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外文翻译---根据高速钢不同的加工条件T42冶金粉末烧结机制和微观结构的发展.doc

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外文翻译---根据高速钢不同的加工条件T42冶金粉末烧结机制和微观结构的发展.doc

1SINTERINGBEHAVIOURANDMICROSTRUCTUREDEVELOPMENTOFT42POWDERMETALLURGYHIGHSPEEDSTEELUNDERDIFFERENTPROCESSINGCONDITIONSHIGHSPEEDSTEELPOWDERST42GRADEHAVEBEENUNIAXIALLYCOLDPRESSEDANDSUBSEQUENTLYDENSIFIEDTHROUGHDIFFERENTSINTERINGROUTESINCLUDINGSUPERSOLIDUSLIQUIDPHASESINTERINGSLPSUNDERVACUUMANDDIFFERENTNITROGENPRESSURES02,09,AND8BARANDTHROUGHSOLIDSTATESINTERINGSSSBYHOTISOSTATICPRESSINGHIPHIPTEMPERATURESASLOWAS850CLEDTONEARFULLDENSIFICATIONOFTHEMATERIAL98THEORETICALDENSITYWITHAVERAGESIZEOFM6CANDMCCARBIDESLOWERTHAN1ΜMANDGRAINSIZE≈3ΜMPRESSURELESSSINTERINGUNDERDIFFERENTNITROGENPRESSURESUPTO039WTNABSORPTIONLEDTOASIGNIFICANTREDUCTIONOFTHEOPTIMUMSINTERINGTEMPERATUREOSTANDAPRONOUNCEDINCREASEINTHESINTERINGWINDOWSWASCOMPAREDTOVACUUMSINTERINGPRESSURELESSSINTERINGUNDER8BARN2LEDTOAFURTHERREDUCTIONINOSTTOGETHERWITHTHEPRECIPITATIONOFMASSIVEEUTECTICSTRUCTURESTHEREFORE,THESWWASJUDGEDTOBENEGLIGIBLETHERESPONSEOFTHEASSINTEREDMATERIALSTOTHEHEATTREATMENTISBASICALLYDETERMINEDBYTHEAMOUNTOFCAVAILABLEINTHEMATRIXPRIORTOQUENCHINGANDTHEGRAINSIZETHEHIGHESTHARDNESSACHIEVABLEFORTHESINTERINGCONDITIONSEVALUATEDRANGES700–1100HV2AFTERAUSTENITIZINGAT1100C,OILQUENCHINGANDMULTITEMPERINGAT500–550CTOOLSTEELSSERVEALARGERANGEOFAPPLICATIONSINCLUDINGHOTANDCOLDWORKINGOFMETALSANDINJECTIONMOULDINGOFPLASTICSORLIGHTALLOYSHIGHSPEEDSTEELSHSSAREMORESPECIFICALLYUSEDASCUTTINGTOOLSANDWEARPARTSMORERECENTLY,THESEMATERIALSHAVEALSOBEENUSEDFORSTRUCTURALAPPLICATIONSTHEHIGHPERFORMANCEEXHAUSTVALVESEATINSERTSFORPASSENGERVEHICLESCONSTITUTETHEMOSTNOTABLEEXAMPLE1INGENERALTERMS,FORTHESESTRUCTURALAPPLICATIONS,ACOMBINATIONOFHIGHSTRENGTH,WEARRESISTANCEANDHARDNESSTOGETHERWITHANAPPRECIABLETOUGHNESSCOMPAREDWITHOTHERMATERIALSUSEDASTOOLSANDFATIGUERESISTANCEISREQUIREDFROMAMICROSTRUCTURALPOINTOFVIEW,HSSCANBEDESCRIBEDASMETALLICMATRIXCOMPOSITESFORMEDBYAFERROUSMATRIXWITHADISPERSIONOFHARD,WEARRESISTANTCARBIDESTHETYPE,SIZE,MORPHOLOGY,DISTRIBUTIONANDVOLUMEFRACTIONOFCARBIDESASWELLASTHECHARACTERISTICSOFTHEFERROUSMATRIXDEPENDONBOTHTHECOMPOSITIONOFTHEMATERIALANDTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESS2AND3THEBASICALLOYINGELEMENTSOFHIGHSPEEDSTEELSAREAPPROXIMATELY15–30WTOFCARBIDEFORMERSCR,MO,W,V,SOMETIMESCOAND2SUFFICIENTCARBONTOPROMOTETHEFORMATIONOFCARBIDESTUNGSTENANDMOLYBDENUMMAINLYCONTRIBUTETOTHEFORMATIONOFTHEPRIMARYM6CANDM2CCARBIDESANDVANADIUMISTHEMAINCONSTITUENTOFTHEMCTYPECONVENTIONALMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFCOMPONENTSWITHTHESEMATERIALSINCLUDEWROUGHTMETALLURGYANDPOWDERMETALLURGYDIRECTSINTERINGANDHOTISOSTATICPRESSING;HIPTHEMAINMANUFACTURINGSTEPSFORWROUGHTPROCESSINGAREMELTING,CASTING,HOTWORKING,MACHININGANDHEATTREATINGNORMALLY,EXTENSIVEHOTWORKINGAREAREDUCTIONS90ISNECESSARYTODISPERSETHECARBIDENETWORKSFORMEDDURINGTHESOLIDIFICATIONOFTHEASCASTINGOTSTHISHOTWORKINGPROCESSLEADSTOTHEALIGNMENTOFCARBIDEINSTRINGS,WHICHISRESPONSIBLEFORANISOTROPICPROPERTIES2POWDERMETALLURGYPMTECHNIQUESWEREINITIALLYDEVELOPEDTOOVERCOMETHESEPROBLEMSTHESTARTINGRAWMATERIALSAREPREALLOYEDGASORWATERATOMISEDPOWDERSGASATOMISEDPOWDERSARECLEANERTHANWATERATOMISEDPOWDERSANDBOTHOFTHEMAREFREEOFSEGREGATIONSDUETOTHEHIGHCOOLINGRATESINVOLVEDGASATOMISEDPOWDERSAREUSEDFORHIP4ANDPOWDERINJECTIONMOULDINGPIM5HIPISDEVOTEDFORAPRIMEQUALITYPRODUCTDUETOTHECLEANNESSOFTHERAWMATERIALANDTOTHEFACTTHATDENSIFICATIONTAKESPLACEBYASOLIDSTATESINTERINGSSSPROCESSCONSEQUENTLY,AFINEANDHOMOGENEOUSDISTRIBUTIONOFCARBIDESEMBEDDEDINAPOREFREEFERROUSMATRIXISOBTAINEDLEADINGTOEXCEPTIONALPROPERTIESPIMISBESTSUITEDFORSMALLCOMPONENTSWITHCOMPLEXGEOMETRIESANDDENSIFICATIONTAKESPLACEBYDIRECTSINTERINGIE,PRESSURELESSSINTERINGTHROUGHASUPERSOLIDUSLIQUIDPHASESINTERINGSLPSMECHANISM5AND6WATERATOMISEDPOWDERSARENORMALLYPROCESSEDBYTHEDIRECTSINTERINGROUTEPARTIALDENSIFICATIONISACHIEVEDBYCOLDPRESSINGTHEPOWDERSWITHASUITABLECOMPACTIONLUBRICANTSUBSEQUENTLY,SINTERINGTOFULLDENSITYTAKESPLACEBYASLPSMECHANISMTHEDIRECTSINTERINGROUTEHASINHERENTADVANTAGESINTERMSOFACHIEVABLEPROPERTIESVERSUSPROCESSINGCOSTSANDENVIRONMENTALCONSIDERATIONSRELATEDTOTHEHIGHLYEFFICIENTMATERIALUSEDURINGTHELAST20YEARS,AHIGHRESEARCHEFFORTHASBEENMAINLYADDRESSEDATTHEUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEPHYSICALANDCHEMICALMECHANISMSINVOLVEDINTHEDENSIFICATIONVIASLPS7ANDSSS4ADDITIONALLY,RESEARCHHASALSOBEENFOCUSEDONTHEMICROSTRUCTURALCHANGESOCCURRINGDURINGHEATTREATMENTSLEADINGTOTHEDESIREDMECHANICALPROPERTIESIE,STRENGTH,TOUGHNESS,WEAR,FATIGUEDEPENDENTONTHESERVICEAPPLICATIONS83PREVIOUSSTUDIES9,10,11AND12HAVEBEENFOCUSEDONTHEOPTIMISATIONOFTHEDIRECTSINTERINGROUTEOFHIGHVANADIUMHSSGRADESMAINLYM35MHVBYUNDERSTANDINGTHEEFFECTOFTHESINTERINGATMOSPHERETHISAPPROACHHASLEDTOASIGNIFICANTDECREASEOFTHESINTERINGTEMPERATURESNEEDEDFORFULLDENSIFICATIONINNITROGENRICHATMOSPHERESCOMPAREDTOVACUUMSINTERINGTHEOPTIMUMSINTERINGTEMPERATUREOSTFORM35MHVDECREASEDFROM1220CFORVACUUMSINTERINGTO1140CWHENSINTEREDUNDERNITROGENRICHATMOSPHERE3AND10THEEFFECTOFBOTHTHESINTERINGATMOSPHEREANDALLOYMODIFICATIONSIE,CARBONADDITIONSHASBEENUNDERSTOODBYTHEUSEOFCOMPUTATIONALTHERMODYNAMICSCALCULATIONOFMULTICOMPONENTPHASEDIAGRAMS10AND11MOREOVER,THECORRESPONDENCEBETWEENCOMPUTATIONALTHERMODYNAMICSANDEXPERIMENTALDATACONSTITUTEDAPRELIMINARYSTEPFORALLOYDESIGNOFNEWHSSCOMPOSITIONS12AND13THEPRESENTSTUDYISAIMEDATTHEDESCRIPTIONOFTHESINTERINGBEHAVIOUROFTHEPMT42GRADEUNDERDIFFERENTNITROGENPRESSURESTHISMATERIALHASBEENCHOSENFORTHEINVESTIGATIONSINCEITISACOMMERCIALGRADECONTAININGANADEQUATEAMOUNTOFVFORMICROSTRUCTURALDESIGNTHROUGHTHEADDITIONOFNADDITIONALLY,THEEXCELLENTHOTHARDNESSOFT42DUETOTHE1058WTCO,MAKESTHISMATERIALVERYINTERESTINGFORBOTHSTRUCTURALANDTRIBOLOGICALAPPLICATIONSTHESATISFACTORYRESULTSOFEARLIERINVESTIGATIONSONTHESINTERINGBEHAVIOUROFT42INNRICHATMOSPHERES9INVITEDFORAMOREDETAILEDINVESTIGATIONSTRIVINGFORACOMMERCIALIMPACTOFTHERESEARCHTHEMAINOBJECTIVEWASTHEMICROSTRUCTURALDESIGNOFPMHSSTHROUGHTHEDENSIFICATIONROUTEANDTHEHEATTREATMENTSEQUENCESELECTEDAWIDESETOFDIFFERENTMICROSTRUCTURESHASBEENOBTAINEDBYUSINGTHEDIFFERENTSINTERINGCONDITIONSTHEEFFECTOFTHEASSINTEREDMICROSTRUCTUREMAINLYABSORBEDNCONTENTANDGRAINSIZEONTHEHEATTREATMENTAUSTENITIZINGQUENCHINGMULTITEMPERINGISALSODISCUSSEDREFERENCES1HKAWATA,KHAYASHI,KISHII,KMAKI,AEHIRAANDMTORIUMI,SAETRANS10751998,PP194–2002GHOYLE,HIGHSPEEDSTEELS,BUTTERWORTHS,BOROUGHGREEN,SEVENOAKSKENT19883SGIMENEZANDIITURRIZA,JMATERPROCESSTECHNOL143/1442003,PP555–56044EARZT,MFASHBYANDKEEASTERLING,METALLTRANSA14A1983,PP211–2215ZYLIU,NHLOH,KAKHORANDSBTOR,MATERLETT452000,PP32–386BLEVENFELD,AVAREZANDJMTORRALBA,METALLMATERTRANSA3362002,PP1843–18517RMGERMAN,INTJPOWDERMETALL2611990,PP23–348GKRAUSS,HEATTREATMENTANDPROCESSINGPRINCIPLES6THED,ASMINTERNATIONAL20009RHPALMA,VMARTINEZANDJJURCOLA,POWDERMETALL3241989,PP291–29910IAGUIRRE,SGIMENEZ,TGOMEZACEBO,STALACCHIAANDIITURRIZA,POWDERMETALL4432001,PP211–22011IAGUIRRE,SGIMENEZ,TGOMEZACEBO,STALACCHIAANDIITURRIZA,POWDERMETALL4241999,PP353–35712SGIMENEZANDIITURRIZA,POWDERMETALL4632003,PP209–21813VTRABADELO,SGIMENEZ,TGOMEZACEBOANDIITURRIZA,SCRIPTAMATER5332005,PP287–292

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