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外文翻译--关于北欧的疲劳实验室的比较—测量结果不确定值的反映.doc

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外文翻译--关于北欧的疲劳实验室的比较—测量结果不确定值的反映.doc

3附录附录1英文原文REFLECTIONSREGARDINGUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENT,ONTHERESULTSOFANORDICFATIGUETESTINTERLABORATORYCOMPARISONMAGNUSHOLMGREN,THOMASSVENSSON,ERLANDJOHNSON,KLASJOHANSSONABSTRACTTHISPAPERPRESENTSTHEEXPERIENCESOFCALCULATIONANDREPORTINGUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTINFATIGUETESTINGSIXNORDICLABORATORIESPERFORMEDFATIGUETESTSONSTEELSPECIMENSTHELABORATORIESALSOREPORTEDTHEIRRESULTSCONCERNINGUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTANDHOWTHEYCALCULATEDITTHERESULTSSHOWLARGEDIFFERENCESINTHEWAYTHEUNCERTAINTIESOFMEASUREMENTWERECALCULATEDANDREPORTEDNOLABORATORYINCLUDEDTHEMOSTSIGNIFICANTUNCERTAINTYSOURCE,BENDINGSTRESSDUETOMISALIGNMENTOFTHETESTINGMACHINE,“INCORRECT”SPECIMENSAND/ORINCORRECTLYMOUNTEDSPECIMENS,WHENCALCULATINGTHEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTSEVERALLABORATORIESDIDNOTCALCULATETHEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTINACCORDANCEWITHTHEGUIDETOTHEEXPRESSIONOFUNCERTAINTYINMEASUREMENTGUM1KEYWORDUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENT,CALCULATION,REPORT,FATIGUETEST,LABORATORYINTERCOMPARISONDEFINITIONSRSTRESSRATIOFMIN/FMAXFFORCENEKTONSAANDBFATIGUESTRENGTHPARAMETERSSANDSSTRESSMEGAPASCALSNNUMBEROFCYCLESINTRODUCTIONTHECORRECTORBESTMETHODOFCALCULATINGANDREPORTINGUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTINTESTINGHASBEENTHESUBJECTOFDISCUSSIONFORMANYYEARSTHEISSUEBECAMEEVENMORERELEVANTINCONNECTIONWITHTHEINTRODUCTIONOFISOSTANDARDS,EGISO170252THEDISCUSSION,ASWELLASIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTCONCEPT,HASOFTENBEENCONCENTRATEDONWHICHEQUATIONTOUSEORONADMINISTRATIVEHANDLINGOFTHEISSUETHEREHASBEENLESSINTERESTINTHETECHNICALPROBLEMANDHOWTOHANDLEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTINTHEACTUALEXPERIMENTALSITUATION,ANDHOWTOLEARNFROMTHEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTCALCULATIONWHENIMPROVINGTHEEXPERIMENTALTECHNIQUEONEREASONFORTHISMAYBETHATTHEACCREDITATIONBODIESHAVECONCENTRATEDONTHEVERYEXISTENCEOFUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTCALCULATIONSFORANACCREDITEDTESTMETHOD,INSTEADOFONWHETHERTHECALCULATIONSAREPERFORMEDINASOUNDTECHNICALWAYTHEPRESENTINVESTIGATIONEMPHASIZESTHENEEDFORAMORETECHNICALFOCUSONETESTINGAREAWHEREITISDIFFICULTTODOUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTCALCULATIONSISFATIGUETESTINGHOWEVER,THEREISGUIDANCEONHOWTOPERFORMSUCHCALCULATIONS,EGINREFS3,4TOINVESTIGATEHOWUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTCALCULATIONSAREPERFORMEDFORFATIGUETESTSINREALLIFE,UTMISTHESWEDISHFATIGUENETWORKSTARTEDANINTERLABORATORYCOMPARISONWHEREONE4OFTHEMOSTESSENTIALPARTSWASTOCALCULATEANDREPORTTHEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTOFATYPICALFATIGUETESTTHATCOULDHAVEBEENORDEREDBYACUSTOMEROFTHEPARTICIPATINGLABORATORIESFORCOSTREASONS,CUSTOMERSOFTENASKFORALIMITEDNUMBEROFTESTSPECIMENSBUT,ATTHESAMETIME,THEYREQUESTALOTOFINFORMATIONABOUTALARGEPORTIONOFTHEPOSSIBLESTRESSLIFEAREAFROMFEWCYCLESHIGHSTRESSESTOMILLIONSOFCYCLESLOWSTRESSESANDEVENRUNOUTSTHEWAYTHECALCULATIONWASMADESHOULDALSOBEREPORTEDTHEOUTCOMECONCERNINGTHEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTFROMTHEPROJECTISREPORTEDINTHISARTICLEPARTICIPANTSSIXNORDICLABORATORIESPARTICIPATEDINTHEINTERLABORATORYCOMPARISONONEINDUSTRIALLABORATORY,TWORESEARCHINSTITUTES,TWOUNIVERSITYLABORATORIESANDONELABORATORYINACONSULTANCYCOMPANYTWOOFTHELABORATORIESAREACCREDITEDFORFATIGUETESTING,ANDATHIRDLABORATORYISACCREDITEDFOROTHERTESTSEACHPARTICIPANTWASRANDOMLYASSIGNEDANUMBERBETWEEN1AND6,ANDTHISNOTIFICATIONWILLBEUSEDINTHERESTOFTHISPAPEREXPERIMENTALPROCEDURETHEPARTICIPANTSRECEIVEDINFORMATIONABOUTTHETESTSPECIMENSWITHOUTMATERIALDATA,TOGETHERWITHINSTRUCTIONSONTHEWAYTOPERFORMTHETESTANDHOWTOREPORTTHERESULTSTHEINSTRUCTIONSWERETHATTESTSSHOULDBEPERFORMEDASCONSTANTLOADAMPLITUDETESTS,WITHR01ATTHREEDIFFERENTSTRESSLEVELS,460,430AND400MAP,WITHFOURSPECIMENSATEACHSTRESSLEVEL,ATATESTFREQUENCYBETWEEN10AND30HZ,WITHARUNOUTLIMITAT6510CYCLESANDINANORMALLABORATORYCLIMATE0203CAND5015RELATIVEHUMIDITYTHISWASCONSIDEREDASATYPICALCUSTOMERORDEREDTESTTHETESTRESULTSWERETOBEUSEDTOCALCULATEESTIMATESOFTHETWOFATIGUESTRENGTHPARAMETERS,AANDB,ACCORDINGTOLINEARREGRESSIONOFTHELOGSANDLONGVARIABLES,IELOGLOGABNTHEREPORTEDRESULTSHOULDINCLUDEBOTHTHEESTIMATEDPARAMETERSAANDBANDTHEUNCERTAINTIESINTHEMDUETOMEASUREMENTERRORSTHEREPORTSHOULDALSOINCLUDETHECONSIDERATIONSANDCALCULATIONSBEHINDTHERESULTS,ESPECIALLYTHOSECONCERNINGUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTSEVERALPROPERTIESWERETOBEREPORTEDFOREACHSPECIMENTHEMOSTIMPORTANTONEWASTHENUMBEROFCYCLESUNTILFRACTUREORIFTHESPECIMENWASARUNOUTIESURVIVEDFOR6510CYCLESTHETESTSWERETOBEPERFORMEDINACCORDANCEWITHASTME466–965ANDISO572526ASTME46696DOESNOTTAKEUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTINTOACCOUNT;HOWEVER,ASTME46696MENTIONSTHATTHEBENDINGSTRESSINTRODUCEDOWINGTOMISALIGNMENTMUSTNOTEXCEED5OFTHEGREATEROFTHERANGE,MAXIMUMORMINIMUMSTRESSESTHEREAREALSOREQUIREMENTSFORTHEACCURACYOFTHEDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTOFTHETESTSPECIMENALLPARTICIPANTSUSEDHYDRAULICTESTINGMACHINESTHETESTSPECIMENSWEREMADEOFSTEELYIELDSTRESS375–390MAP,ANDTENSILESTRENGTH670–690MAP,TABULATEDVALUESTHETESTSPECIMENSWEREDISTRIBUTEDTOTHEPARTICIPANTSBYTHEORGANIZERRESULTS5THEPRIMARYLABORATORYRESULTSTHATSHOULDBECOMPAREDARETHEESTIMATEDWHALERCURVESINORDERTOPRESENTALLRESULTSINTHESAMEWAY,THEORGANIZERTRANSFORMEDSOMEOFTHERESULTSTHEWHALERCURVESREPORTEDBYTHEPARTICIPANTSARESHOWNINFIG1ITCANBESEENTHATTHEREARECONSIDERABLEDIFFERENCESBETWEENLABORATORIESANAPPROXIMATESTATISTICALTESTSHOWSASIGNIFICANTLABORATORYEFFECTMATERIALSCATTERALONECANNOTEXPLAINTHEDIFFERENCESINTHEWHALERCURVESINORDERTOINVESTIGATEIFTHELABORATORYEFFECTWASSOLELYCAUSEDBYTHEMODELINGUNCERTAINTY,WEESTIMATEDNEWPARAMETERSFROMTHERAWDATAWITHACOMMONALGORITHMWETHENCHOSETOUSEONLYTHEFAILEDSPECIMENSANDTOMAKETHEMINIMIZATIONINTHELOGARITHMICLIFEDIRECTIONTHERESULTSARESHOWNINFIG2AFORMALSTATISTICALSIGNIFICANCETESTWASTHENMADE,ANDTHERESULTOFSUCHATESTSHOWSTHATTHEDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHELABORATORIESSHOWNINFIG1COULDBEATTRIBUTEDONLYTOMODELINGUNCERTAINTYOFMEASUREMENTCALCULATIONSONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTOBJECTIVESWITHTHISINVESTIGATIONWASTOCOMPARETHEOBSERVEDDIFFERENCESBETWEENLABORATORYTESTRESULTSWITHTHEIRESTIMATEDUNCERTAINTIESOFMEASUREMENTTHEINTENTIONWASTOANALYZETHEUNCERTAINTYANALYSESASSUCH,ANDTOCOMPARETHEMTOTHESTANDARDPROCEDURERECOMMENDEDINTHEISOGUIDEGUIDETOTHEEXPRESSIONOFUNCERTAINTYINMEASUREMENTGUM1THELABORATORIESIDENTIFIEDDIFFERENTSOURCESOFUNCERTAINTYANDTREATEDTHEMINDIFFERENTWAYSTHESESOURCESARETHELOADMEASUREMENT,THELOADCONTROL,THESUPERIMPOSEDBENDINGSTRESSESBECAUSEOFMISALIGNMENTANDTHEDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTSIMPLICITLY,LABORATORYTEMPERATUREANDHUMIDITY,SPECIMENTEMPERATUREANDCORROSIONEFFECTSAREALSOCONSIDEREDINADDITION,THERESULTSSHOWAMODELINGEFFECTTHEDIFFERENTLABORATORYTREATMENTSOFTHESESOURCESARESUMMARIZEDINTABLE1SPECIFICCOMMENTSONTHEDIFFERENTLABORATORIESALLLABORATORIESGAVETHEIRLABORATORYTEMPERATUREANDHUMIDITY,BUTDIDNOTCONSIDERTHESEVALUESASSOURCESOFUNCERTAINTY,IETHEINFLUENCEOFTEMPERATUREANDHUMIDITYWASNEGLECTEDTHISCONCLUSIONISREASONABLEFORSTEELINTHETEMPERATURERANGEANDHUMIDITYRANGEINQUESTION7LABORATORY1THEUNCERTAINTYDUETOTHEAPPLIEDSTRESSWASDETERMINEDTAKINGLOADCELLANDDIMENSIONALUNCERTAINTIESINTOACCOUNTTHEMATHEMATICALEVALUATIONWASMADEINACCORDANCEWITHTHEGUMSPECIMENTEMPERATUREWASMEASURED,BUTWASIMPLICITLYNEGLECTEDTHEMODELINGPROBLEMWASMENTIONED,BUTNOTCONSIDEREDASANUNCERTAINTYSOURCELABORATORY2THEREPORTCONTAINSNOUNCERTAINTYEVALUATIONTHEUNCERTAINTIESINTHELOADCELLANDTHEMICROMETERARECONSIDERED,BUTNEGLECTEDWITHREFERENCETOTHELARGEMATERIALSCATTERSPECIMENTEMPERATUREWASMEASUREDMODELINGPROBLEMSAREMENTIONEDBYACOMMENTREGARDINGTHECHOICEOFLOADLEVELSLABORATORY3THEREPORTCONTAINSNOUNCERTAINTYEVALUATIONHOWEVER,THEACCURACYOFTHE6MACHINEISGIVENANDTHELOADWASCONTROLLEDDURINGTHETESTSTOBEWITHINSPECIFIEDLIMITSTHEBENDINGSTRESSESWEREMEASUREDONONESPECIMEN,BUTTHEIRINFLUENCEONTHEFATIGUERESULTWASNOTTAKENINTOCONSIDERATIONLABORATORY4THEUNCERTAINTIESINTHELOADCELLANDTHEDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTSARECONSIDEREDINANEVALUATIONOFSTRESSUNCERTAINTYTHEMETHODFORTHEEVALUATIONISNOTINACCORDANCEWITHTHEGUMMETHOD,BUTWASPERFORMEDBYADDINGABSOLUTEERRORSTHEBENDINGSTRESSINFLUENCEANDTHECONTROLSYSTEMDEVIATIONSARECONSIDERED,BUTNOTINCLUDEDINTHEUNCERTAINTYEVALUATIONTHEFAILURECRITERIONISMENTIONEDANDREGARDEDASNEGLIGIBLE,ANDCORROSIONISMENTIONEDASAPOSSIBLESOURCEOFUNCERTAINTYLABORATORY5UNCERTAINTIESINTHELOADCELLANDTHELOADCONTROLWERECONSIDERED,ANDTHELABORATORYSTATEDINTHEREPORTTHATTHEEVALUATIONOFTHELOADUNCERTAINTYWASPERFORMEDACCORDINGTOTHECIPMMETHODLABORATORY6NOREPORTWASPROVIDED,BUTONLYEXPERIMENTALRESULTSANDAWHALERCURVEESTIMATENOLABORATORYREPORTEDTHEUNCERTAINTYINTHEESTIMATEDMATERIALPROPERTIES,THEWHALERPARAMETERS,BUTATMOSTTHEUNCERTAINTYINTHEAPPLIEDSTRESSTHEOVERALLPICTUREOFTHEUNCERTAINTYCONSIDERATIONSISTHATONLYUNCERTAINTYSOURCESTHATAREPOSSIBLETOESTIMATEFROMCALIBRATIONREPORTSWERETAKENINTOACCOUNTINTHEFINALEVALUATIONFIG1ALLEXPERIMENTALRESULTSANDESTIMATEDWHOLECURVESFROMTHEDIFFERENTLABORATORIESNUMBEROFCYCLESTOFAILUREONEIMPORTANTSOURCETHATSEVERALLABORATORIESMENTIONEDISTHEBENDINGSTRESSESINDUCEDBYMISALIGNMENTINTHETESTINGMACHINE,INCORRECTLYMOUNTEDTESTSPECIMENSOR“INCORRECT”SPECIMENSTHEAMOUNTOFBENDINGSTRESSWASALSOESTIMATEDINSOMECASES,BUTITSINFLUENCEON

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