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外文翻译--传动轴凸缘叉夹具的设计.doc

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外文翻译--传动轴凸缘叉夹具的设计.doc

黑龙江工程学院本科生毕业设计1附录FORKSHAFTLUGSFIXTUREDESIGNSHELLGROUPPROCESSINGACCORDINGTOTHERESULTSOFTHEMACHINEANDTHEGROUPCHOSENTYPEDESIGNGROUPCLAMPS,GROUPCLAMPSREALIZETHATTHEGROUPPROCESS,FAVORABLETOREASONABLEDESIGN,IFNOGROUPCLAMPSORDESIGNGROUPCLAMPS,CONVENIENTADJUSTMENTGROUPPROCESSINGCANREALIZESMOOTHLYTHEMACHINETOOLSFIXTUREPRIORITYISTOENSUREMACHININGACCURACY,ESPECIALLYTHATOFTHEMACHININGPROCESSANDPOSITIONINGSURFACEANDPROCESSEDSURFACEBETWEENTHEPOSITIONPRECISIONAFTERUSINGTHISFIXTUREMAINLYRELYONPRECISIONTOOLSANDFIXTURESTOENSURENOLONGERRELYONWORKERS,THETECHNICALLEVELSECONDISTOIMPROVELABORPRODUCTIVITY,REDUCECOST,USEFIXTUREAFTERISCROSSED,CANREDUCETHEAUXILIARYTIME,ANDEASYTOIMPLEMENTANDMULTISTAGEPROCESSINMODERNTIMES,ISWIDELYUSEDINTHEMACHINETOOLSFIXTUREETCMOBILEPNEUMATIC,HYDRAULICCLAMPINGDEVICE,CANMAKETHEASSISTANTTIMEDOSTEPINTHEGROUPTECHNOLOGYGROUPCLAMPSAREUNDERTHEGUIDANCEOFTHEPRINCIPLE,PROCESSANDDESIGNFORTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEGROUP,ANDSPECIALFIXTURECOMPAREDWITHTHEDESIGNGROUPCLAMPS,NOTFORACERTAINPARTSOFAPROCESS,BUTAGROUPOFSOMEPARTS,WHICHGROUPCLAMPSTOADAPTTOALLPARTSOFTHEGROUPPARTSINAPROCESSOFPROCESSINGDESIGNOFTHEKEYANDDIFFICULTWHENTHEWORKPIECEINMACHINEPROCESSING,THEFIRSTTOMAKEWORKPIECEINMACHINEORAFIXTUREINTHECORRECTPOSITION,ITISTHELOCATION,TOPREVENTTHEPROCESSOFCUTTINGFORCEOROTHERFORCESDESTROYEDTHECORRECTPOSITION,STILLMUSTBEFASTENEDCLAMPINGWORKPIECE,THISISTHECLAMPINGWORKPIECEPOSITIONANDCLAMPINGWORKPIECEINSTALLATIONPROCESSISCALLEDDUETOTHEWORKPIECEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONERROR,ERRORCALLEDFORCLAMPINGDEFORMATIONANDTHEERRORISCALLEDCLAMPINGERRORPOSITIONINGERRORANDCLAMPINGWORKPIECEINSTALLATIONERRORNAMEDERRORBECAUSEOFTHISALLPARTSFOR21KINDSOFWORKPIECES,SOTHESCHEMEISKEYTODETERMINETHEFIXTURECLAMPINGDEFORMATIONCONTROLATWILLTHESMALLESTWHILECLAMPINGDEFORMATIONCONTROLCANNOTRELYONOPERATORSTOREALIZEINTHEPASTSHELLPARTSANDMACHININGBYSMALLANDRELIABLECLAMPINGFORCETOREDUCECLAMPINGDEFORMATION,THISWILLINEVITABLYPRODUCEADVERSEPRODUCTINTHEINTRODUCTIONOFDOMESTICPRODUCTTECHNOLOGYATTHESAMETIME,DONTNOTICETHEPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY,ESPECIALLYTHESHELLPARTS,PRODUCTIONBATCHPROCESSING,DIFFERENT,USEEQUIPMENTTHATNEEDSAREDIFFERENT,CLAMPINGORIENTATEDINTHEINTRODUCTION,黑龙江工程学院本科生毕业设计2DIGESTIONANDABSORPTIONANDMUSTTHEREFOREINTHEDESIGNPROCESS,ACCORDINGTOTHEACTUALNEEDSOFCLAMPINGPOSITIONINGINBLANK,ADDUNIFORMPOSITIONINGANDCLAMPINGPOINTTHESELECTIONPRINCIPLEOFORIENTATEDMAYNOTDEVIATEFROMTHEPRINCIPLEOFLOCALIZATION,BUTATTHETIMEMUSTNOTEINTHESELECTION,ITRULY,PLANAR3POINTMUSTFORMASTABLESUPPORT,NAMELYTHEGRAVITYOFTHETRIANGLE,NEARTHEWORKPIECECENTERTURNAGAINSTRESTRICTIONSFREEDOM2SOMEFARTHER,THEMOREACCURATEPOSITIONINGINPARTSOFTHESHELL,THEKEYPROCESSISFIRSTSTEPGRAPHICPROCESSINGACCORDINGTOTHEPRODUCTIONBATCHANDPARTSTHESTRUCTUREANDTHEPRECISION,SOMEPARTSPROCESSING,SOMEPARTSOFPLANARALONEONAPLANEANDHOLEMACHININGPROCESSGRAPHICPROCESSINGQUALITYDIRECTLYCAUSETHEWHOLEPROCESS,THESUCCESSORFAILURESURFACEPROCESSING,MAINLYISBAD,THEFLATNESSOFTHEFLATNESSOFTHENEXTPROCEDUREOFPROCESSINGPRODUCELARGERCLAMPINGDEFORMATION,CLAMPING,PRECISIONPARTSINTOLERANCE,LOOSEN,CLAMPINGDISPLACEMENTRESTORING,PRECISIONPARTSWILLCHANGE,ANDWITHREGULARITYSURFACEPROCESSINGBYFIXTURECAUSESADVERSEHASTWOMAIN1,THELOCATIONSELECTIONISNOTREASONABLE,2,CLAMPINGPOINTISNOTREASONABLETHEREFORE,THESHELLPARTSPROCESSING,SURFACEOFFIXTUREDESIGNBECOMESIMPORTANTINTHETRADITIONALPROCESSING,FORMILLINGMACHININGPROCESSES,PLANECOMMONLY,ADDAFEWAUXILIARYSUPPORTTOPREVENTDUETOTHEDISTORTIONCAUSEDBYCUTTINGFORCEINFLUENCE,BECAUSEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGMACHININGPRECISIONCUTTINGFORCE,SO,NONEEDADDITIONALSUPPORTCOMMONLYINTHEFACEOFPROCESSING,MUSTCONSIDERTHEPROCESSOFFLEXIBILITY,CANUSETHECARISNOTTOMILLINGMACHININGINCLAMPINGPOINT,ONTHECHOICEOFPAYATTENTIONTOTHEFOLLOWINGPROBLEMS1BY3STRONGPOINTTOFORMASUPPORTTOSUPPORTWORKPIECESURFACE,CANAVOIDBLANKPIECEOFPLANARDEGREEDUETOTHEDEVIATIONCAUSEDTHEMACHINEDSURFACEFLATNESS,ANDSUPPORTINGANDCLAMPINGPOINTSHOULDAVOIDAMOMENT,ANDLEDUPDISTORTIONBECAUSEOFCLAMPINGWORKPIECEELASTICDEFORMATION,LOOSENTHECLAMPINGAFTERSPRINGBACK,CANCAUSEPLANARDEGREE,ITISSUPERFLATNESSOFTHEMAINREASON2THEBESTPOINTANDCLAMPINGPOINTISTHESPHERE,ENSUREALL,OTHERWISE,ITWILLPOINTISBECAUSETHEPLANEDEFORMATIONCAUSEDBYTORSIONBLANKCLAMPINGDEFORMATIONTHEDEFORMATIONWILLALSOCAUSEPLANARDEGREE3WHENTHEWORKPIECESURFACECANNOTCLAMPING,CANUSEFLANKCLAMPING,IFCLAMPINGPARTSISDEDUCEDAND,MUSTINCREASEINTHEBLOCK,TOAVOIDCLAMPINGDEFORMATIONTHECLAMPINGWAY,HADBETTERNOTUSEORUSINGOTHERTECHNIQUES,ORREQUESTPROCESSINGPLANEDESIGNERSINCLAMPINGPOINTINCREASEINDESIGN4BECAUSEOFTHEHIGHSPEEDMACHININGCUTTINGFORCEANDDEFORMATIONOFMORETHAN30REDUCTIONPROCESSING,GENERALLYRECOMMENDTHATDONTADDADDITIONALSUPPORTCANGUARANTEEMACHININGACCURACY52LIMITROTATIONALDEGREEOFFREEDOM,THEDISTANCEASFARASPOSSIBLE,ORIENTATEDIFBLANKHASNOTEHOLE,2NOTEHOLETAPERPINLOCATIONUSINGELASTICISTHEMOSTSIMPLEPOSITIONINGSCHEME黑龙江工程学院本科生毕业设计3INTHEDESIGNOFTHEGROUPCLAMPS,CONSIDERINGTHEPROBLEMSATTHESAMETIME,WEALSONEEDTOCONSIDERMANYPARTSADOPTAFIXTURE,ANDREPLACINGTIMEPROCESSINGVARIETIESINASHORTTIMETOFINISHSOTHEFIXTUREDESIGNMUSTCONSIDERQUICKCHANGETHISFIXTUREISTYPICALOFSIXPRINCIPLESOFFIXTURE,POSITIONINGCLAMPINGADOPTPNEUMATICCLAMPINGSCREWTHISFIXTURELOCATINGADOPTSPOINTPOSITIONINGFORMS,INTERFACE,NEARLYMAYALSOUSEDCLAMPINGPOINT,ENSUREORIENTATEDANDCLAMPINGPOINTINTHESAMELINE,THISFIXTUREMILLINGFACERESULTSINTHEPLANEDEGREESBELOW,THEPRECISIONOF002FROMTHEANGLEOFSUBSEQUENTPROCESSINGPOSITIONFROMTHEANGLEOFUSEORCANBEVERYWELLMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSINADDITION,INPARTSPROCESSINGPROCESS,FORAPROCESS,WHETHERTOUSEFIXTURE,USEWHATTYPEOFCLIPWHATCLASS,ANDTHEUSEOFFIXTUREINJIGDESIGNMUSTBECAREFULLYCONSIDEREDBEFOREBESIDESTHEMACHININGQUALITYASSURANCEFROMVIEW,SHOULDALSODOECONOMICANALYSISTOENSURETHATTHEDESIGNOFFIXTUREINTHEECONOMY传动轴凸缘叉夹具的设计凸缘叉成组加工要根据分组结果及选定的机床型号进行成组夹具设计,成组夹具是实现成组加工的有利保证,分组再合理,如果设计不出成组夹具或设计的成组夹具调整不方便,成组加工也不能顺利实现。机床夹具的首要任务是保证加工精度,特别是保证被加工工件的加工面与定位面以及被加工表面相互之间的位置精度。使用夹具后,这种精度主要靠夹具和机床来保证,不再依赖于工人的技术水平。其次是提高劳动生产率,降低成本,使用夹具后可减少划线、找正等辅助时间,且易于实现多件、多工位加工。在现代机床夹具中,广泛采用气动、液压等机动夹紧装置,可使辅助时间尽一步减少。成组夹具是在成组技术原理指导下,为执行成组工艺而设计的夹具,与专用夹具相比,成组夹具的设计不是针对某一零件的某一工序,而是针对一组零件的某个工序,黑龙江工程学院本科生毕业设计4即成组夹具要适应零件组内所有零件的在某一工序的加工。设计中的重点和难点。工件在机床上加工时,首先要使工件在机床上或夹具中占有某一正确位置,这就是定位,为了防止加工过程中切削力或其他外力破坏这一正确位置,还必须将工件夹牢压紧,这就是夹紧,工件定位与夹紧的过程就称为工件安装。由于工件定位而产生的误差称为定位误差,由于工件夹紧变形而产生的误差称为夹紧误差。定位误差和夹紧误差合称为工件安装误差由于这21种零件全部为薄壁件,所以确定夹具方案的关键便是将夹紧变形控制在最小。而夹紧变形的控制不能靠操作者来实现,过去壳体类零件在加工中靠小而可靠的夹紧力来减少夹紧变形,这样难免会产生不良品。国内在引进产品技术的同时,不太注重加工技术的引进,生产批量不同、加工工艺不同、使用设备不同,那么所需要的夹紧定位点则不同,在引进的同时必须消化吸收,所以在此次工艺设计过程中,按夹紧定位的实际需要,在毛坯中增加统一的定位及夹紧点。定位点的选择原则不可能偏离六点定位的原则,但在选择的时候必须注意;I、确定平面的3点必须形成稳定支撑,即三角形的重心靠近工件的中心2、限制防转自由度的2点距离越远,定位越准确。在零件中,最关键的工序是第一道工序平面加工。根据生产批量及零件的结构及精度,有的零件平面单独加工,有的零件平面及孔在一道工序中加工。平面加工质量的好坏,直接导致整个工艺的成败。面加工不良,主要是平面度不良,平面度超差会在下道工序的加工中产生较大的夹紧变形,在夹紧状态,零件精度会在公差之内,松开之后,夹紧变形恢复,此时零件精度就会发生变化,而且具有规律性。面加工不良由夹具产生的原因主要有两个1、定位选择不合理;2、夹紧点不合理。所以,面加工的夹具设计成为重中之重。在传统加工中,对于有铣削平面加工的工序,一般都增加几个辅助支撑,防止由于切削力造成的工件变形影响加工精度,由于高速切削切削力减小,所以,一般不再需要辅助支撑。在面加工中,一定要考虑到加工工艺的灵活性,能采用车加工的就不要去铣削。在定位、夹紧点的选择上注意以下几个问题1、由3个支撑点形成一个支撑平面来支撑工件,这样可以避免由于毛坯工件的平面度偏差而造成加工表面的平面度超差,并且支撑点与夹紧点应上下重合,避免形成弯矩引起工件变形。由于夹紧引起的工件弹性变形,在松开夹紧后回弹,会造成平面度超差,这是引起平面度超差的主要原因。2、支撑点和夹紧点最好是球面,保证各处是点接触,否则会因为毛坯平面的挠曲变形造成夹紧变形。这个变形同样会造成平面度超差。3、当工件的上表面无法夹紧时,可采用侧面夹紧,如果被夹紧的零件是盒形件,一定在工件内增加塞块,用以避免夹紧变形。此种夹紧方式最好不要采用,或者采用其它工艺方法加工平面,或者要求设计者在设计中增加夹紧点。

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