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中英文翻译锯削.doc

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中英文翻译锯削.doc

1英文资料.SawingSawingisthepartingofmaterialbyusingmetaldisks,blades,bands,orabrasivedisksasthecuttingtools.Sawingapiecefromstockforfurthermachiningiscalledcutoffsawing,whileshapingofformingapieceisreferredtoascontoursawing.Machinesawingofmetalisperformedbyfivetypesofsawsorprocesseshacksawing,babdsawing,coldsawing,frictionsawing,andabrasivesawing.Hacksawsareusedprincipallyascutofftools.Thetoothedblade,heldintension,isreciprocatedacrosstheworkpiece.Aviseholdsthestockinposition.Thebladeisfedintotheworkbygravityorspring.Sometimesamechanicalorhydraulicfeedisused.Automaticmachines,handlingbarlengthstock,areusedforcontinuousproduction.Bandsawscutrapidlyandaresuitedforeithercutofforcontoursawing.Theplaneinwhichthebladeoperatesclassifiesthemachineasbeingeitherverticalorhorizontal.Bandsawsarebasicallyaflexibleendlessbandofsteelrunningoverpulleysorwheels.Thebandhasteethononesideandisoperatedundertension.Guideskeepitrunningtrue.Theframeofthehorizontaltypeispivotedtoallowpositioningoftheworkpieceinthevise.Horizontalmachinesareusedforeitherstraightorangularcuts.Atablethatsupportstheworkpieceandthewidethroatbetweentheuprightportionsoftheblademakestheverticalbandsawidealforcontourwork.Bandsawsoperatingathighspeedarefrequentlyusedasfrictionsaws.Coldsawingisprincipallyacutoffoperation.Thebladeisacirculardiskwithcuttingteethonitsperiphery.Bladesrangeinsizefromafewinchestoseveralfeetindiameter.Thecuttingteethmaybecutintotheperipheryofthediskortheymaybeinsertsofahardermaterial.Theblademovesintothestockwithapositivefeed.Stockispositionedmanuallyinsomecoldsawingmachines,whileothermodelsareequippedforautomaticcyclesawing.Frictionsawingisarapidprocessusedtocutsteelaswellascertainplastics.Thisprocessisnotsatisfactoryforcastironandnonferrousmetals.Cuttingisdoneasthehighspeedbladewipesthemetalfromthekerfaftersofteningitwithfrictionalheat.Circularalloysteelbladesperformcutoffwork,thilefrictionalbandsawsdobothcutoffandcontoursawing.Circularbladesarefrequentlycooledbywaterorair.Circularbladesareadcancedintothework,thilethickworkpiecesrequirepowertablefeedthenfrictioncutonabandsaw.Abrasivesawingisacutoffprocessusingthinrubberorbakelitebondedabrasivedisks.Inadditiontosteel,othermaterialssuchasnonferrousmetals,ceramics,glass,certainplastics,andhardrubberarecutbythismethod.Cuttingisdonebytheabrasiveactionofthegritinthedisk.Abrasivedisksareoperatedeitherwetordry.Forheavycuttingacoolingagent2isgenerallyused.Theworkpieceisfirmlyheldwhilethewheeltraversesthroughit.Machinesaremadeinmanuallyoperatedandautomaticmodels.DrillingHolesareoneofthemostcommonfeaturesinproductsmanufacturedtoday.Therefore,drillingandotherrelatedprocessesandtoolsareextremelyimportant.Holesassmallas0.005in.maybedrilledusingspecialtechniques.Ontheotherhand,holeslargerthan2to221in.indiameterareseldomdrilled,becauseotherprocessesandtechniquesarelessexpensive.ThetwistdrillshowninFig.123isthemostcommontypeofdrill.Theshankofthedrillisheldbythemachinetool,whichinturnimpartsanrotarymotion.Thisshankofthedrillisheldbythemachinetool.Whichinturnimpartsarotarymotion.Thisshankmaybestraightortapered.Thebodyofthedrillistypicallymadeupoftwospiralgroovesknownasflutes,whicharedefinedbyahelixanglethatisgenerallyabout30ºbutcanvarydependingonthematerialpropertiesoftheworkpiece.ThepointofthedrillseeFig.123generallyforma118ºangleandincludesa10clearanceangleandchiseledge.Thechiseledgeisflatwithawebthicknessofapproximately0.015drilldiameter.Thisedgecancauseproblemsinholelocationowingtoitsabilitytowalkonasurfacebeforeengagingtheworkpiece.Inthecaseofbrittlematerials,drillpointanglesoflessthan118ºareused,whileductilematerialsuselargerpointsanglesandsmallerclearanceangles.Complexholeconfigurationsmayoftenbecalledfortheseincludemultiplediameters,chamfers,countersinks,andcombinationsofthese,asillustratedinFig.124.Ineach3ofthesecasesinispossibletomakespecialcombinationdrillsthatcanproducetheconfigurationsshowninasingleoperation.Althoughexpensive,theycanbeeconomicallyjustifiedforsufficientvolume.Theflatchiseledge,whichcanwalkonthesurfaceoftheworkpiece,andthelong,slendershaftandbodyofthetwistdrill,whichcandeflect,makeitdifficulttomachineholestotighttolerances.Acombinationcenterdrillandcountersinkcanbeusedtoaccuratelystartahole,owingtoitssmallwebthicknessanditstendencytodeflectonlyverysmallamountsbecauseofarelativelylargediametertolengthratio.Truingoftheholetomakeitstraightisaccomplishedbyboring.Reamingtheholeprovidesabetterfinishaswellasmoreaccuratesizing.Thefeedrateofadrillisnormallyproportionaltoitsdiameter,becauseitdependsonthevolumeofchipstheflutescanhandle.Howeverthefeedisindependentofthecuttingspeed,whichisafunctionofthetoolworkcombination.Aruleofthumbwouldgiveafeedrateasapproximatelyd/65,sothata3/4in.diameterdrillwouldhaveafeedrateofabout0.012in./rev.Althoughtheholewalltendstosupportthedrillwhentheholedepthexceedsthreetimesthedrilldiameter,thereisatendencyforbucklingtooccurandthefeedrateshouldbereduced.Mostdrillsaremadefromhigh–speedsteelbecauseofitsrelativelylowcostandeaseofmanufacture.Sometypesofcarbidedrillsarenowavailablecommercially.Thedemandsofnumericallycontrolledmachinetoolshaveledtothedevelopmentofdrillsthatwillproduceporepreciseholesandthatwilloriginateaholeinlinewiththecenterlineofthedrillpressspindle.Drillsthathaveheavierwebs,lessstickout,doublemargins,andaregroundwithaspiralpointhelpmeetthesenewdemands.ReamingReamingisamachiningprocessforenlarging,smoothingand/oraccuratelysizingexistingholesbymeansofmeansofmultiedgeflutedcuttingtoolsreamers.Asthereamersand/orworkpieceisrotatedandadvancedrelativetoeachother,chipsareproducedtoremoverelativelysmallamountsofmaterialfromtheholewall.Reamingmaybeperformedonthesametypeofmachinesusedfordrilling.4Accuracyoftheholeandqualityoffinishproducedbyreamingdependsprimarilyupontheconditionofthestartingbole,rigidityofthemachineandfixture,correctspeedsandfeeds,asuitableandproperlyappliedcuttingfluid,andpreciseresharpeningofdulltools.Sincestockremovalissmallandmustbeuniforminreaming,thestartingholesdrilledorotherwiseproducedmusthaverelativelygoodroundness,straightness,andfinish.Reamerstendtofollowtheexistingcenterlineoftheholebeingreamed,andinlimitedinstancesitmaybenecessarytoboretheholespriortoreamingtomaintainrequiredtolerances.Withtheproperconditionsandoperatingparameters,reamingcanproduceclosetolerancesandsmoothfinishes.ReamersAreamerisarotarycuttingtool,generallyofcylindricalorconicalshape,intendedforenlargingandfinishingholestoaccuratedimensions.Itisusuallyequippedwithtwoormoreperipheralchannelsorflutes,eitherparalleltoitsaxisorinaright–orlefthandhelixasrequired.Thosewithhelicalflutesprovidesmoothshearcutting,arelesssubjecttochatter,andproduceabetterfinish.Theflutesformcuttingteethandprovidechannelsforremovingthechips.KindsofReamersReamersaremadeinmanydifferentforms,includingsolidandinsertedbladetypes,adjustableandnonadjustabletheyareavailableforeithermanualoperationhandreamersorformachineusechuckingreamers.Materialsfromwhichcuttingelementsofmostproductionreamersaremadeincludehighspeedsteelandcementedcarbides.ofmostproductionreamersaremadeincludehighspeedsteelandcementedcarbides.CarbidereamersThesetoolsarebeingusedincreasinglybecauseoftheirlingerlife,improvedaccuracy,andresistance.BorereamersThesetoolscombineboringandreaminginasingleoperationtominimizeproblemswithrespecttoholesize,straightness,andfinish.Singlepointborereamers,foruseinapplicationsforwhichguidebushingscanbeused,haveasinglepointcuttingedgeontheendofthetool,followedbyareamingsection.Multipointborereamersareavailableforapplicationsforapplicationsforwhichbushingscannotbeused.CoolantfedreamersThesetools,havingmeansusuallyinternalpassagesfordirectingcoolanttothecuttingedges,offeradvantagesforsomeapplications,particularlywhenreamingblindholes.Insuchapplications,reducedfrictionandtemperaturesatthereamer/workpieceinterfacedecreasewearandlengthentoollife.Insomecases,feedsandspeedscanbeincreasedandimprovedaccuraciesandsmootherfinishesobtained.Theinitialcostofcoolantfedreamersishigher,butincreasedproductivityandimprovedqualityoftenmakethemeconomicallydesirable.ReamerHolders/Drivers

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