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外文翻译--不规则制造系统的动态代理人模型.doc

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外文翻译--不规则制造系统的动态代理人模型.doc

附录1翻译(英文)MODELINGANDSPECIFCATIONSOFDYNAMICAGENTSINFRACTALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSKWANGYEOLRYUA,YOUNGJUNSONB,MOOYOUNGJUNGA,ADEPARTMENTOFINDUSTRIALENGINEERING,POHANGUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,POHANG,SOUTHKOREASYSTEMSANDINDUSTRIALENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT,THEUNIVERSITYOFARIZONA,TUCSON,AZ,USABRECEIVED9SEPTEMBER2002;ACCEPTED16APRIL2003ABSTRACTINORDERTORESPONDTOARAPIDLYCHANGINGMANUFACTURINGENVIRONMENTANDMARKET,MANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSMUSTBEFLEXIBLE,ADAPTABLE,ANDREUSABLETHEFRACTALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMFRMSISONEOFTHENEWMANUFACTURINGPARADIGMSTHATADDRESSTHENEEDFORTHESECHARACTERISTICSTHEFRMSISCOMPRISEDOFANUMBEROF‘‘BASICCOMPONENTS’’,EACHOFWHICHCONSISTSOFFIVEFUNCTIONALMODULES1ANOBSERVER,2ANANALYZER,3ANORGANIZER,4ARESOLVER,AND5AREPORTEREACHOFTHESEMODULES,USINGAGENTTECHNOLOGY,AUTONOMOUSLYCOOPERATESANDNEGOTIATESWITHOTHERSWHILEPROCESSINGITSOWNJOBSTHERESULTINGARCHITECTUREHASAHIGHDEGREEOFSELFSIMILARITY,ONEOFTHEMAINCHARACTERISTICSOFAFRACTALDESPITETHEMANYCONCEPTUALADVANTAGESOFTHEFRMS,ITHASNOTBEENSUCCESSFULLYELABORATEDANDIMPLEMENTEDTODATEBECAUSEOFTHEDIFFICULTIESINVOLVEDINDOINGSOINTHISPAPER,THESTATICFUNCTIONSANDDYNAMICACTIVITIESOFEACHAGENTAREMODELEDUSINGTHEUNIFIEDMODELINGLANGUAGEUMLTHEN,RELATIONSHIPSAMONGAGENTS,WORKINGMECHANISMSOFEACHAGENT,ANDSEVERALFRACTALSPECIFICCHARACTERISTICSSELFSIMILARITY,SELFORGANIZATION,ANDGOALORIENTATIONAREMODELEDUSINGTHEUMLTHEN,AMETHODFORDEALINGWITHSEVERALTYPESOFINFORMATIONSUCHASPRODUCTS,ORDERS,ANDRESOURCESINTHEFRMSISPRESENTEDFINALLY,APRELIMINARYPROTOTYPEFORTHEFRMSUSINGAGLETSTMISPRESENTED2003ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSFRACTALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMFRMS;AGENTTECHNOLOGY;UML;MODELINGABBREVIATIONSFRMS,FRACTALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEM;BFU,BASICFRACTALUNIT;DRP,DYNAMICRESTRUCTURINGPROCESS;UML,UNIEDMODELINGLANGUAGE;HMS,HOLONICMANUFACTURINGSYSTEM;BMS,BIONIC/BIOLOGICALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEM;CNP,CONTRACTNETPROTOCOL;MANPRO,MOBILEAGENTBASEDNEGOTIATIONPROCESS;NMA,NETWORKMONITORINGAGENT;EMA,EQUIPMENTMONITORINGAGENT;SEA,SCHEDULEEVALUATIONAGENT;DRA,DISPATCHINGRULERATINGAGENT;RSA,REALTIMESIMULATIONAGENT;SGA,SCHEDULEGENERATIONAGENT;GFA,GOALFORMATIONAGENT;TGA,TASKGOVERNINGAGENT;NEA,NEGOTIATIONAGENT;KDA,KNOWLEDGEDATABASEAGENT;DMA,DECISIONMAKINGAGENT;FSM,FRACTALSTATUSMANAGER;FAM,FRACTALADDRESSMANAGER;REA,RESTRUCTURINGAGENT;NCA,NETWORKCOMMANDAGENT;ECA,EQUIPMENTCOMMANDAGENT;STA,SYSTEMAGENT;NTA,NETWORKAGENT;MP,MATERIALPROCESSOR;MH,MATERIALHANDLER;MT,MATERIALTRANSPORTER;BS,BUFFERSTORAGE;MRP,MATERIALREMOVALPROCESSOR;MFP,MATERIALFORMINGPROCESSOR;MIP,MATERIALINSPECTIONPROCESSOR;PD,PASSIVEDEVICE;FMH,XEDMATERIALHANDLER;MMH,MOVABLEMATERIALHANDLER;FMT,FIXEDMATERIALTRANSPORTER;MMT,MOVABLEMATERIALTRANSPORTER;ABS,ACTIVEBUFFERSTORAGE;PBS,PASSIVEBUFFERSTORAGEEMAILADDRESSMYJUNGPOSTECHACKRMJUNGCORRESPONDINGAUTHORTELT82542792191;FAXT8254279599801663615/–SEEFRONTMATTER2003ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/S016636150300099X1INTRODUCTIONFACINGINTENSIFIEDCOMPETITIONINAGROWINGGLOBALMARKET,MANUFACTURINGENTERPRISESHAVEBEENREENGINEERINGTHEIRPRODUCTIONSYSTEMSTOACHIEVECOMPUTERINTEGRATEDMANUFACTURINGCIMMAJORGOALSOFCIMINCLUDE,BUTARENOTNECESSARILYLIMITEDTO,LOWERINGMANUFACTURINGCOSTS,RAPIDLYRESPONDINGTOCHANGINGCUSTOMERDEMANDS,SHORTENINGLEADTIMES,ANDINCREASINGTHEQUALITYOFPRODUCTS1–3HOWEVER,THEDEVELOPMENTOFACIMSYSTEMISANINCREDIBLYCOMPLEXACTIVITY,ANDTHEEVOLUTIONTOCIMHASBEENSLOWERTHANEXPECTED4,5THISCANBEDIRECTLYATTRIBUTEDTOHIGHSOFTWAREDEVELOPMENTANDMAINTENANCECOSTSTHEREFORE,INORDERTOACHIEVEACOMPETITIVEADVANTAGEINTHETURBULENTGLOBALMARKET,THEMANUFACTURINGENTERPRISEMUSTCHANGEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESFROMALLANGLESINCLUDINGORDERING,PRODUCTDESIGN,PROCESSPLANNING,PRODUCTION,SALES,ETCASACONTROLMODELFORIMPLEMENTINGCIMSYSTEMS,HIERARCHICALDECOMPOSITIONOFSHOPFLOORACTIVITIESHASBEENCOMMONLYUSEDINTHESHOPFLOORCONTROLSYSTEMSFCS,THECENTRALPARTOFACIMSYSTEM2GENERALLY,ACENTRALDATABASEPROVIDESAGLOBALVIEWOFTHEOVERALLSYSTEM,ANDCONTROLLERSGENERATESCHEDULESANDEXECUTETHEMHIERARCHICALCONTROLISEASYTOUNDERSTANDANDISLESSREDUNDANTTHANOTHERDISTRIBUTEDCONTROLARCHITECTURESSUCHASHETERARCHICALCONTROLHOWEVER,ITHASACRUCIALWEAKPOINT,WHICHISTHATASMALLCHANGEINONELEVELMAYSIGNIFICANTLYANDADVERSELYAFFECTTHEOTHERLEVELSINTHEHIERARCHYTHEREFORE,ITISNORMALLYSAIDTHATHIERARCHICALCONTROLOFCIMSYSTEMSISMUCHMORESUITABLEFORPRODUCTIONINASTEADYENVIRONMENTTHANINADYNAMICALLYCHANGINGENVIRONMENTBECAUSEITISSODIFFCULTTOAPPLYCONTROLHIERARCHYCHANGESIMMEDIATELYTOTHEEQUIPMENTFURTHERMORE,ITISDIFFCULTTOMEETDYNAMICALLYCHANGINGCUSTOMERREQUIREMENTSBECAUSETHEHIERARCHICALCONTROLARCHITECTUREISNOTFLEXIBLEENOUGHTOHANDLETHERECONFIGURATIONOFTHESHOPTHEREFORE,THEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMOFTOMORROWSHOULDBEFLEXIBLE,HIGHLYRECONFIGURABLE,ANDEASILYADAPTABLETOTHEDYNAMICENVIRONMENTFURTHERMORE,ITSHOULDBEANINTELLIGENT,AUTONOMOUS,ANDDISTRIBUTEDSYSTEMCOMPOSEDOFINDEPENDENTFUNCTIONALMODULESTOCOPEWITHTHESEREQUIREMENTS,NEWMANUFACTURINGPARADIGMSSUCHASABIONIC/BIOLOGICALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMBMS6,7,AHOLONICMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMHMS8,9,ANDAFRACTALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMFRMS10–13HAVEBEENPROPOSEDTHARUMARAJAHETAL14PROVIDEACOMPREHENSIVECOMPARISONAMONGABMS,AHMS,ANDANFRMSINTERMSOFDESIGNANDOPERATIONALFEATURESANFRMSISANEWMANUFACTURINGCONCEPTDERIVEDFROMTHEFRACTALFACTORYINTRODUCEDBYWARNECKE13ITISBASEDONTHECONCEPTOFAUTONOMOUSLYCOOPERATINGMULTIAGENTSREFERREDTOASFRACTALSTHEBASICCOMPONENTOFTHEFRMS,REFERREDTOASABASICFRACTALUNITBFU,CONSISTSOFFIVEFUNCTIONALMODULESINCLUDINGANOBSERVER,ANANALYZER,ARESOLVER,ANORGANIZER,ANDAREPORTER10,11THEFRACTALARCHITECTURALMODELREPRESENTSAHIERARCHICALSTRUCTUREBUILTFROMTHEELEMENTSOFABFU,ANDTHEDESIGNOFABASICUNITINCORPORATESASETOFPERTINENTATTRIBUTESTHATCANFULLYREPRESENTANYLEVELINTHEHIERARCHY12INOTHERWORDS,THETERM‘FRACTAL’CANREPRESENTANENTIREMANUFACTURINGSHOPATTHEHIGHESTLEVELORAPHYSICALMACHINEATTHEBOTTOMLEVELEACHBFUPROVIDESSERVICESACCORDINGTOANINDIVIDUALLEVELGOALANDACTSINDEPENDENTLYWHILEATTEMPTINGTOACHIEVETHESHOPLEVELGOALANFRMSHASMANYADVANTAGESFORADISTRIBUTEDANDDYNAMICMANUFACTURINGENVIRONMENTAUTOMATICRECONFIGURATIONOFASYSTEMTHROUGHADYNAMICRESTRUCTURINGPROCESSDRPISTHEMOSTDISTINCTIVECHARACTERISTICOFTHEFRMSINTHISPAPER,THESCOPEOFTHERECONFIGURATIONDOESNOTINCLUDERECONFIGURABLEHARDWARE15ANDEXTERNALLAYOUTDESIGNRATHER,ITFOCUSESONTHEINTERIORSTRUCTUREOFSOFTWARECOMPONENTSTHATCANBEREORGANIZEDWITHSOFTWAREMANIPULATIONSTHERECONFIGURATIONORRESTRUCTURINGINTHISPAPERCONSIDERSBOTHDYNAMICCLUSTERINGOFTHEAGENTSANDCONSTRUCTION/DESTRUCTION/CLONINGOFAGENTS,WHICHAFFECTTHENUMBEROFAGENTSINTHESYSTEMTHEFUNCTIONOFAFRACTALISNOTSPECIFICALLYDESIGNATEDATTHETIMEOFITSFIRSTINSTALLATIONINTHEFRMSTHERECONFIGURATIONADDRESSEDINTHISPAPERALSOINCLUDESSITUATIONSWHERETHEAGENTS’ENROLLMENTSARECHANGED,MEANINGTHATTHEAGENTSAREASSIGNEDANEWGOALANDNEWJOBS,BUTTHEIRCOMPOSITIONDOESNOTCHANGETHISPAPERFOCUSESONFORMALMODELINGOFAGENTSANDFRACTALSPECIFICCHARACTERISTICSTHATWILLPROVIDEAFOUNDATIONFORTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEFRMSBECAUSEASSOCIATEDDIFFICULTIESHAVE,TODATE,PREVENTEDAFRACTALBASEDSYSTEMFROMBEINGEMBODIED,ITISNECESSARYTOFIRSTEXPLICITLYDEFINEACONCEPT,MECHANISMS,ANDCHARACTERISTICSTHEOBJECTIVEOFTHISPAPER,THEREFORE,ISTOCLEARLYDEFINEANDMODELFRACTALSPECIFCCHARACTERISTICSFORAMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMTOHAVESUCHCHARACTERISTICSINORDERTODEVELOPTHEAGENTS,INTERANDINTRAFRACTALACTIVITIESAREFIRSTCLARIFIEDTHEN,DYNAMICACTIVITIESFOREACHAGENTANDRELATIONSHIPSBETWEENAGENTSAREMODELEDINORDERTOMOREFULLYDEVELOPTHEFRMS,SEVERALFRACTALSPECIFICCHARACTERISTICSAREALSOMODELEDTOSUPPORTEMBODIMENTOFMODELEDCHARACTERISTICS,AMETHODFORDEALINGWITHINFORMATIONABOUTPRODUCTS,ORDERS,ANDRESOURCESINTHEFRMSISINVESTIGATEDTHROUGHTHISRESEARCH,MECHANISMSOFAGENTSANDCHARACTERISTICSOFTHEFRMSCANBEDESCRIBEDWITHSIMPLEDIAGRAMSTHATMAKETHESYSTEMEASIERTOUNDERSTANDTHEWORKCONTAINEDINTHISPAPEREXTENDSTHEFRMSFROMPREVIOUSPAPERSBYEMPHASIZINGANDDETAILINGITSCHARACTERISTICSTHEACTIVITIESOFAGENTSARESPECIFIEDUSINGACTIVITYMODELSSOTHATTHEAGENTSCANUSETHEACTIVITYMODELSTOFORECASTTHEIRNEXTACTIVITIESATRUNTIMETHERESTOFTHISPAPERISORGANIZEDASFOLLOWSSECTION2DESCRIBESFUNCTIONSANDDYNAMICACTIVITIESOFAGENTSUSINGFUNCTIONALANDACTIVITYMODELSOFUNIFIEDMODELINGLANGUAGEUMLINSECTION3,INTERANDINTRAFRACTALACTIVITIESARESPECIFIEDSEVERALFRACTALSPECIFICCHARACTERISTICSAREDESCRIBEDUSINGUMLMODELSINSECTION4SECTION5DESCRIBESAMETHODFORDEALINGWITHINFORMATIONABOUTPRODUCTSANDRESOURCESINTHEFRMSSECTION6CONCLUDESTHEPAPER2AGENTBASEDFRACTALMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMFRMS21BACKGROUNDOFANFRMSANOVERVIEWOFTHEFRMSISDEPICTEDINFIG1EVERYCONTROLLERATEVERYLEVELINTHESYSTEMHASASELFSIMILARFUNCTIONALSTRUCTURECOMPOSEDOFFUNCTIONALMODULESINADDITION,EACHOFTHESEMODULES,REGARDLESSOFITSHIERARCHICALLEVEL,CONSISTSOFASETOFAGENTSAFTERTHEINITIALSETUPOFASYSTEM,THECONFIGURATIONOFTHESYSTEMMAYNEEDTOBEREORGANIZEDINRESPONSETOUNEXPECTEDEVENTSSUCHASMACHINEBREAKDOWNTHESYSTEMWILLALSONEEDTOBERECONFIGUREDWHENTHESETOFPARTSTOBEPRODUCEDINTHESYSTEMCHANGESDUETOACHANGEINCUSTOMERNEEDSINTHESECASES,FRACTALSINTHEFRMSAUTONOMOUSLYANDDYNAMICALLYCHANGETHEIRSTRUCTURE,VIATHEACTIONSOFAGENTSFORTHEAPPROPRIATEWORKINGMECHANISMSOFTHEFRACTALSFIG1SHOWSTWOFACILITYLAYOUTSANDTHECORRESPONDINGCOMPOSITIONSOFFRACTALSBEFOREANDAFTERTHERESTRUCTURINGPROCESSWHENAMACHINEMANDAROBOTR3AREADDEDTOTHESYSTEM,FRACTALSREORGANIZETHEIRINTERIORCONFIGURATIONSWITHTHEMECHANISMOFDYNAMICRESTRUCTURINGPROCESSINAWAYTHATTHESYSTEMCONTINUESTOWORKWITHGREATESTEFFICIENCYAFRACTALCONSISTSOFFIVEFUNCTIONALMODULESILLUSTRATEDWITHTHEIRRELATIONSHIPSINFIG2THEFUNCTIONSOFEACHMODULECANBEDEFINEDDEPENDINGUPONTHEAPPLICATIONDOMAINFIG1REORGANIZATIONOFTHESYSTEMUSINGADYNAMICRESTRUCTURINGPROCESSINTHEFRMSHOWEVER,WHENTHETARGETDOMAINISDETERMINED,THEMAINFUNCTIONSOFEACHMODULEWILLBECONSISTENTTHROUGHOUTTHESYSTEMFOREXAMPLE,THEFUNCTIONOFARESOLVERMAYBEDIFFERENTDEPENDINGUPONWHETHERITISDEFINEDFORCONTROLLINGAMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMORFORMANAGINGSUPPLYCHAINSHOWEVER,THEMAINFUNCTIONOFARESOLVERINAMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMISSIMILARTOOTHERRESOLVERSINTHATSYSTEMREGARDLESSOFTHEIRLEVELINTHEHIERARCHYABOTTOMLEVELFRACTALHASSIMILARFUNCTIONSTOTHOSEOFACONVENTIONALEQUIPMENTCONTROLLERINASFCSAFRACTAL,WHICHISDIRECTLYCONNECTEDTOEQUIPMENTEGMACHINE,ROBOT,ETC,RECEIVESSENSORYSIGNALSOFEQUIPMENTANDRETURNSMESSAGESORCOMMANDSTHEFUNCTIONOFANOBSERVERISTOMONITORTHESTATEOFTHEUNIT,TORECEIVEMESSAGESANDINFORMATIONFROMOUTERFRACTALS,ANDTO

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