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外文翻译---中小型企业基于功能驱动的商业程序管理 英文.pdf

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外文翻译---中小型企业基于功能驱动的商业程序管理 英文.pdf

CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGVO1.17,NO.4,2004565TANGHONGTAOTANGRENZHONGINSTITUTEOFMANUFACTURINGENGINEERING,ZHEJIANGUNIVERSITY,HANGZHOU310027.CHINAOINTRODUCTIONPERFORMANCE.DRIVENBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGYFORSMALLANDMEDIUMSIZED.ENTERPRISES水ABSTRACTBASEDONTHEANALYSISOFTHECOMMONLIMITATIONSOFBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTBPMMETHODOLOGIESANDTHEREQUIREMENTSOFSMALLANDMEDIUMSIZED.ENTERPRISESSMES.THEIMPORTANCEOFA‘PERFORMANCECONSTRUCT”OFBPMMETHODOLOGIESISIDENTIFIED.ASIXPHASEPERFORMANCE.DRIVENBPMMETHODOLOGYFORTHEPRODUCTIONANDOPERATIONPROCESSESOFCHINESESMESISDEVELOPED.ACASESTUDYONTHEPROCESSMANAGEMENTOFAMEDIUM.SIZEDENTERPRISESHOWSASUCCESSFU1EXAMPLEOFRUNNINGTHEMETHODOLOGY.KEYWORDSBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTPROCESSMANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGYPROCESSPERFORMANCEPERFORMANCEDRIVENSMALLANDMEDIUMSIZEDENTERPRISESMANYCOMPANIESTODAYHAVECOMETOREALIZETHATBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMERITBPMISANCITECTIVEANDCOMPREHENSIVEMEANSTOIMPROVETHEPERFORMANCEOFBUSINESSPROCESSESL.BPMISACUSTOMERFOCUSEDAPPROACH.ITSTRESSESSYSTEMATICANALYSIS,OPTIMIZATION,CONTROL,MEASUREMENT,ANDMANAGEMENTOFALLCOMPANYPROCESSESTOIMPROVETHECOMPANYPERFORMANCETHROUGHCROSSFUNCTIONALTEAMWORKANDEMPLOYEEEMPOWERMENT.BPMISABROADTERMTHATCOVERSAVASTARRAYOFDIFFERENTORGANIZATIONALSTRATEGIESFROMMCREMENMLCONTINUOUSIMPROVEMENTCITOTHERADICALREENGINEERINGOFTHEBUSINESSPROCESSES.CHARACTERIZEDBYBUSINESSPROCESSREENGINEERINGBPR1.HOWEVER,THEREISAGROW.INGBODYOFEVIDENCETHATINDICATESTHATNEITHEROFTHESEAP.PROACHESOFFERSAHIGHDEGREEOFSUCCESS.PARTOFTHEREASONISTHELACKOFANOPERABLEMETHODOLOGYTONAVIGATETHEIMPLEMENTATION.AREVIEWOFTHELITERATUREWOULDFINDSIGNIFICANTAMOUNTOFBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTM,ETHODOLOGIESHAVEBEENPROPOSED.FOREXAMPLE.KETTINGER,ETALL.PROPOSEDA6STAGEBPRMETHOD.OLOGY,POVEYPROPOSEDA14STEP“BESTPRACTICEBPIMETHODOLOGY”,MELNYK,ETAL【,PROPOSEDALLSTEPVALUEDRIVENPROCESSMANAGEMENTPROCESS,ELZINGA,ETALPROPOSEDA.6STEPBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY,HARRINGTONOJPROPOSEDA“PROCESSBREAKTHROUGHMETHODOLOGY”.DAVENPORTLPROPOSEDA“PROCESSIUNOVATIONMETHODOLOGY”.ETC.BUTANANALYSISOFTHESEMETHODOLOGIESSUGGESTSTHATMOSTOFTHEMPURSUEASIMILARPATHANDEXHIBITCOMMONALITIESINKEYAREAS.ALMOSTALLOFTHEABOVEMETHODOLOGIESARENONSYSTEMATIC.THEIREMPHASISSTRESSESHANDSONEXPERIENCEANDCASESTUDIESRATHERTHANCOMPREHENSIVERESEARCH.THELIMITATIONSOFEXISTINGMETHODOLOGIESCANBESUMMARIZ酣ASFOLIOWS810.