHORIZONTALMACHINESAREUSEDFOREITHERSTRAIGHTORANGULARCUTSATABLETHATSUPPORTSTHEWORKPIECEANDTHEWIDETHROATBETWEENTHEUPRIGHTPORTIONSOFTHEBLADEMAKESTHEVERTICALBANDSAWIDEALFORCONTOURWORKBANDSAWSOPERATINGATHIGHSPEEDAREFREQUENTLYUSEDASFRICTIONSAWSCOLDSAWINGISPRINCIPALLYACUTOFFOPERATIONTHEBLADEISACIRCULARDISKWITHCUTTINGTEETHONITSPERIPHERYBLADESRANGEINSIZEFROMAFEWINCHESTOSEVERALFEETINDIAMETERTHECUTTINGTEETHMAYBECUTINTOTHEPERIPHERYOFTHEDISKORTHEYMAYBEINSERTSOFAHARDERMATERIALTHEBLADEMOVESINTOTHESTOCKWITHAPOSITIVEFEEDSTOCKISPOSITIONEDMANUALLYINSOMECOLDSAWINGMACHINES,WHILEOTHERMODELSAREEQUIPPEDFORAUTOMATICCYCLESAWINGFRICTIONSAWINGISARAPIDPROCESSUSEDTOCUTSTEELASWELLASCERTAINPLASTICSTHISPROCESSISNOTSATISFACTORYFORCASTIRONANDNONFERROUSMETALSCUTTINGISDONEASTHEHIGHSPEEDBLADEWIPESTHEMETALFROMTHEKERFAFTERSOFTENINGITWITHFRICTIONALHEATCIRCULARALLOYSTEELBLADESPERFORMCUTOFFWORK,THILEFRICTIONALBANDSAWSDOBOTHCUTOFFANDCONTOURSAWINGCIRCULARBLADESAREFREQUENTLYCOOLEDBYWATERORAIRCIRCULARBLADESAREADCANCEDINTOTHEWORK,THILETHICKWORKPIECESREQUIREPOWERTABLEFEEDTHENFRICTIONCUTONABANDSAWABRASIVESAWINGISACUTOFFPROCESSUSINGTHINRUBBERORBAKELITEBONDEDABRASIVEDISKSINADDITIONTOSTEEL,OTHERMATERIALSSUCHASNONFERROUSMETALS,CERAMICS,GLASS,CERTAINPLASTICS,ANDHARDRUBBERARECUTBYTHISMETHODCUTTINGISDONEBYTHEABRASIVEACTIONOFTHEGRITINTHEDISKABRASIVEDISKSAREOPERATEDEITHERWETORDRYFORHEAVYCUTTINGACOOLINGAGENT2ISGENERALLYUSEDTHEWORKPIECEISFIRMLYHELDWHILETHEWHEELTRAVERSESTHROUGHITMACHINESAREMADEINMANUALLYOPERATEDANDAUTOMATICMODELSDRILLINGHOLESAREONEOFTHEMOSTCOMMONFEATURESINPRODUCTSMANUFACTUREDTODAYTHEREFORE,DRILLINGANDOTHERRELATEDPROCESSESANDTOOLSAREEXTREMELYIMPORTANTHOLESASSMALLAS0005INMAYBEDRILLEDUSINGSPECIALTECHNIQUESONTHEOTHERHAND,HOLESLARGERTHAN2TO221ININDIAMETERARESELDOMDRILLED,BECAUSEOTHERPROCESSESANDTECHNIQUESARELESSEXPENSIVETHETWISTDRILLSHOWNINFIG123ISTHEMOSTCOMMONTYPEOFDRILLTHESHANKOFTHEDRILLISHELDBYTHEMACHINETOOL,WHICHINTURNIMPARTSANROTARYMOTIONTHISSHANKOFTHEDRILLISHELDBYTHEMACHINETOOLWHICHINTURNIMPARTSAROTARYMOTIONTHISSHANKMAYBESTRAIGHTORTAPEREDTHEBODYOFTHEDRILLISTYPICALLYMADEUPOFTWOSPIRALGROOVESKNOWNASFLUTES,WHICHAREDEFINEDBYAHELIXANGLETHATISGENERALLYABOUT30BUTCANVARYDEPENDINGONTHEMATERIALPROPERTIESOFTHEWORKPIECETHEPOINTOFTHEDRILLSEEFIG123GENERALLYFORMA118ANGLEANDINCLUDESA10CLEARANCEANGLEANDCHISELEDGETHECHISELEDGEISFLATWITHAWEBTHICKNESSOFAPPROXIMATELY0015DRILLDIAMETERTHISEDGECANCAUSEPROBLEMSINHOLELOCATIONOWINGTOITSABILITYTO“WALK”ONASURFACEBEFOREENGAGINGTHEWORKPIECEINTHECASEOFBRITTLEMATERIALS,DRILLPOINTANGLESOFLESSTHAN118AREUSED,WHILEDUCTILEMATERIALSUSELARGERPOINTSANGLESANDSMALLERCLEARANCEANGLESCOMPLEXHOLECONFIGURATIONSMAYOFTENBECALLEDFOR;THESEINCLUDEMULTIPLEDIAMETERS,CHAMFERS,COUNTERSINKS,ANDCOMBINATIONSOFTHESE,ASILLUSTRATEDINFIG124INEACH3OFTHESECASESINISPOSSIBLETOMAKESPECIALCOMBINATIONDRILLSTHATCANPRODUCETHECONFIGURATIONSSHOWNINASINGLEOPERATIONALTHOUGHEXPENSIVE,THEYCANBEECONOMICALLYJUSTIFIEDFORSUFFICIENTVOLUMETHEFLATCHISELEDGE,WHICHCAN“WALK”ONTHESURFACEOFTHEWORKPIECE,ANDTHELONG,SLENDERSHAFTANDBODYOFTHETWISTDRILL,WHICHCANDEFLECT,MAKEITDIFFICULTTOMACHINEHOLESTOTIGHTTOLERANCESACOMBINATIONCENTERDRILLANDCOUNTERSINKCANBEUSEDTOACCURATELYSTARTAHOLE,OWINGTOITSSMALLWEBTHICKNESSANDITSTENDENCYTODEFLECTONLYVERYSMALLAMOUNTSBECAUSEOFARELATIVELYLARGEDIAMETERTOLENGTHRATIOTRUINGOFTHEHOLETOMAKEITSTRAIGHTISACCOMPLISHEDBYBORINGREAMINGTHEHOLEPROVIDESABETTERFINISHASWELLASMOREACCURATESIZINGTHEFEEDRATEOFADRILLISNORMALLYPROPORTIONALTOITSDIAMETER,BECAUSEITDEPENDSONTHEVOLUMEOFCHIPSTHEFLUTESCANHANDLEHOWEVERTHEFEEDISINDEPENDENTOFTHECUTTINGSPEED,WHICHISAFUNCTIONOFTHETOOLWORKCOMBINATIONARULEOFTHUMBWOULDGIVEAFEEDRATEASAPPROXIMATELYD/65,SOTHATA3/4INDIAMETERDRILLWOULDHAVEAFEEDRATEOFABOUT0012IN/REVALTHOUGHTHEHOLEWALLTENDSTOSUPPORTTHEDRILLWHENTHEHOLEDEPTHEXCEEDSTHREETIMESTHEDRILLDIAMETER,THEREISATENDENCYFORBUCKLINGTOOCCURANDTHEFEEDRATESHOULDBEREDUCEDMOSTDRILLSAREMADEFROMHIGH–SPEEDSTEELBECAUSEOFITSRELATIVELYLOWCOSTANDEASEOFMANUFACTURESOMETYPESOFCARBIDEDRILLSARENOWAVAILABLECOMMERCIALLYTHEDEMANDSOFNUMERICALLYCONTROLLEDMACHINETOOLSHAVELEDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFDRILLSTHATWILLPRODUCEPOREPRECISEHOLESANDTHATWILLORIGINATEAHOLEINLINEWITHTHECENTERLINEOFTHEDRILLPRESSSPINDLEDRILLSTHATHAVEHEAVIERWEBS,LESSSTICKOUT,DOUBLEMARGINS,ANDAREGROUNDWITHASPIRALPOINTHELPMEETTHESENEWDEMANDSREAMINGREAMINGISAMACHININGPROCESSFORENLARGING,SMOOTHINGAND/ORACCURATELYSIZINGEXISTINGHOLESBYMEANSOFMEANSOFMULTIEDGEFLUTEDCUTTINGTOOLSREAMERSASTHEREAMERSAND/ORWORKPIECEISROTATEDANDADVANCEDRELATIVETOEACHOTHER,CHIPSAREPRODUCEDTOREMOVERELATIVELYSMALLAMOUNTSOFMATERIALFROMTHEHOLEWALLREAMINGMAYBEPERFORMEDONTHESAMETYPEOFMACHINESUSEDFORDRILLING4ACCURACYOFTHEHOLEANDQUALITYOFFINISHPRODUCEDBYREAMINGDEPENDSPRIMARILYUPONTHECONDITIONOFTHESTARTINGBOLE,RIGIDITYOFTHEMACHINEANDFIXTURE,CORRECTSPEEDSANDFEEDS,ASUITABLEANDPROPERLYAPPLIEDCUTTINGFLUID,ANDPRECISERESHARPENINGOFDULLTOOLSSINCESTOCKREMOVALISSMALLANDMUSTBEUNIFORMINREAMING,THESTARTINGHOLESDRILLEDOROTHERWISEPRODUCEDMUSTHAVERELATIVELYGOODROUNDNESS,STRAIGHTNESS,ANDFINISHREAMERSTENDTOFOLLOWTHEEXISTINGCENTERLINEOFTHEHOLEBEINGREAMED,ANDINLIMITEDINSTANCESITMAYBENECESSARYTOBORETHEHOLESPRIORTOREAMINGTOMAINTAINREQUIREDTOLERANCESWITHTHEPROPERCONDITIONSANDOPERATINGPARAMETERS,REAMINGCANPRODUCECLOSETOLERANCESANDSMOOTHFINISHESREAMERSAREAMERISAROTARYCUTTINGTOOL,GENERALLYOFCYLINDRICALORCONICALSHAPE,INTENDEDFORENLARGINGANDFINISHINGHOLESTOACCURATEDIMENSIONSITISUSUALLYEQUIPPEDWITHTWOORMOREPERIPHERALCHANNELSORFLUTES,EITHERPARALLELTOITSAXISORINARIGHT–ORLEFTHANDHELIXASREQUIREDTHOSEWITHHELICALFLUTESPROVIDESMOOTHSHEARCUTTING,ARELESSSUBJECTTOCHATTER,ANDPRODUCEABETTERFINISHTHEFLUTESFORMCUTTINGTEETHANDPROVIDECHANNELSFORREMOVINGTHECHIPSKINDSOFREAMERSREAMERSAREMADEINMANYDIFFERENTFORMS,INCLUDINGSOLIDANDINSERTEDBLADETYPES,ADJUSTABLEANDNONADJUSTABLE;THEYAREAVAILABLEFOREITHERMANUALOPERATIONHANDREAMERSORFORMACHINEUSECHUCKINGREAMERSMATERIALSFROMWHICHCUTTINGELEMENTSOFMOSTPRODUCTIONREAMERSAREMADEINCLUDEHIGHSPEEDSTEELANDCEMENTEDCARBIDESOFMOSTPRODUCTIONREAMERSAREMADEINCLUDEHIGHSPEEDSTEELANDCEMENTEDCARBIDESCARBIDEREAMERSTHESETOOLSAREBEINGUSEDINCREASINGLYBECAUSEOFTHEIRLINGERLIFE,IMPROVEDACCURACY,ANDRESISTANCEBOREREAMERSTHESETOOLSCOMBINEBORINGANDREAMINGINASINGLEOPERATIONTOMINIMIZEPROBLEMSWITHRESPECTTOHOLESIZE,STRAIGHTNESS,ANDFINISHSINGLEPOINTBOREREAMERS,FORUSEINAPPLICATIONSFORWHICHGUIDEBUSHINGSCANBEUSED,HAVEASINGLEPOINTCUTTINGEDGEONTHEENDOFTHETOOL,FOLLOWEDBYAREAMINGSECTIONMULTIPOINTBOREREAMERSAREAVAILABLEFORAPPLICATIONSFORAPPLICATIONSFORWHICHBUSHINGSCANNOTBEUSEDCOOLANTFEDREAMERSTHESETOOLS,HAVINGMEANSUSUALLYINTERNALPASSAGESFORDIRECTINGCOOLANTTOTHECUTTINGEDGES,OFFERADVANTAGESFORSOMEAPPLICATIONS,PARTICULARLYWHENREAMINGBLINDHOLESINSUCHAPPLICATIONS,REDUCEDFRICTIONANDTEMPERATURESATTHEREAMER/WORKPIECEINTERFACEDECREASEWEARANDLENGTHENTOOLLIFEINSOMECASES,FEEDSANDSPEEDSCANBEINCREASEDANDIMPROVEDACCURACIESANDSMOOTHERFINISHESOBTAINEDTHEINITIALCOSTOFCOOLANTFEDREAMERSISHIGHER,BUTINCREASEDPRODUCTIVITYANDIMPROVEDQUALITYOFTENMAKETHEMECONOMICALLYDESIRABLEREAMERHOLDERS/DRIVERS

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