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中英文翻译镗削加工和镗床.doc

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中英文翻译镗削加工和镗床.doc

英文翻译原文一BORINGANDBORINGMACHINESAscarriedoutonalathe,boringproducescircularinternalprofilesinhollowworkpiecesoronaholemadebydrillingoranotherprocess,Boringisdonewithcuttingtoolsthataresimilartothoseusedinturning.Becausetheboringbarhastoreachthefulllengthofthebore,tooldeflectionand,therefore,maintainanceofdimensionalaccuracycanbeasignificantproblem.Theboringbarmustbesufficientlystiffthatis,madeofamaterialwithhighelasticmodulus,suchastungstencarbide–tominimizedeflectionandavoidvibrationandchatter.Boringbarshavebeendesignedwithcapabilitiesfordampingvibration.Althoughboringoperationsonrelativelysmallworkpieces.Canbecarriedoutonalathe,boringmillsareusedforlargeworkpieces.Thesemachinesareeitherverticalorhorizontal,andarecapableofperformingoperationssuchasturning,facing,grooving,andchamfering.Averticalboringmachineissimilartoalathebuthasaverticalaxisofworkpiecerotation.ThecuttingtoolusuallyasinglepointmadeofM2andM3highspeedsteelandC7andC8carbideismountedonthetoolhead,whichiscapableofverticalmovementforboringandturningandradialmovementforfacing,guidedbythecrossrail.Theheadcanbeswiveledtoproduceconicaltaperedsurfaces.Inhorizontalboringmachine,theworkpieceismountedonatablethatcanmovehorizontallyinboththeaxialandradialdirections.Thecuttingtoolismountedonaspindlethatrotatesintheheadstock,whichiscapableofbothverticalandlongitudinalmovements.Drills,reamer,taps,andmillingcutterscanalsobemountedonthemachinespindle.Boringmachineareavailablewithavarietyoffeatures.Althoughworkpiecediametersaregenerally1m4m3ft12ft,workpieceaslargeas20m60ftcanbemachinedinsomeverticalboringmachines.Machinecapacitiesrangeupto150kw200hp.thesemachinesarealsoavailablewithcomputernumericalcontrols,whichallowallmovementstobeprogrammed.Withsuchcontrols,littleoperarorinvolvementisrequiredandconsistencyandproductivityareimproved.Cuttingspeedsandfeedsforboringaresimilartothoseforturning.ForcapabilitiesofboringoperationsJigborersareverticalboringmachineswithhigh–precisionbearings.Althoughtheyareavailableinvarioussizesandusedintoolroomsformakingjigsandfixtures,theyarenowbeingreplacedbymoreversatilenumericalcontrolmachines.Designconsiderationsforboring.Guidelinesforefficientandeconomicalboringoperationsaresimilartothoseforturning.Additionally,thefollowingfactorsshouldbeconsidereda.Wheneverpossible,throughholesratherthanblindholesshouldbespecified.Thetermblindholereferstoaholethatdoesnotgothoughthethicknessoftheworkpieceb.Thegreaterthelength–to–borediameterratio,themoredifficultitistoholddimensionsbecauseofthedeflectionsoftheboringbarduetocuttingforces.c.Interruptedinternalsurfacesshouldbeavoided.(2)FundamentalsofMachineToolsInmanycasesproductsformtheprimaryformingprocessesmustundergofurtherrefinementsinsizeandsurfacefinishtomeettheirdesignspecifications.Tomeetsuchprecisetolerancestheremovalofsmallamountsofmaterialisneeded.Usuallymachinetoolsareusedforsuchoperation.IntheUnitedStatesmaterialremovalisabigbusinessinexcessofperyear,includingmaterial,labor,overhead,andmachinetoolshipments,isspent.Since60percentofthemechanicalandindustrialengineeringandtechnologygraduateshavesomethingconnectionwiththemachiningindustryeitherthroughsale,design,oroperationofmachineshops,orworkinginrelatedindustry,itiswiseforanengineeringstudenttodevotesometimeinhiscurriculumtostudyingmaterialremovalandmachinetools.Amachinetoolprovidesthemeansforcuttingtoolstoshapeaworkpiecetorequireddimensionsthemachinesupportsthetoolandtheworkpieceinacontrolledrelationshipthroughthefunctioningofitsbasicmembers,whichareasfollowaBed,StructureorFrame.Thisisthemainmemberwhichprovidesabasisfor,andaconnectionbetween,thespindlesandslidesthedistortionandvibrationunderloadmustbekepttoaminimum.bSlidesandSideways.Thetranslationofamachineelemente.g.theslideisnormallyachievedbystraightlinemotionundertheconstraintofaccurateguidingsurfacestheslideway.cSpindlesandBearings.Angulardisplacementstakeplaceaboutanaxisofrotationthepositionofthisaxismustbeconstantwithinextremelyfinelimitsinmachinetools,andisensuredbytheprovisionofprecisionspindlesandbearings.dPowerUnit.Theelectricmotoristheuniversallyadoptedpowerunitformachinetools.Bysuitablypositioningindividualmotors,beltandgeartransmissionsarereducedtoaminimum.eTransmissionLinkage.Linkageisthegeneraltermusedtodenotethemechanical,hydraulic,pneumaticorelectricmechanismswhichconnectangularandlineardisplacementsindefinedrelationship.TherearetwobroaddivisionsofmachiningoperationsaRoughing,forwhichthemetalremovalrate,andconsequentlythecuttingforce,ishigh,buttherequireddimensionalaccuracyrelativelylow.bFinishing,forwhichthemetalremovalrate,andconsequentlythecuttingforce,islow,buttherequireddimensionalaccuracyandsurfacefinishrelativelyhigh.Itfollowsthatstaticloadsanddynamicloads,suchasresultformanunbalancedgrindingwheel,aremoresignificantinfinishingoperationsthaninroughingoperations,Thedegreeofprecisionachievedinanymachiningprocesswillusuallybeinfluencedbythemagnitudeofthedeflections,whichoccurasaresultoftheforceacting.Machinetoolframesaregenerallymadeincastiron,althoughsomemaybesteelcastingormildsteelfabrications.Castironischosenbecauseofitscheapness,rigidity,compressivestrengthandcapacityfordampingthevibrationssetupinmachineoperations,Toavoidmassivesectionsincastings,carefullydesignedsystemsofribbingareusedtoofferthemaximumresistancetobendingandtorsionalstresses.Twobasictypesofribbingareboxanddiagonal.Theboxformationisconvenienttoproduce,aperturesinwallspermittingthepositioningandextractionofcores.Diagonalribbingprovidesgreatertorsionalstiffnessandyetpermitsswarftofallbetweenthesectionsitisfrequentlyusedforlathebeds.Theslidesandslidewaysofamachinetoollocateandguidememberswhichmoverelativetoeachother,usuallychangingthepositionofthetoolrelativetoworkpiece.Themovementgenerallytakestheformoftranslationinastraightline,butissometimesangularrotation,e.g.tiltingthewheelheadofauniversalthreadgrindingmachinetoananglecorrespondingwhichthehelixangleoftheworkpiecethread.Thebasicgeometricelementsofslidesareflat,vee,dovetailandcylinder.Theseelementsmaybeusedseparatelyorcombinedinvariouswaysaccordingtotheapplications.FeaturesofslidewaysareasfollowsaAccuracyofMovement.Whereaslideistobedisplacedinastraightline,thislinemustlieintwomutuallyperpendicularplanesandtheremustbenosliderotation.Thegeneraltoleranceforstraightnessofmachinetoolslidewaysis00.02mmper1000mmonhorizontalsurfacesthistolerancemaybedisposedsothataconvexsurfaceresults,thuscounteringtheeffectofsagoftheslideway.bMeansofAdjustment.Tofacilitateassembly,maintainaccuracyandeliminateplaybetweenslidingmembersafterwearhastakenplace,astripissometimesinsertedinslides.Thisiscalledagibstrip.Usually,thegibisretainedbysocketheadscrewspassingthroughelongatedslotsandisadjustedbygrubscrewssecuredbylocknuts.cLubrication.Slidewaysmaybelubricatedbyeitherofthefollowingsystems1Intermittentlythroughgreaseoroilnipples,amethodsuitablewheremovementsareinfrequentandspeedlow.2Continuouslye.g.bypumpingthroughameteringvalveandpipeworktothepointofapplicationthefilmofoilintroducedbetweensurfacesbythesemeansmustbeextremelythintoavoidtheslidefloating.Ifslidingsurfaceswereopticallyflatoilwouldbesqueezedout,resultinginthesurfacessticking.HenceinpracticeslideSillfacesareeithergrourldusingtheedgeofacupwheel,orscraped.Bothprocessesprodueeminultesurfacedepressions,whichretainpocketofoil,andcompleteseparationofthepartsmaynotoccuratallpoints.dProtection.Tomaintainslidewaysingoodorder,thefollowingconditionsmustbemet1Ingressofforeignmatter,e.g.swarf,mustbeprevented.Wherethisisnopossible,itisdesirabletohaveaformofslideway,whichdoesnotretainswarf,e.g.theinvertedvee.2Lubricatingoilmustberetained.Theadhesivepropertyofoilforuseonverticalorinclinedslidesurfaceisimportantoilsareavailablewhichhavebeenspeciallydevelopedforthispurpose.Theadhesivenessofoilalsoprevertsitbeingwashedawaybycuttingfluids.3Accidentaldamagemustbepreventedbyprotectiveguards.译文一镗削加工和镗床像车床加工零件一样,镗床能在中空的工件或由钻削加工或其它工艺所加工的孔上进行内轮廓圆的加工。镗削是由那些类似车削的刀具完成的。因为镗头必须达到镗杆的全长,刀具将发生弯曲,因此,尺寸精度的保持性成为了一个重大问题。镗杆必须有足够的刚度刀杆是由较高弹性模量的材料制造的,比如碳化钨(硬质合金)去减小弯曲和避免摇动和振动。镗杆被设计有减振的能力。镗床既能加工在车床上加工的较小工件,镗铣床又能加工巨大的工件。这类机械既有立式的又有卧式的并且能够完成如车削、车端面、切槽、和倒角。一台立式的镗床类似一台车床,但它有一根垂直的工件旋转轴。刀具(通常用于切削的单独切削点是由M2和M3高速钢和C8硬质合金制造的)被安装于能垂直运动(用于镗削和车削)和径向运动(用于车端面)并由十字导轨导向的刀头上。刀头能够旋转去加工圆锥形表面。在卧式镗床上工件被装夹在能在水平面内两个轴向和径向上移动的工作台上,刀具被安装于能做垂直和纵向两方向上运动的主轴箱上。钻头、铰刀、螺纹刀和铣刀都能安装于机床主轴上。镗床具有许多优良的性能,它所加工工件的直径是1m4m3ft12ft,工件尺寸达到20m60ft的可在专用的立式镗床上加工。机床功率范围可达到150kw200hp。这些可用于所有运动都能编程的数字控制加工。利用这些控制,只需要很少的相关操作,并且稳定性和生产率大大提高了。镗床的切削速度和进给速度和车床比较相似。坐标镗床是属于具有较高精度支撑的立式镗床。尽管它们可用于各类尺寸的

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