一1EXCLUSIONOFAPERFORMANCEMEASUREMENT.MOSTOFTHEMETHODOLOGIESSTOPATTHEIMPLEMENTATIONPHASE.MANAGERSDON’TKNOWWHETHER,ANDTOWHATEXTENT,THENEWPROCESSESAREBETTERTHANTHEOLDONES.2“UNIVERSAL”NATURE.ITISEXTREMELYDIFFICULT,IFNOTIMPOS.SIBLE。TOPRODUCEAGENERALMETHODOLOGYFORALLKINDSOFPROCESSESINALLKINDSOFCOMPANIES.BUTMANYPROPOSEDMETHODOLOGIESDOJUSTTHAT.THCYARENOTHINGMORETHANGENERALGUIDELINESATTEMPTINGTOCOVERTHENEEDSOFALLORGANIZATIONS.3SPECIALISTSORIENTED.MANYMETHODOLOGIESARESPECIA1.ISTSDRIVEN.HOWEVER,THEPEOPLEWHOWANTTOCALTYOUTBPMIN’THISPROJECTISSUPPORTEDBYNONA1NATURALSCIENCEFOUNDATIONOFCHINSNO.70071029ANDPROVINCIALSCIENCEANDTECHN0LOGYPLANOFZHEJIANG,CHINAOQO.O11106241.RECEIVEDAUGUST26,20O3;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORMJUNE15,2004;ACCEPTEDJUNE23,2004THEIRCOMPANYARETHETRUECUSTOMERS.4LARGECOMPANYORIENTED.METHODOLOGIESTODAYASSUMEALARGECOMPANYSETTINGWITHLARGE.SCALERESOURCESDEDICATEDTOBNNGINGABOUTLARGE。SCALEREENGMEENNGCHANGES.THISPAPERTHEN,PROPOSESAPERFORMANCE.DRIVENBPMMETH.ODOLOGYWITLLFOELLSONTHEPRODUCTIONANDOPERATIONPROCESSESOFSMALLANDMEDIUMSIZEDENTERPRISESSMES.THISNEWFOCHSWILLALLEVIATEMANYOFTHEAFOREMENTIONEDLIMITATIONS.1CHARACTEIUSTICSOFSMES、I,ITHTHENEWMETHODOLOGY1.1CHARACTERISTICSOFSMESTHEREARESPECIALCHARACTERISTICSINPRODUCTIONANDOPERATIONPROCESSESOFCHINESESMESWHICHMAYRESULTINSOMEPROBLEMSATLEASTINTHEFOLLOWINGFIVEDIFIERENTAREASWHENATRADITIONALBPMISAPPLIEDTOSMES.1MANAGEMENTPERSPECTIVE.THEREAREBOTHSUPPORTIVEANDUNSUPPORTIVEMANAGEMENTPRACTICESFORBPMIMPLEMENTATION.MANAGEMENTPRACTICESWHICHSUPPORTTHEAPPLICATIONOFBPMINCLUDESHORTMANAGEMENTRADIUS,HIGHCOHESION,TIMELYDECI.SIONMAKING,RAPIDIMPLEMENTATIONOFDECISIONSANDCHANGEINTHEENTERPRISE,ETC.THEPRACTICESTHATDONOTSUPPORTBPMAREUNSCI.ENTITLEMANAGEMENTMETHOD,NONSTANDARDMANAGEMENTSYSTEM,RANDOMICITYINEVERYDAYMANAGEMENTISSUES,ETC.THESEUNSUPPORTIVEMANAGEMENTPRACTICESPREVENTTHEACCEPTANCEANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFBPMINSMES.2ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTUREPERSPECTIVE.ORGANIZATIONALGRIDSOFSMESAREGENERALLYSIMPLE.ANDWITHLESSADMINISTRATIVELEVELS.THEREFORE,MANAGERSCANCARRYOUTTHEIRDAILYACTIVITIESWITHFEWERINTERRUPTIONWHICHMAKESTHEBPMIMPLEMENTATIONMORECONVEN.IENTL“J.HOWEVER,THEUNSTABLEDEPARTMENTRELATIONSANDAMBIGU.PUSDIVISIONOFPOWERINSMESARENEGATIVETOTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFBPM.3LEADERSHIPPERSPECTIVE.THELEADERSOFSMESUSUALLYKEEPABSOLUTECONTROLOFTHEENTERPRISETJ.THATMEANSLEADERSUSUALLYREJECTANYCHANGETHATENDANGERTHEIRSOVEREIGNTY.BUTTHISSOVEREIGNTYISAHUGEPOWERSUPPORTNEEDEDTOPROPELTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFBPM.4RESOURCEPERSPECTIVE.SMESCANNOTAFFORDALARGENUMBEROFPEOPLE,ONAFULLTIMEBASIS,TOWORKONABPMPROJECT.ITWOULDHINDERTHESME’SABILITYTOOPERATE.THEREFOREACONSULTANTISNEEDED.HOWEVER,ALARGECONSULTANCYFEECANALSOBEAGREATBURDENFORSMES.ADDEDTOACONSULTANT’SFEEISITFEES.BPMPROJECTSUSUALLYUSEADVANCEDITTOFACILITATEOPTIMIZATIONANDIMPROVEMENTOFBUSINESSPROCESS.THESEHUGEITFEESAREUSUALLYDIFFICULTFORMANYOFTHESMES.5BPMRESULTPERSPECTIVE.COMPAREDTOLARGEENTERPRISES,.566TANGH。