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外文翻译--关于倾角煤层挖掘巷道的锚杆支护的研究.doc

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外文翻译--关于倾角煤层挖掘巷道的锚杆支护的研究.doc

英文原文STUDYONGATEWAYBOLTINGEXCAVATEDININCLINEDCOALSEAMTaoLianjin陶连金WangYongjia王永嘉ZhanZhuoyuan张倬元NortheasternUniversity,Shenyang110006ChengduUniversityofTechnology.Chengdu610059AbstractAtypicalgatewayisanalyzedusingfullydeformablediscreteelementmethod.Thefracturedzonearoundthegatewayismeasuredinfield.Basedonthemeasurementresultsandtheoreticalanalysis,acomprehensivesupportschemeadoptingboltandsteelbeltisproposed.Discreteelementmethodisusedtoassestheboltingscheme,anddisplacementmonitoringinfieldisalsocarriedout.Havingbeenputintopractice,itisprovedthattheschemeisbothsuccessfulandrational.Accordingtotheoreticalanalysisandmonitoringinfiled,someimportantkeynotesthatshouldbenoticedingatewayboltingpracticearepresentedaswell.KeywordsinclinedseamgatewaystratabehaviorboltingdiscreteelementmethodIntroductionInclinedcoalseamisgenerallyregardedasseamwithadipsingle2545,whichoccupiesaconsiderableproportioninbothproductionandreservesinChina.Problemsrelatedtostratacontrolare,however,seldomstudied,andresearchesoninseamgatewayareeven1less.Themaintenanceexpenseofgatewayininclinedseamisgenerally30higherthanthatinnearlyflatandgentlyinclinedseam.Thereasonwhythereexistsasuchphenomenoniscomplicateditself,anotherpossiblereasonisthelackoftheinherentstratabehaviorlaw.Atpresent,problemsrelatedtoinseamgatewaymaintenancearehighlyemphasizedandmanystudiesonstratabehaviorandsupportofgatewayarecarried24out.Suchresearchesplayapositiveroleingatewaymaintenance.Howevermostoftheresearchesarecarriedoutinflatorgentlyinclinedseams.Duetotheirlocatinginremarkablyanisotropicmediaandenvironment,gatewaysininclinedseamsareoftensubjectedtounfavorableloadsanddeformunevenly,stratamovemoreintensivelythanthatingentlyinclinedseam,andthebrokenregionisalsolarge,whichmakesgatewaysupportevenmoredifficult.Inviewoftheabovementionedfacts,weusefullydeformablediscreteelementmethodinsimulatingstratabehaviorofgatewayininclinedseam,andtheloosedzonearoundthegatewayisalsomonitoredinfield.Basedontheresults,aboltingschemeisproposed.Afterputtingintopractice,theschemeisprovedtobeeffectiveandrational.1.Deformandfailfeaturesofgatewaywithoutanysupport1.1GeologicconditionsThestudyobjectistheNo.36seaminBaoshanCoalMine,thedipangleoftheseamis35°andthicknessis1.0m,thegeologicconditionsarerathersimple.Theaverageburieddepthis440m.Theimmediateroofis2metersthickoffinesandstoneandshale,theoverallstrengthislow.Abovetheimmediateroofiscomparativelyhardmainroof.Thefloorisfinesandstone.Thegatewaywidthis2.2mandthegatewayisexcavatedinirregularshapeinordertokeeptheroofintact.Thesidewallcoalishoweverrathersoftandloose,andeasilyfails.Thesurroundingrocksofthegatewayarenotstable,roofandsidewallareapttofallorbreak,whichisdangeroustobothproductionandhumansafety.Theworkingfaceoftenstoppedduetodifficultmaintenanceofthegateways.1.2SimulationofgatewaydeformationandfailurewithdiscreteelementmethodThejointstatisticalresultsshowthatthesurroundingrocksofthegatewayarecutbytwoorthogonaljoints,onegroupisthebeddingplaneofthecoalmeasures,anothergroupisnormaltothebeddingplane,mainlydevelopedintheimmediateroof.Becauseofthelowstrengthofimmediateroof,thereoftenexistlongjointsthatcrossthroughtheimmediateroof.Suchlongjointsplayadominantpartinrooffalling.Accordingtothespatialdistributionofjoints,adiscreteelementmodelisbuiltasshowninFig.1.Thecomputingparametersrequiredaremainlybasedonmeasurementinfieldandsomebackanalysis.Theloadappliedtothemodelaregravitationalstressfield.Thediscreteelementsarefullydeformablesothathedeformationofblockcanbeinvolved.Afterthegatewayisexcavated,undertheactionofinitialstresses,theuppersidewallcoalfirstlybreaks,thenthesurfaceofthelowersidewallcoalbeginstoyield.Theabutmentsoftheroofatthetwosidewalltransfertodeepsolidcoalinconsequence.Theimmediateroofatthesurfaceofthegatewaybeginstobend,beddingseparate,failandfallseefig2,asaresult,largeareaoftherooffallsuntiluptothemainroofSomebrokenblocksmaycollapsewhenasmalldisturbanceoccurs,Inthepracticalface,itisverydifficulttodealwiththefallenrocks,sometimesachaincollapseofupperimmediateroofmayoccurifspecialattentionisnotpaid,whichmakesthefallenrockdisposaladifficultanddangeroustask.Theresultsindicatethattwosidewallcoalsfaildifferentlytheuppercoalbreaksmoreintensivelythanthelowersidewallcoal.Accordingtotheabovementionedanalysis,itcanbeseenthatinmiddletolowlyhardthininclinedseam,thestabilityofthetwosidewallcoalsisveryimportanttotheoverallstabilityofthegateway.Ifthesidewallfails,thentheabutmentsoftheroofwilltransfertodeepsolidcoal,asaresultthefreespanoftheroofincreases,whichaggravatestheunstableconditionofthewholegateway.Suchfailureofsurroundingrocksisevenseriouswhenitissubjectedtomininginfluence.Itis,thusthekeytokeepthesidewallsolidandintactinordertokeeptheoverallstabilityofgatewayininclinedseams.2.MeasurementofloosedzonearoundgatewayBasedonloosedzonetheoryofexcavation,aloosedzoneisgenerallyformedaroundtheexcavationifwhichthestressislowerthantheinitialstress.Owingtoirregularshapeofgatewayininclinedseamandanisotropicmedia,theloosedzonearoundgatewayiscertainlyinirregularshape.WeuseanultrasonicjointdetectorTypeSCIIbyFushuninstituteofCoalScienceandTechnologytomeasuretheloosedzoneofthegateway.ThetestresultsareshowninFig.3.Thegatewaywassupportedbytworoofbolts1.6mlongwithveryslightlyprestressed.Themeasuredloosedzoneisuppersidewallcoalmorethan1.8m,lowersidewallcoal1.41.5m,andtheroofis0.951.1m.Thegatewaycanbestablewithoutmininginfluence.Butaslongasbeingsubjectedtominingactivity,thegatewaywillcollapsewitsidewallfailingandrooffalling.Inextremecase,themaximumcavingheightcanreachashighas4.0m.Asaresult,thegatewayintheseamisverydifficulttobemaintainedandthemaintenancecostisthusratherhigh.Thetestresultsarecoincidedwiththenumericalcalculation.Soitis,therefore,necessarytoreinforcethegatewayincludingthesidewallcomprehensively.3.InclinedcombinedbeammodelforroofboltsIninclinedseam,roofboltscombinerooftogetherwhenboltlengthisshorterthanthesoftandlooseroof.Ofcourse,iftheboltcanbeboltedatacompetentstratum,thentheboltingmechanismwillbecomehangingover.AtypicalinclinedcombinedbeammodelisillustratedinFif.4.Thebeamiscomposedbyseveraltotalnumbersoflayersarekdifferentkindsofstrata,withlengthLandthickness.Itisassumedthat1eachlayerofthebeamishomogeneous,continuousandisotropic2thebeamconformstosmalldeformationand3eachlayerdeformstogether,andnoslipalongbeddingoccurs.Accordingtostrengthcriteriaofthebeam,theminimumthicknesscanbederivedandthenthetotallengthofaboltcanbeeasilydeterminedasfollows

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