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外文翻译--冲压纯净的钛板料的可锻模性 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--冲压纯净的钛板料的可锻模性 英文版.pdf

JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1702005181–186STAMPINGFORMABILITYOFPURETITANIUMSHEETSFUHKUOCHEN∗,KUANHUACHIUDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,NATIONALTAIWANUNIVERSITY,TAIPEI10764,TAIWAN,ROCRECEIVED20OCTOBER2003;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM12APRIL2005;ACCEPTED4MAY2005ABSTRACTBECAUSEOFHEXAGONALCLOSEPACKEDHCPCRYSTALSTRUCTURES,COMMERCIALLYPURETITANIUMCPTISHOWSLOWDUCTILITYATROOMTEMPERATURE,ANDREQUIRESTHERMALACTIVATIONTOINCREASEITSDUCTILITYANDFORMABILITYINTHEPRESENTSTUDY,THEFORMABILITYOFCPTISHEETSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESWASSTUDIEDBYTHEEXPERIMENTALAPPROACHTENSILETESTSWEREFIRSTCONDUCTEDTOINVESTIGATETHEMECHANICALBEHAVIOROFCPTISHEETSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESFORMINGLIMITTESTS,VBENDTESTS,ANDCUPDRAWINGTESTSWEREALSOPERFORMEDTOEXAMINETHESTAMPINGFORMABILITYOFCPTISHEETSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSINDICATETHATCPTISHEETSCOULDBEFORMEDINTOSHALLOWCOMPONENTSATROOMTEMPERATURE,ALTHOUGHTHEFORMABILITYISLIMITEDINCOLDFORMINGINADDITION,THERESULTSOBTAINEDFROMTHEVBENDTESTSREVEALTHATSPRINGBACKCANBEREDUCEDATELEVATEDFORMINGTEMPERATURESTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSOBTAINEDINTHEPRESENTSTUDYCANBEOFHELPTOTHEDIEDESIGNOFSTAMPINGCPTISHEETS2005ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSPURETITANIUMSHEET;FORMABILITY;FORMINGLIMIT;VBEND;SPRINGBACK1INTRODUCTIONINTHEPRESENTSTUDY,THEFORMABILITYOFSTAMPINGCPTIMERCIALLYRIALFROMFOFAMONGINGOFICSPHONE,ATHCPATTEMPERATUREHO1–4T09240136/DOI101016/JJMATPROTEC200505004DUETOITSLIGHTWEIGHTANDHIGHSPECIFICSTRENGTH,COMPURETITANIUMCPTIHASBEENAPOTENTIALMATEFORSTRUCTURALCOMPONENTS,ANDATTRACTSMUCHATTENTIONTHEELECTRONICSINDUSTRYRECENTLYTHEPRINCIPALMANUACTURINGPROCESSOFCPTIHASBEENPRESSFORMINGBECAUSEITSCOMPETITIVEPRODUCTIVITYANDSUPERIORPERFORMANCETHEFABRICATIONPROCESSESOFPRESSFORMING,STAMPOFCPTISHEETSISESPECIALLYIMPORTANTFORTHEPRODUCTIONTHINWALLEDSTRUCTURALCOMPONENTSUSEDINTHEELECTRONPRODUCTS,SUCHASTHECOVERCASESOFNOTEBOOK,MOBILEETCTHECPTISHEETUSUALLYEXHIBITSLIMITEDDUCTILITYROOMTEMPERATUREBECAUSEOFITSHEXAGONALCLOSEPACKEDSTRUCTUREALTHOUGHTHEFORMABILITYCANBEIMPROVEDELEVATEDTEMPERATURES,AMANUFACTURINGPROCESSATROOMISALWAYSDESIREDFORTHECOSTEFFECTIVEREASONWEVER,MOSTRESEARCHOFCPTIISFOCUSEDONMICROSTRUCTURE,ANDTHELITERATUREREGARDINGFORMABILITYOFSTAMPINGCPISHEETSISNOTPROFOUND∗CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL886233662701;FAX88623631755EMAILADDRESSFKCHENCCMSNTUEDUTWFKCHENSHEETSMECHANICALRANGINGEACTERISTICSANDMENTS2TEMPERATURMATIONMENTIONEDROOMTEMPERATURESPROPERTIESTESTSROOMOFTEST–SEEFRONTMATTER2005ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDWASINVESTIGATEDUSINGTHEEXPERIMENTALAPPROACHTHEPROPERTIESOFCPTISHEETSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESFROMROOMTEMPERATURETO300◦CWEREOBTAINEDFROMXPERIMENTALRESULTSINADDITION,THEIMPORTANTFORMINGCHAROFCPTISHEETS,SUCHASFORMINGLIMIT,SPRINGBACK,LIMITINGDRAWINGRATIO,WEREALSOEXAMINEDBYEXPERIMECHANICALPROPERTIESTESTSATVARIOUSESTHESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSARETHEFUNDAMENTALINFORFORTHESTUDYOFFORMABILITYOFASHEETMETALASABOVE,THEFORMABILITYOFCPTISHEETSISLIMITEDATTEMPERATUREANDCANBEIMPROVEDATELEVATEDFORMINGINORDERTOEXAMINETHEVARIETYOFMECHANICALOFCPTISHEETSATDIFFERENTTEMPERATURES,TENSILEWEREPERFORMEDATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESRANGINGFROMTEMPERATURETO300◦CANDUNDERDIFFERENTSTRAINRATES01,001,0001,AND00001/S,RESPECTIVELYTHETENSILESPECIMENSMADEOFJISGRADE1CPTISHEETSOF05MM182PROCESSINGFIGIMENSTHICKNESSTHEROLLINGROLLINGALONGMACHINEWWEREWEREWWERECONΣANDNEERINGFORMENSTHEFIGLARTIONS,ISWDIRECTIONSBYOCCURSOFDEFORMATIONHIGHERINGATIONTRESPECTIOFATHEFROMTHREEFKCHEN,KHCHIU/JOURNALOFMATERIALS1TRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSATROOMTEMPERATUREOBTAINEDFROMSPECINTHETHREEDIRECTIONSWEREPREPAREDACCORDINGTOTHEASTMSTANDARDSSPECIMENSWERECUTALONGPLANESCOINCIDINGWITHTHEDIRECTION0◦,ANDATANGLESOF45◦AND90◦TOTHEDIRECTIONTHESPECIMENSWEREWIRECUTTOAVOIDBURRSTHEEDGETHETENSILETESTSWERECONDUCTEDUSINGANMTS810TESTFORTESTSATELEVATEDTEMPERATURES,AHEATINGFURNACEASMOUNTEDONTHEMTS810TESTMACHINETHESPECIMENSHEATEDTO100,200,AND300◦CBEFORETHETENSILETESTSPERFORMEDDURINGTESTS,THETEMPERATUREOFSPECIMENASKEPTCONSTANTUNTILTHESPECIMENWASSTRETCHEDTOFAILUREINTHEPRESENTSTUDY,THEENGINEERINGSTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSFIRSTOBTAINEDFROMTHEEXPERIMENTALDATAANDTHENWEREVERTEDINTOTHETRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSACCORDINGTOΣ01EANDΕLN1E,WHEREΣANDΕWERETRUESTRESSTRUESTRAIN,Σ0ANDEWEREENGINEERINGSTRESS,ANDENGISTRAIN,RESPECTIVELYTHETRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSCPTISHEETSATROOMTEMPERATUREOBTAINEDFROMSPECICUTINTHETHREEDIFFERENTORIENTATIONSARESHOWNINFIG1ANISOTROPICBEHAVIORISOBSERVEDINFIG1ITISSEENIN1THATTHE0◦SPECIMENHASAHIGHERYIELDSTRENGTHANDAGERELONGATIONTHANTHESPECIMENSINTHEOTHERTWODIRECTHEDIFFERENCEINELONGATIONBEINGMORESIGNIFICANTITALSOOBSERVEDTHATTHE0◦SPECIMENDISPLAYSASIGNIFICANTORKHARDENINGPROPERTYAMONGTHESPECIMENSINTHETHREETHESERESULTSARECONSISTENTWITHTHOSEOBTAINEDISHIYAMAETAL5THEYFOUNDTHATTHESLIPDEFORMATIONINBOTHTHE0◦AND90◦DIRECTIONSINTHEBEGINNINGSTAGETHETESTDURINGFURTHERDEFORMATIONSTAGE,THETWINNINGINCREASESFASTERINTHE0◦DIRECTIONANDPRODUCESRESISTANCEAGAINSTTHESLIPOFDISLOCATIONS,RESULTINGLARGERVALUESINYIELDSTRENGTH,WORKHARDENING,ANDELONTHEAVERAGEYIELDSTRESSANDELONGATIONOFTHECPISHEETATROOMTEMPERATUREAREABOUT352MPAAND28,VELYTHOUGHTHEVALUESOFYIELDSTRESSANDELONGATIONTHECPTISHEETATROOMTEMPERATUREARENOTFAVORABLEINDEEPDRAWINGPROCESSCOMPAREDTOTHOSEOFCARBONSTEELS,YAREFEASIBLEFORSTAMPINGOFRELATIVELYSHALLOWPRODUCTSTHEFORMABILITYPOINTOFVIEWFIG2SHOWSTHEORIGINALANDDEFORMEDSPECIMENSINTHEDIRECTIONSITISNOTICEDINFIG2THATTHE0◦SPECIMENUNDERSPECIMENMODEMATIONATDIFTIFORINNOTICEDTOINTHATOBTAINEDOUSFORRELATIONSFORMEDCPATURESTHETHATROOMELONGATION100FIGMENTECHNOLOGY1702005181–186FIG2ORIGINALANDDEFORMEDSPECIMENSINTHETHREEDIRECTIONSGOESUNIFORMDEFORMATIONBEFOREFRACTURE,WHILETHE90◦DISPLAYSANOBVIOUSNECKING,ANDTHEDEFORMATIONOF45◦SPECIMENLIESBETWEENTHOSEOFOTHERTWOMODESINORDERTOEXAMINETHEEFFECTOFSTRAINRATEONTHEDEFOROFCPTISHEETS,THETENSILETESTSWEREALSOPERFORMEDROOMTEMPERATUREUNDERDIFFERENTRAMSPEEDS,RESULTINGINFERENTSTRAINRATESOF01,001,0001,AND00001,RESPECVELYTHETRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSATVARIOUSSTRAINRATESTHE0◦SPECIMENARESHOWNINFIG3ASIGNIFICANTDROPTHESTRESS–STRAINCURVESFROMSTRAINRATE01TO0001ISINFIG3,ANDTHESTRESS–STRAINCURVESBECOMECLOSEEACHOTHERAFTERWARDSTHESAMETRENDSAREALSOOBSERVEDTHETENSILETESTSFORTHE45◦AND90◦SPECIMENSITINDICATESASTABLESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSFORCPTISHEETSCANBEUNDERTHESTRAINRATESSMALLERTHAN0001THETRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSOFCPTISHEETSATVARITEMPERATURESRANGINGFROMROOMTEMPERATURETO300◦CTHESPECIMENOF0◦DIRECTIONARESHOWNINFIG4THESHOWNINFIG4AREOBTAINEDFROMTHETESTSPERATSTRAINRATEOF0001ITISSEENINFIG4THATTHETISHEETEXHIBITSBETTERFORMABILITYATELEVATEDTEMPERTHESTRESS–STRAINCURVESGETLOWERPROPORTIONALLYTOINCREASEOFTESTINGTEMPERATUREITISTOBENOTEDINFIG4THEELONGATIONOFTHESPECIMENDOESNOTINCREASEFROMTEMPERATURETO100◦CASEXPECTED,ONTHECONTRARY,THEGETSSMALLERWHENTHESPECIMENISHEATEDUPTO◦CHOWEVER,THEELONGATIONBECOMESLARGERATTESTING3TRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSATVARIOUSSTRAINRATES1/SFOR0◦SPECIATROOMTEMPERATUREPROCESSINGFIGFIGTEMPERATURESROOMHAPPENSTHEATURETHE0NINGPRODUCINGANDRTRANSVUNIAXIALOBTAINEDFIG90FROMFKCHEN,KHCHIU/JOURNALOFMATERIALS4TRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESFOR0◦SPECIMEN5TRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESFOR45◦SPECIMENHIGHERTHAN100◦CTHEGREATERELONGATIONATTEMPERATUREISQUITEUNUSUALBUTTHISPHENOMENONONLYTOTHE0◦SPECIMENFORTHE45◦AND90◦SPECIMENS,ELONGATIONCONTINUOUSLYINCREASESASTHETESTINGTEMPERGETSELEVATED,ASSHOWNINFIGS5AND6,RESPECTIVELYGREATERELONGATIONATROOMTEMPERATUREOCCURREDINTHE◦SPECIMENMIGHTBEDUETOTHEFASTINCREASEOFTHETWINDEFORMATIONINTHE0◦DIRECTIONATROOMTEMPERATURE,HIGHERRESISTANCEAGAINSTTHESLIPOFDISLOCATIONS,RESULTINGINALARGERELONGATIONANOTHERINDEXOFANISOTROPYISTHEPLASTICSTRAINRATIO,IEVALUE,WHICHISDEFINEDASTHERATIOOFPLASTICSTRAININTHEERSEDIRECTIONTOTHATINTHETHICKNESSDIRECTIONINATENSILETESTINTHEPRESENTSTUDY,THERVALUEWASFROMTHETENSILETESTSFORSPECIMENSOF0◦,45◦,AND6TRUESTRESS–STRAINRELATIONSATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESFOR90◦SPECIMEN0VETHANSHEETSR3INGPRESENTANDTEMPERATURESRELATINGING31FORMINGACCEPTEDMETALPERFORMEDUSINGELECTROCHEMICALLYDEFORMEDINGELLIPSETHESTRAINSSAMEFROMSIMILARENTATIONSEACHATSPHERICALMEASUREDSPECIMENPLOTTEDNATE,THELIMITAFRACTUREBEITSTEMPERATUREFROMATTECHNOLOGY1702005181–186183◦DIRECTIONSATROOMTEMPERATURETHERVALUESMEASUREDSPECIMENSSTRETCHEDTO20ARE42,22,AND21FORTHE◦,45◦,AND90◦SPECIMENS,RESPECTIVELYSINCEAHIGHERRALUEINDICATESBETTERDRAWABILITY,ITSHOWSTHATCPTISHEETSXHIBITBETTERDEEPDRAWINGQUALITYINTHEROLLINGDIRECTIONTHEOTHERTWODIRECTIONSALSOTHEANISOTROPYOFCPTIWASCONFIRMEDAGAINFROMTHESIGNIFICANTDIFFERENCEOFVALUESSTAMPINGFORMABILITYOFCPTISHEETSINADDITIONTOTHEBASICMECHANICALPROPERTIES,THESTAMPFORMABILITYOFCPTISHEETSWASALSOEXAMINEDINTHESTUDY,THEFORMINGLIMITTESTSATROOMTEMPERATURE,THEVBENDTESTSANDCIRCULARCUPDRAWINGTESTSATVARIOUSWEREPERFORMEDTHETESTRESULTSWEREDISCUSSEDTOTHEFORMINGPROPERTIESOFCPTISHEETSINASTAMPPROCESSFORMINGLIMITTESTSSINCEKEELERANDBACKOFEN6INTRODUCEDTHECONCEPTOFLIMITDIAGRAMFLDIN1963,ITHASBEENAWIDELYCRITERIONFORTHEFRACTUREPREDICTIONINTHESHEETFORMINGTODETERMINEANFLD,STRETCHINGTESTSWEREFORSHEETMETALSPECIMENSOFDIFFERENTWIDTHSASEMISPHERICALPUNCHTHESPECIMENSWEREFIRSTETCHEDWITHCIRCULARGRIDSTHATWOULDBEINTOELLIPSESAFTERBEINGSTRETCHEDTHEENGINEERSTRAINSMEASUREDALONGTHEMAJORANDMINORAXESOFTHEARETERMEDTHEMAJORANDMINORSTRAIN,RESPECTIVELYYAREALSOTHEPRINCIPALSTRAINSONTHEPLANEWHERETHEAREMEASUREDINTHEPRESENTSTUDY,RECTANGULARSPECIMENSHAVINGTHELENGTHOF100MM,BUTWITHDIFFERENTWIDTHSRANGING10TO100MMINANINCREMENTOF10MM,WERETESTEDTOTENSILETESTS,THECPTISHEETWASCUTATTHREEORITOTHEROLLINGDIRECTION,IE,0◦,45◦,AND90◦,FORSIZEOFSPECIMENDURINGTHETESTS,SPECIMENSCLAMPEDPERIPHERYWERESTRETCHEDTOFAILUREOVERA78MMSEMIPUNCHTHEENGINEERINGMAJORANDMINORSTRAINSINTHELOCATIONCLOSESTTOTHEFRACTUREFOREACHWERERECORDEDTHEMAJORANDMINORSTRAINSWEREAGAINSTONEANOTHERWITHTHEMAJORSTRAINASTHEORDIANDTHECURVEFITTEDINTOTHESTRAINPOINTSWASDEFINEDASFORMINGLIMITCURVETHEDIAGRAMSHOWINGTHISFORMINGCURVEISCALLEDTHEFORMINGLIMITDIAGRAMTHEFLDISVERYUSEFULCRITERIONFORTHEPREDICTIONOFTHEOCCURRENCEOFINASTAMPINGPROCESSACCORDINGTOTHEPREVIOUSANALYSIS,THECPTISHEETCOULDFORMEDATROOMTEMPERATUREINORDERTOFURTHERCONFIRMFEASIBILITY,THEFORMINGLIMITTESTSWEREPERFORMEDATROOMFIG7SHOWSTHEFORMINGLIMITCURVEOBTAINEDTHETESTRESULTSITISSEENINFIG7THATTHEMAJORSTRAINTHELOWES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