NGTAO,ETALPERFORMANCEDRIVENBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGYFORSMALLANDMEDIUMSIZEDENTERPRISESSMESUSUALLYSEEKMORESHORTTERMPROFITSTHANLONGTERMPRO/ITSHOWEVER,THEREALESOMELONGTERMPROFITEXPECTATIONS.THERETBRE,THENEWMETHODOLOGYWILLNEEDTOBALANTESHORTTERMANDLONGTERMPROFITOBJECTIVES.ALLOFTHESELIMITATIONSANDPROBLEMSSHOWTHATCURRENTBPMMETHODOLOGIESARENOTSUITABLEFORSMES.SMESNEEDADIFFERENTSPECIALLYDESIGNEDBPMMETHODOLOGY.1.2SUGGESTEDBPMMETHODOLOGYAREVIEWANDSTUDYOFTHELITERATURESOFBUSINESSPROCESSMANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGIESALONGWITHTHEABOVEANALYSISOFCHARACTERISTICSOFSMESSUGGESTSTHATABPMMETHODOLOGYFORSMESHOULDBEASFOLLOWS.F1PURSUEPRACTICABILITYANDMANEUVERABILITY.BEDEVELOPEDFORMANAGERSANDPEOPLEWHOWANTTOCARRYOUTBPMPROJECTSTHEMSELVESINTHEIRCOMPANY.2EMPHASIZETHEIMPORTANCEOFPERFORMANCEMEASUREMENT.THEMETHODOLOGY,ONONEHAND,SHOULDEMBODYENTERPRISE’SSTRATEGYTHROUGHPERFORMANCEMEASURESTO“DOTHERIGHTTHING”,ANDONTHEOTHERHAND,TOMONITORANDCONTROLTHROUGHFEEDBACKTHEBUSINESSPROCESSES3BALANCESHORTTERMANDLONGTERMREWARDSOFAPROJECT.4BESUPPORTEDBYANINTEGRATEDSORWARESUPPORTSYSTEMTHATCANNAVIGATETHEBPMPROJECTIMPLEMENTATIONANDPROVIDENECESSARYTOOLS.13WHVPERFORMANCEDRIVENENTERPRISESCHANGETHEIRBUSINESSPROCESSESFORSURVIVALANDSUSTAININGCOMPETITIVENESS.AFIRMNOTONLYNEEDSTOSATISFYTHEIRCUSTOMERS,BUTALSONEEDSTOSATISFYTHEIRSHAREHOLDERS,THEIREMPLOYEES,GOVERNMENTANDTHESOCIETY.EXCELLENTPERFORMANCEISASYNTHETICALEMBODIMENTBYALLCUSTOMERSANDSTAKEHOLDERS.INTHISNEWPROPOSEDMETHODOLOGY,‘‘PERF0RMAILCEDRIVEN’ISEMPHASIZEDFORTHEFOLLOWINGREASONS.1BPMISDEFINEDAS“ASTRUCTUREDAPPROACHTOPERFORMANCEIMPROVEMENT’【ANDAN“INITIATIVETOIMPROVEANDREDESIGNBUSINESSPROCESSESTOACHIEVECOMPETITIVEADVANTAGEINPERFORMANCE’L.THEREFORE.PURSUINGPERFORMANCEISTHEPURPOSEOFBPMANDTHEMISSIONOFABPMPROGRAM.2PERFORMANCEISTHEULTIMATEDRIVERFORBPM.ARMISTEAD,ETA1.ARGUESTHATTHEDRIVERSFORADOPTINGBPMALEGLOBALIZATION;TECHNOLOGYCHANGE;REGULATION;血EACTIONOFSTAKEHOLDERS;ANDTHEERODINGOFBUSINESSBOUNDARIESTLS.ACOMMONCORETHOUGHTUNDERLYINGTHESEDRIVERSISTHATTHEORGANIZATION’SABILITYTOATTRACTANDMAINTAINEXCELLENTPERFORMANCEISTHREATENED.T}LISTHREAT.THEREFORE,MOTIVATESTHEENTERPRISESTOTAKESTEPSTOINSUREEXCELLENTPERFORMANCE.3BPMSHOULDBEALI鲷EDWITHSTRATEGYCONSENSUS.BUSINESSPROCESSPERFORMANCEMEASULESAFEANEFFECTIVEMEDIUMTOTRANSLATEENTERPRISESTRATEGYINTOPROCESSACTIONS.4FALLINGTORECOGNIZETHEIMPORTANCEOFPERFORMANCEMEASUREMENTISAMAJ,NREASONFORTHEHIGHFAILURERATEOFBPRPROJECT.2PERFORMANCE.DRⅣENBPMMETHODOL.OGYINGENERAL,THETASKSSUCHASMAPPING,ANALYZING,REDESIGN,ANDIMPLEMENTINGAREINCHDEDINBPMMETHODOLOGICS.INTHEPROPOSEDPERFORMANCEDRIVENMETHODOLOGY,THREENEWTASKSWITHCONCERNSOFPERFORMANCEMEASUREMENTAREADDED.THEYAREASFOLLOWS1STAKEHOLDEREXPECTATIONANDENTERPRISESTRATEGYWHICHARETRAILSLATEDINTOASETOFDETAILEDPERFORMANCEMEASURESANDTHEIRTARGETVALUESTASKS7。8,16INTABLE1.CURRENTPERFORMANCEOFTHETARGETPROCESSISMEASUREDASTHEBASELINEOFTHEIMPROVEMENTTASK9.M1LE1.THENEWPROCESSISMEASUREDTASK19INTABLE1.NEWPROCESSPERFORMANCEISTHECRITERIONTOIUDGEWHETHERTHEOBIECTIVESOFTHEPROJECTHAVEBEENACHIEVED.2.1PREPARETHEREAREANUMBEROFPREPARATIONTASKSTHATARENEEDEDTOHELPTHEBPMPROJECT’SSUCCESS.THEMOSTIMPORTANTTASKISTOINSURETOPMANAGEMENT’SSUPPORT.THECOMMITMENTANDSUPPORTFROMTOPMANAGERSISPARTICULARLYNEEDEDWHENACOMPANYISINSTALLINGMORECOMPLEXPROCESSINNOVATIONMODELS.THATIS,THETABLE1PERFORMANCEDRIVENBPMMETHODOLOGYANDITSTECHNIQUESBUILDABUSIN.7IDENTIFYPROCESSSTAKEHOIDERSSTAKEHOIDERSIDENTIFYESSPROCESSOFTHETARGETPROCESSAND也EIRINGANDCLASSIFYINGPERFORMANCEREQUIREMENTSTECHNIQUES,SURVEYMEASUREMENT,8ESMBFISHPROCESSPROCESSPERFORMANCESYSTEMPERFORMANCEMEASURESMCASURLELICITINGTEC_ANDSETTARGETVALUESHNIQUES,BENCHMARKING9MEASURETHETARGETPROCESS’PROCESSPERFORMANCECURRENTPERFORMANCEMEASUREMENTTECHNIQUESREDESIGNTHE12TFANSLATETHES切EB0LDERSTARGETPROCESSREQUIREMENTSINTOPROCESSDESIGNOPTIONSQFD13DESIGNTHEPROCESSIDEFO,IDEF3ALTERNATIVES14ANALYZETHECOST/BENEFIT/RISKSIMULATION;COST/BENEOFTHEALTERNATIVESFIT/RISKANALYSIS15SELECTONEALTERNATIVEASIDEFO,IDEF3PROTOTYPEOFNEWPROCESSANDDESIGNITINDETAIL16REVISCPROCESSPERFORMANCEMEASURESAND也EIRTARGETVALUESPROCESSPERFORMANCEMEASURESELICITINGTECHNIQUES,BENCHMARKINGENTERPRISEISBEINGREENGINEEREDWITHNEWORGANIZATIONSTRUCTURES,NEWCOMPUTERSYSTEMS,ANDNEWBUSINESSPROCESSES.THEVISION,MISSION,ANDSTRATEGYSHOULDBEDISCUSSEDANDCLARIFIEDWITHTOPMANAGEMENT.ADDITIONALLY,THEPROJECTSCOPESHOULDBECLARIFIED.NEXTANUMBEROFPREPARATIONTASKSSHOULDBEPERFORMEDUNDERTHECOMMITMENTOFTOPMANAGERS,INCLUDINGBUILDINGANDTRAININGTHEBPMTEAM,IDENTIFYINGTARGETPROCESS,ANDDEVELOPINGASCHEDULEFORSHORTANDLONGTERMACTIVITIES.THEBPMTEAMISAGROUPSELECTEDBYTOPMANAGERSWHOTAKESRESPONSIBILITYFORTHEWHOLEIMPROVEMENTPROGRAM.THETEAMSHOULDINCLUDEADIVERSITYOFPEOPLEANDSKILLS.FOREXAMPLE.THEPEOPLEWHOUNDERSTANDANDACTIVELYUSETHECURRENTPROCESSES,ANDTHOSEWHOWORKCLOSELYWITHCUSTOMERS.THEBESTSIZETEAMRANGESFROM312MEMBERST.THEFIRSTTASKOFTHETEAMISTOCLARIFYTHEOBJECTIVESOFTHEBPM,ANDBASEDONTHESEOBJECTIVES.IDENTIFYONETARGETP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