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外文翻译--Designing a Database Application in VB 6.doc

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外文翻译--Designing a Database Application in VB 6.doc

DESIGNINGADATABASEAPPLICATIONINVB60ABSTRACTBEFOREYOUSTARTTODESIGNADATABASE,IT’SIMPORTANTYOUUNDERSTANDEXACTLYWHATADATABASEISANDWHATTYPESOFDATABASESYOUHAVETOCHOOSEFROMTHEAPPLICATIONTYPEWILLAFFECTTHEDATABASETYPETHATYOUCHOOSEWHATISADATABASEADATABASEISREALLYASYSTEMTHATCONTAINSMANYDIFFERENTOBJECTSUSEDTOGETHERTOALLOWYOURAPPLICATIONFASTANDEFFICIENTACCESSTOTHEDATAYOUCANUSEMANYEXAMPLESOFDATABASESWITHYOURAPPLICATIONTHEMOSTCOMMONOFTHESEAREASFOLLOWSMICROSOFTACCESS;MICROSOFTFOXPRO;ORACLEPERSONALEDITION7IOR8I;ANDMSSQLSERVER700ISONLYAFEWTOMENTIONALLTHESEDATABASESCANRUNONASTANDALONECOMPUTERANDALLOWYOUTOCREATEVERYCOMPLEXDATABASESFORYOURAPPLICATIONSPICKINGTHERIGHTDATABASEFORYOURAPPLICATIONISEXTREMELYIMPORTANT,BECAUSETHEWRONGONEWILLAFFECTPERFORMANCEANDMAKEYOURJOBASADEVELOPERSOMUCHMOREDIFFICULTBEFORESTARTINGTHEDESIGNPROCESS,YOUNEEDTOSELECTADATABASEWHENWORKINGWITHVISUALBASIC,THEDATABASETHATYOUCANCHOOSEFROMFALLINTOTWODISTINCTGROUPSLOCALDATABASESCANBEACCESSEDDIRECTLYFROMVISUALBASICTHROUGHVISUALBASIC’SDATABASEJETENGINE;ANDREMOTEDATABASESCANNOTBEACCESSEDBYUSINGVISUALBASIC’SSTANDARDDATABASEACCESSCAPABILITIESUNDERSTANDINGTHEDIFFERENCESWILLHELPYOUSELECTTHECORRECTDATABASEFORYOURAPPLICATIONHOWEVER,INVISUALBASIC6,THEREISNOWAWAYTOACCESSBOTHLOCALANDREMOTEDATABASESUSINGTHESAMEDATABASEACCESSCONTROLSANDOBJECTSKNOWNASTHEACTIVEXDATAOBJECTSUNDERSTANDINGUNIVERSALDATAACCESSUDAASDATABASESHAVEGROWNANDMOVEDOFFTHELOCALCOMPUTERANDONTONETWORKEDDATABASESERVERS,THEMETHODSEMPLOYEDTOACCESSTHEDATABASESHAVECHANGEDMICROSOFTHASADDRESSEDTHESECHANGESBYDEVELOPINGSTRATEGYTOALLOWFORANYCOMPANYORDATABASETOBEACCESSEDTHESAMEWAYTHISISCALLEDUNIVERSALDATAACCESS,ORUDAUNDERSTANDINGWHATUDAMEANSISNOTASSIMPLEASUNDERSTANDINGTOUSEITTHEREASONFORTHISISTHATUDAISASETOFRULESANDACCESSMETHODSTHATMUSTBEFOLLOWEDBYANYCOMPANYTHATISCREATINGADATABASEACCESSMETHODTOBEUSEDTHISALLOWSYOU,THEPROGRAMMER,TOACCESSANYDATABASETHESAMEWAYBUTWHATISUDAUNIVERSALDATAACCESSISAPLATFORM,APPLICATIONSANDTOOLSCONCEPTTHATMICROSOFTHASDEVELOPEDTHATDEFINESANDDELIVERSTHESTANDARDSFORALLFUTUREAPPLICATIONDEVELOPMENTUSINGUDASTANDARDSWILLPROVIDEHIGHPERFORMANCEACCESSTOMANYTYPESOFDATAANDINFORMATIONTHATRESIDEONMULTIPLEPLATFORMS,ANDAPROGRAMMINGINTERFACETHATWILLWORKWITHALMOSTANYTOOLORLANGUAGEUSINGTHESKILLSTHATDEVELOPERSALREADYHAVETHISISACCOMPLISHEDBYUSINGMICROSOFT’SDATAACCESSCOMPONENTSMDAC,ASWELLASANINTEGRATEDSETOFTECHNOLOGIES,WHICHINCLUDEACTIVEXDATACOMPONENTSADO,OLEDB,ANDOPENDATABASECONNECTIVITYODBCTHEBENEFITSOFUSINGTHESESTANDARDSINCLUDETHEFOLLOWINGHIGHPERFORMANCEACCESSTODATA–PROVIDESTHEABILITYTOSCALEANYAPPLICATIONORCOMPONENTTOSUPPORTCONCURRENTLYCONNECTEDUSERSWITHOUTLOSINGPERFORMANCE;RELIABILITY–REDUCESTHENUMBEROFCOMPONENTSTOSUPPORTONTHECLIENTPC;ANDWIDEINDUSTRYSUPPORT–MANYVENDORSINCLUDINGMICROSOFTHAVEALREADYANNOUNCEDSUPPORTFORTHEUDASTANDARDSINPREVIOUSRELEASESOFVISUALBASIC,YOUNEEDEDTOCHOOSEFROMEITHERDAOLOCALACCESSMETHODSTODATAORRDOREMOTEACCESSTODATANOW,WITHTHESUPPORTOFUDA,VISUALBASICHASATHIRDMETHODFORDATAACCESSCALLEDADO,ORACTIVEXDATAOBJECTSTHISALLOWSYOUTOCOMBINETHEDIFFERENTWAYSOFACCESSINGDATAINTOONESETOFPROGRAMMINGCALLSANDOBJECTSADOWORKSINCONJUNCTIONWITHOLEDBANDODBCTOPROVIDEACCESSTOONEDATABASEYOUMIGHTBEWORKINGWITHGETTINGFORWARD,MICROSOFTPLANSTOPHASEOUTODBCINFAVOUROFOLEDBANDTHEUDASTANDARDSHOWEVER,FORTHENEARFUTURE,DAOANDRDO,ASWELLASODBC,WILLSTILLBESUPPORTEDTOALLOWDEVELOPERSTOSLOWLYMOVEUPTOTHENEWSTANDARDSOFDATAACCESSLOCALDATABASESLOCALDATABASESAREGENERALLYMUCHSMALLERTHANTHEREMOTETYPEOFDATABASETHEFOLLOWINGDATABASESFALLINTOTHISCATEGORYMICROSOFTACCESS;MICROSOFTFOXPRO;LOTUSWORKSHEETS;MICROSOFTEXCELWORKSHEETS;DBASE;PARADOX;ANDASCIIASYOUCANSEE,THESEPCRESIDENTDATABASETYPESHAVEBEENAROUNDFORAWHILEANDAREAVAILABLEFROMALMOSTANYCOMPUTERSOFTWARESTOREACCESSINGTHESEDATABASESDOESN’TREQUIREANYOTHERSOFTWARETOBEINSTALLEDONTHEPC,NORDOESITREQUIRESPECIALKNOWLEDGEONHOWTOWORKWITHTHEMHOWEVER,THESIZEOFLOCALDATABASESISRESTRICTEDMICROSOFTACCESS97DATABASESCAN’TEXCEED1GBGIGABYTELOCALDATABASESAREGENERALLYUSEDFORSINGLEUSERAPPLICATIONSSUCHASCHECKBOOKS,ADDRESSBOOKS,ANDPERSONALINFORMATIONMANAGERSSOMEENTERPRISINGTEENAGERSHAVECREATEDDATABASEAPPLICATIONSTHATHELPTHEMKEEPTRACKOFBASEBALLCARDSORVIDEOTAPESSOINDECIDINGWHATYOURAPPLICATIONWILLADDRESSANDHOWITWILLBEUSEDACTUALLYHELPSYOUINTHEDATABASESELECTIONPROCESSREMOTEDATABASESBYDEFINITIONREMOTEDATABASESDON’TRESIDEONTHEUSER’SPC,BUTTHISISNOTALWAYSTRUEINFACT,AREMOTEDATABASEISANYTYPEOFDATABASETHATREQUIRESANODBCOPENDATABASECONNECTIVITYDRIVERFORANAPPLICATIONTOACCESSITODBCDATABASESFALLINTOTWOMAINCATEGORIESONETHATRUNONASINGLEPCANDTHELARGERCORPORATEONESTHATREQUIRELARGE,VERYPOWERFULCOMPUTERSCALLEDSERVERSWITHLARGEAMOUNTSOFAVAILABLEDISKSPACEDATABASESERVERSAREUSEDTOSEPARATETHEWORKLOADBETWEENTHECLIENTPCWHERETHEAPPLICATIONEXECUTESANDTHEDATABASESYSTEMWHERETHEDATABASEQUERIESAREPERFORMEDTHISPROVIDESTHEAPPLICATIONWITHFASTDATAACCESSWITHOUTSLOWINGDOWNTHEUSERSPCMOSTTHELARGESERVERTYPEDATABASESPROVIDEVERSIONSTHATWILLRUNONSTANDALONEPCSMOSTLARGECORPORATIONSUSEONEOFTHEFOLLOWINGDATABASESYSTEMSTHOUGHTHISISNOTTOSAYTHATOTHERSAREN’TOUTTHEREORACLE;SYBASE;ANDMICROSOFTSQLSERVERUSINGAREMOTEDATABASEREQUIRESYOUTOUSEEITHERTHEREMOTEDATABASEOBJECTSAVAILABLEONLYINTHEENTERPRISEVERSIONOFVISUALBASIC6ORTHENEWACTIVEXDATAOBJECTSAVAILABLEINALLRELEASESOFVISUALBASIC6IFYOU’REDESIGNINGANAPPLICATIONTHATWILLUSEONEOFTHESELARGEDATABASES,HOWEVER,THEBESTWAYTOCREATETHEAPPLICATIONTHATWILLUSETHESINGLEPCVERSIONDURINGTHEDESIGN,DEVELOPMENTANDTESTINGPROCESSTHEN,WEWHENTHEAPPLICATIONISCOMPLETED,SWITCHTOODBCCONNECTIONTOTHELARGER,SERVERBASEDVERSIONBUILDINGTHEINITIALDESIGNCREATINGANAPPLICATIONISALOTLIKEBUILDINGAHOUSEFORAWELLBUILTHOUSE,YOUNEEDABLUEPRINTTOFOLLOW,BUTTOCREATEAGOODBLUEPRINT,YOUNEEDTOKNOWWHO’SGOINGTOLIVEINTHEHOUSEANDWHATTHEIRLIVINGSTYLESWILLBETHISWILLHELPYOUDECIDETHENUMBERANDSIZESOFTHEBEDROOMS,WHATCOLOURSTOUSE,ANDSOONWITHANAPPLICATION,THEBLUEPRINTISTHETECHNICALSPECIFICATIONS;THEFUNCTIONALSPECIFICATIONSAREWHATYOUNEEDTOKNOWTOCREATETHETECHNICALSPECIFICATIONSNOW,MANYBOOKSTEACHTHEOVERALLAPPLICATIONDESIGNPROCESSBYUSINGVERYSIMPLISTICEXAMPLEAPPLICATIONSTHEDESCRIPTIONOFTHEAPPLICATIONWEMUSTDEVELOPISASFOLLOWSPERSONALADDRESS/PHONEBOOK–THISAPPLICATIONWILLKEEPTRACKOFNAMES,ADDRESSES,ANDPHONENUMBERSBYNAMEITWILLALLOWASMANYDIFFERENTADDRESSESANDPHONENUMBERSASNEEDEDALSO,ITWILLALLOWTHEENTRYOFSOMEPERSONALINFORMATIONSUCHASBIRTHDATE,SPOUSESNAME,ANDCHILDRENNAMESTOBEDETERMINEDLATERITWILLALSOPROVIDEREPORTSINSEVERALFORMATSANDALLOWUSERSTOSEARCHTHEDATABASEFORAPARTICULARPERSONCHOOSINGTHETASKSDEFININGTASKSFORTHEAPPLICATIONALSODEFINESITSCOMPLEXITYFOREXAMPLE,THISAPPLICATIONISANADDRESS/PHONEBOOK,IFYOUDECIDETOGIVEUSERSTHEABILITYTOSELECTAPHONENUMBERANDHAVETHECOMPUTERDIALITFORTHEMTOADDTHISFUNCTIONALITYTOTHEAPPLICATION,YOUNEEDTOKNOWHOWTOTESTFORTHEEXISTENCEOFTHEMODEM,CONNECTTOTHATMODEM,ANDTHENACTUALLYDIALTHATNUMBERIFYOUDON’TKNOWHOWTOADDTHISFUNCTIONALITY,YOUMIGHTCONSIDERWAITINGTOADDITAFTERTHEINITIALVERSIONOFTHEAPPLICATIONISCREATEDANDTESTEDTHISISWHATRELEASINGNEWVERSIONSAREALLABOUTKEEPTHEINITIALVERSIONOFTHISAPPLICATIONATASIMPLERLEVELTHEBESTWAYTODESIGNANAPPLICATIONISTOSAYTOYOURSELF,“WHATWOULDIWANTTHEAPPLICATIONTODOIFIWERETHEUSER”BASICALLY,YOU’RETHEFIRSTANDMOSTIMPORTANTUSEROFTHEAPPLICATIONTHISAPPROACHMIGHTNOTWORKFORTHELARGER,CORPORATETYPEAPPLICATION,BUTITDOESWORKFORTHESMALLER,MOREPERSONALTYPESEVENBEFOREYOULISTTHEDIFFERENTTASKSTHATTHEAPPLICATIONWILLPERFORM,YOUNEEDTODECIDEWHATTYPEOFAPPLICATIONINTERFACETOUSEFORTHISAPPLICATIONFORTHISSAMPLEAPPLICATION,USETHEEXPLORERSTYLEINTERFACETOREVIEWTHISSTYLE,THEINITIALFORMTHATUSERSSEEANDREMAININFORMOSTOFTHEAPPLICATIONWILLRESEMBLETHEONESHOWNINFIGURE1FIGURE1THISINTERFACEINCLUDESMANYOFTHECONTROLSTHATYOUHAVELEARNEDEARLIEROKAY,WEHAVEPICKEDTHEAPPLICATIONTHATYOU’LLCREATE–NOWYOUNEEDTOLISTTHEMAINFUNCTIONSTHATITWILLPERFORMTHINKOFWHATTHEAPPLICATIONISFORANDTHENLISTWHATYOUWANTITTODOFROMTHISREASONING,YOUSHOULDGETTHEFOLLOWINGLISTKEEPNAMESANDADDRESSES;SEARCHFORAPARTICULARNAME;PRINTDIFFERENTTYPESOFREPORTS;ALLOWFORDIFFERENTUSERS;ANDENABLEEASYMAINTENANCEOFTHEAPPLICATIONNOW,IFTHISLISTSEEMSSIMPLISTIC,ITISYOUWOULDTHENEXPANDEACHITEMINTHISLISTUNTILYOU’RESATISFIEDWITHTHERESULTLET’SEXPANDEACHOFTHEPRECEDINGTASKSANDADDAMOREDETAILTOTHEDEFINITIONKEEPINGNAMESANDADDRESSESWHATDOYOUREALLYMEANWHENYOUSAY“KEEPNAMESANDADDRESSES”ITUSUALLYMEANSTHATYOUWANTTOKEEPTRACKOFTHESTANDARDINFORMATIONFOUNDINANYSTANDARDTELEPHONEBOOKYOULOOKATTHEFIRSTSTEPINDEFININGALLTHEMINITASKSREQUIREDFORTHISTOPICISTOLISTTHEDATAELEMENTSYOUWANTTOPUTINTHEDATABASETABLE1LISTSTHEDATAELEMENTSTHATYOUCANUSEFORTHISTYPEOFAPPLICATIONNAMETYPEFIRSTNAMESTRINGLASTNAMESTRINGSPOUSENAMESTRINGCHILDNAMESTRINGADDRESSSTRINGCITYSTRINGSTATESTRINGZIPINTEGEREMAILADDRESSSTRINGPHONELONGBIRTHDATEDATENOTESSTRINGTABLE1DATAELEMENTSTHATCANBEINCLUDEDINTHEAPPLICATIONDATABASE

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