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外文翻译--关于万维网新时代的学报 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--关于万维网新时代的学报 英文版.pdf

WebSemanticsScience,ServicesandAgentsontheWorldWideWeb120031–5EditorialAnewjournalforaneweraoftheWorldWideWebWearedelightedtowelcomeyoutothefirstissueoftheJournalofWebSemantics.WithyourhelpweaimtomakethisjournalthepremierpublicationforaneweraofcomputingoneinwhichmachinereadablesemanticsenableanintelligentlycapableWeb.TheSemanticWebisthemostwellknownversionofthisnewvision,and,despiteitsrelativeyouth,hasalreadypromotedaflurryofaction.Fromexcitingnewresearchtothedeploymentofindustrialstandardsfromacademicexperimentalprototypestocommercialendeavoursweareatthecentreofamaelstromofactivity.ThelanguagesneededtodefinetheSemanticWebthearchitecturalcomponentsandtoolsneededtobuildandmaintainitthecontentnecessarytouseitandtheapplicationsthatwillexploitit–alltheseactivitiesarehappeningatonceandyetareinterdependent.ThismakestheSemanticWebanexcitingplace.First,afewquestionsWhatareWebSemantics,whattechnologiesdoweneedtodeliversemanticstotheWebandhowmighttheybeusedbyWebbasedapplicationsGiventhewiderangeandrelativematurityofactivitiesinthecommunity,howwillthisjournalprovidethebreadthanddepthneeded,andhowwillititselfbecomepartoftheSemanticWebHowdoesthisfirstissuereflecttheambitionsoftheSemanticWebandsetthetonefortheJournalofWebSemanticsNow,afewanswers.1.Science,servicesandagentsontheWorldWideWebTheurgetofind,collect,storeandshareinformationhasalwaysbeenwithmankind.TheWebhasmadethiseasierthanever.Ithasrevolutionizedthewayweseekinformation.Ithasbroughtdemocracytopublication.Ithasspeededupthedisseminationoffacts,aswellasfictions,toaglobalcommunity.ItoffersaubiquitousinterfacetodatabasesanddocumentmanagementsystemsandauniversalconnectivefabricforintranetsaswellastheInternet.Thegoodnewsisthatifyouneedapieceofinformationitissuretobeavailabletoyousomewhere.Theproblemishowtofinditandhowtointegratedifferentpiecesinameaningfulway.Documentmanagementsystemsandsearchenginesdonotprovideanswerstheyoffermoreorlessrelevantdocumentstobeinterpretedbythehumanreader.Aquerytoadatabaseonlyprovidesexactanswersandcannotsuggestresultsbeyonditscurrentcontent.Tosearchforandlinkinformation,apersonorsomespecificapplicationmustinterpretthecontentoftheseinformationresources.Tomakethecontentsofdocumentsandthelinksbetweenthemgenerallymachineinterpretable,tomakethecontentsofdatabasesinterpretableonaconceptuallevel,wemustassociatewithwebresourcesmetadatathatconveystheirsemanticshencetheSemanticWeb1.TheSemanticWebdoesnotreplacetheWebitoffersanintegratingdescriptivefabricalongsidethewebforsearchengines,informationbrokersandultimatelyintelligentagents.NoonetechnologyholdsthemonopolyofWebSemantics.ForexampleUnderpinningmetadatawithpreciseandsharedsemanticsrequiresontologiestoprovideaconsensual,sharedconceptualizationofadomainbasedonaconsensusbuildingprocesssee2andDilletal.inthisissue.15708268/–seefrontmatter©2003ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.websem.2003.09.0022Editorial/WebSemanticsScience,ServicesandAgentsontheWorldWideWeb120031–5Ontologiesrelyonformalknowledgerepresentationlanguagesthatintegrateaspectsofformallanguageswiththerequirementsoftheweb.TheWebOntologyWorkingGroupofW3C,recentlyproposedOWLastheontologylanguagefortheSemanticWebseeHorrocksetal.inthisissue.WebServicesbringacomputationalelementforaccessingandexecutingsoftwarecomponentsandapplications.DevelopmentssuchasDAMLS3andTheWebServiceModelingFramework4aimatintegratingSemanticWebmethodswithWebServices,toenableautomaticservicediscovery,configurationandexecutionseeSycaraetal.inthisissue.Agentsbenefitfromthedeclarativeframeworkagentbasedsystemswillevolveintoeffectivesystemsoncemoremachineinterpretablecontentandintelligentservicesareavailableontheweb5.Databaseviewmanagement,schematransformation,schemaintegration,andqueryprocessingofferaplethoraofexperienceinscaleablesemantictechnologiesseeMelniketal.inthisissue.Combinedwiththestrengthsintransactionsaspectsandscalability,thedatabaseareawillbeanimportantcontributortothefurtherdevelopmentofSemanticWebapplications6.Thewebisnottheonlydistributedcomputinginfrastructurethatcanbenefitfromsemantics.WearebeginningtoseetheintegrationofsemanticaspectsintoPeertoPeerSystemsandtheGrid.PeerselectionormessageroutingcanbeoptimizedbyhavingmoresemanticinformationavailableabouttheservicesapeeroffersortheinformationapeerisstoringseeAbereretal.inthisissue.ThemergingofGridcapabilitieswithWebServicestheOpenGridServiceArchitectureanddevelopmentsinSemanticGridsenablethedynamicformulationofVirtualOrganizationsofGridresourcesandtheintegrationofdatafromdifferentsourcesinasemanticallyconsistentway7,8.Manyapplicationareasandindustrysectorsalreadybenefit,orwillcometodoso,fromthenewsemanticinfrastructurethatevolves.eCommerce,orEnterpriseApplicationIntegration,gainanewlevelofflexibilityforrunningbusinesstobusinessapplicationsornetworkedenterprises.eScience,exploitingsemanticgridtechnologies,willallownewwaysofcooperationamongscientistsandthusenableanewlevelofsynergybetweenresearchersworkingindifferentinstitutionsandlocations9.Newgenerationknowledgemanagementsolutionsinwhichknowledgemanagementisaneffortlesspartofdaytodayactivities,andwhereappropriateknowledgeisautomaticallydeliveredtotherightpeopleattherighttimeattherightgranularityviaarangeofuserdevices,isanotherpromisingapplicationarea.ThewebandwebbasedapplicationswillreachanewleveloffunctionalityonlyifwebcontentsandWebServicesarecharacterizedinawaythatdeliversasmuchsemanticsasisneededtomeettheapplicationneeds.2.StructureandcontentsofthejournalNoonedisciplineholdsthemonopolyofWebSemantics.Distributedcomputing,dataandknowledgemanagement,artificialintelligence,digitallibraries,languagedesignandimplementation,architecture,naturallanguageprocessingallplaytheirrole.Itistheconfluenceofthesetechnologiesthatisthekey,andsoitisthekeyfortheJournalofWebSemantics.Weplantobringtogetherthebestresearchfromalldisciplinesaimedatcapturingandexploitingsemanticsindistributedinformationmanagement.TheresearchisdrivenbyapplicationsandexposedthroughdemonstratorsexperimentalprototypesarerunningalongsidecommercialdevelopmentsfundamentalresearchisworkinginconsortwithstandardsactivitiesinW3Candotherbodies.Thejournalwillreflectallthesestreamsofactivityandtheirinteractiontogiveawindowonthewholeofthestateoftheart.Weaimtocoveradynamicandvibrantnewarea,andtargetanaudiencethatneedstoknowthelatestinnovationswhiletheyarefresh.Weplantoachievethiswithoutsacrificingqualitybyprovidingamixoftraditionalresearchpapersaswellashighqualitylettersandshortarticlesthatpresentimportantresultswiththeshortestpossiblepublicationdelays.Thus,therangeofpaperswillreflectthediversityofactivity,andmaturityPapers,ShortorLongThesearetraditionalresearchpapersdescribingnovelresearch,largescaleexperiments,orexcitingsystemsofrelevancetothejournalsreadership.WehavenospecificpaperlimitEditorial/WebSemanticsScience,ServicesandAgentsontheWorldWideWeb120031–53weparticularlyencourageshortpapersonlessmaturebutexcitinginnovations.LettersLettersareonetotwopagenotificationsofthekindfoundinScientificpublicationslikeSciencefocusingonaspecificresultorimportantinnovation,theoreticalorpractical.Letterswillbeanimportantwayforexcitingresultstogetintorefereedpublicationintheshortestpossibletime.DemonstrationsDemonstrationpapersareshortpapersdescribingafreelyavailabledemonstration,accompaniedbyapointertoasitewherethedemonstrationruns,orfromwhichitcanbedownloaded.Reviewerswillcheckthequalityofthedemonstration,andthatthepaperpresentsenoughinformationtounderstandwhatitdoesandthatitactuallyworks.Ourwebsitegivesdetailsoflicensingarrangements.OntologiesOntologypapersareexpectedtodescribethedevelopmentofapubliclyavailableontology,whatisinit,andwhyitisimportant.Theontologyshouldbepublishedinastandardlanguageorthatthedetailsofitsrepresentationshouldbepublishedandavailabletoourreaders.Wewillreviewthequalityofthewriteup,andthemodelingqualityoftheontologyitself.Youcanhelpusmakethisjournalrelevanttoyourneeds.Ifyouhavesomethingyouthinkbelongsinthejournal,butitdoesnoteasilyfitintooneofthesecategories,contactoneoftheEditorsinChief.3.PracticingwhatwepreachWeexpectthisjournaltohaveastrongwebpresencewherewepracticewhatwepreach.ThusweplantousewebtechnologiesinanumberofdifferentwaysRapidpublicationmixingejournalandprintjournalmodels.Finalsubmissionswillbepostedonourwebsiteimmediatelyafteracceptance.Aftertypesettingtheywillappearintraditionalprintform,andonElsevierswebsiteandintheirelectronicarchivesamajorresourceavailableinthousandsoflibrariesaroundtheworld.MetadatamarkupusingDublinCorewillbecreatedforyou,andyouwillhavetheopportunitytoaddanyothermetadatayouwishusingtoolsdevelopedbythecommunity.Ourpaperrepositorywillbedisplayablenotjustastext,butalsoasbibtexentriesandotherformatsastheybecomestandard.Weaimtomakethejournalsiteasandboxforthecommunity.Searchingandfilteringpapers,usingSemanticWebtechnologies,forgeneratingcustompagescontainingthepapersbyaparticularauthororonaparticulartopic.Demonstrationsandontologiespublishedinthejournalwillbemadeavailablelinkingbacktheauthorssiteandarchivingacopyofthesubmission.Hencethemostuptodateversionisvisible,buttheversionatsubmissiontimeisavailable.Ourgoalistomakethisoneofthemostreadablejournalsonyourshelvesandarepositoryofimportantresourcesontheweb.4.ThisissueOurfirstissuepurposelyattemptstoreflectthediversityandrangeofresearchshapingWebSemantics,withrepresentativesofmostofourpaperstylesfivelongresearchpapers,eachviewingthewebinadifferentway,andtwoshortpapersdescribinganontologyandademonstratorapplication.KnowledgerepresentationisamajortopicofWebSemantics.Thechallengeistoviewthewebasahugeknowledgebase.InFromSHIQandRDFtoOWLTheMakingofaWebOntologyLanguageHorrocksetal.introducetheOWLWebOntologyLanguage,aformallanguageforrepresentingontologiesintheSemanticWeb,recentlyannouncedbyW3Casacandidaterecommendation.OWLoffersthefeaturesculledfromtheresultsofknowledgerepresentationresearch,andwasdesignedontopofRDF.ThepaperdescribeshowOWLwasborn,whatresearchissueshavebeensolved,andwhatremains.AgenttechnologyfacilitatestheuseofWebSemantics,andWebServicesarefacilitatedbytheuseofWebSemantics.Thechallengeistoviewthewebasahugeservicebasedmultiagentsystem.Sycaraetal.inAutomatedDiscovery,InteractionandCompositionofSemanticWebServicesproposeDAMLSfordescribingSemanticWebServices,whichcombinesthewebservicesarchitecturewithSemanticWeb.DAMLSprovidesanabstractdescriptionofWebServices,andcansupportmatchingandinteractionamongwebservices.ThepaperdescribestheimplementationoftheDAMLS/UDDIMatchmakerand4Editorial/WebSemanticsScience,ServicesandAgentsontheWorldWideWeb120031–5theDAMLSVirtualMachinetoactuallyprototypeSemanticWebServices.DatabasetechnologyisanotherstreamofWebSemantics.SergeyMelniketal.developagenericmodelmanagementsystemcalledRondoinDevelopingMetadataIntensiveapplicationswithRondo.Thechallengeistoviewthewebastheintegrationofahugenumberofonlineapplications,services,anddatabases.Thesesystemsaretiedtogetherusingmediators,mappings,databaseviews,andtransformationscripts.Modelmanagementreducestheamountofprogrammingneededforintegratingapplications.Thepaperintroduceshighleveloperatorstomanipulatemodelsandmappingsbetweenmodels,suchaschangepropagation,viewreuse,andreintegration.SemanticannotationisthekeytocreatethesemanticcontentoftheSemanticWeb.AcaseforautomatedlargescalesemanticannotationbyDilletal.risestothechallengetoautomaticallycreateahugevolumeoftaggedwebcontentsfromexistingwebpages.ThepaperdescribesSeeker,aplatformforlargescaletextanalysis,andSemTag,anapplicationwrittenontheplatformthatperformstheautomatedsemantictaggingoflargecorpora.Approximately264millionwebpagesaretagged,generatingaround434milliondisambiguatedsemanticannotations.Abereretal.sStartmakingsenseTheChattyWebapproachforglobalsemanticagreementsdescribesasteptowardsselflearningnetworksofpeersestablishingsemanticoperabilityautomatically.Thechallengeistoharnessthehugenetworkofinterconnecteddatasources,andtocometonegotiatedagreementsonsemantics.Participatingdatasourcesincrementallydevelopglobalagreementinanevolutionaryandcompletelydecentralizedprocessthatsolelyreliesonpairwise,localinteractions.Theauthorsclaimtheirapproachappliestoanysystemwhichprovidesacommunicationinfrastructurewebsitesordatabases,decentralizedsystems,P2Psystemsandofferstheopportunitytostudysemanticinteroperabilityasaglobalphenomenoninanetworkofinformationsharingparties.Ontologyisakeytorealizingsemanticcontents.Golbecketal.havedevelopedanontologybasedontheNationalCancerInstitutesThesaurus.TheneedforacomprehensiveterminologyarosebecausetermswereoftenlocallydevelopedwithinvarioussectionsoftheInstitute.TomaketheknowledgeintheThesaurusmoreusefulandaccessible,theNationalCancerInstituteandtheUniversityofMarylandhaveworkedtogethertoproduceanOWLontologyfromtheThesaurus.ToolsareneededtoacceleratetheadvanceofWebSemantics.R.GuhaandRobMcCoolreportonTAP,anexperimentalsystemforidentifyingandresearchingdifferenttechnicalissuessuchasscalablequerylanguages,sharingvocabularies,bootstrappingknowledgebases,automatedextractionofRDFfromtext,etc.TAPhasbeenusedtocreatelargescalesemanticannotationasdescribedbyDillandcolleagues.FutureissueswillincludepapersonSemanticGrid,NaturalLanguageProcessing,DigitalLibraryandmoretogreatlyadvanceWebSemantics.WeareatakeypointintheWebsjourney.Thisjournalplanstonotonlychartitspathbuthopefullyinfluenceitthisisonlypossibleifitservesyouandyoucontributetoit.WelookforwardtoyourpapersandyourengagementaswestrivetomaketheJournalofWebSemanticsthecypherforanewcommunity.Wewouldliketothankalltheauthorsandthepaperreviewersfortheireffortsinstartingupthisjournal,Elsevierfortheirsupportinthecreationandrunningofthejournal,andKaronMeeandSimonHarperforrunningtheEditorialoffice.References1T.BernersLee,J.Hendler,O.Lassila,TheSemanticWeb,ScientificAmerican,May2001.2S.Staab,R.StuderEds.,HandbookonOntologies,SpringerVerlag,Berlin,2003.3TheDAMLServicesCoalitionDAMLSSemanticMarkupforWebServices.http//www.daml.org/services/damls/0.9/.4D.Fensel,Ch.Bussler,ThewebservicemodelingframeworkWSMF,Electron.CommerceRes.Appl.122002113–137.5J.Hendler,Agentsandthesemanticweb,IEEEIntell.Syst.162March–April200130–37.6A.Sheth,R.Meersmann,AmicalolaReportDatabaseandInformationSystemsResearchChallengesandOpportunitiesinSemanticWebandEnterprises.SIGMODRecord31,4December2002.7C.Goble,D.DeRoure,Thegridanapplicationofthesemanticweb,SIGMODRec.314200265–70.8C.Kesselmann,TheGrid,gridservicesandthesemanticwebtechnologiesandopportunities,inProceedingsofthe1stInternationalSemanticWebConferenceISWC02,Sardinia,LNCS2342,SpringerVerlag,Berlin,July2002.9J.Hendler,Scienceandthesemanticweb,Science24January2003299.

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