会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:963.00KB   全文页数:37页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc

英文原文EvolutionofDecisionSupportSystemArchitecturesapplicationsforlandplanningandmanagementinCubaS.SegreraComputerScienceDepartment,NationalSugarCaneResearchInstituteCarreteraCAIMartínezPrietokm2,CiudaddeLaHabana,CubaR.PonceHernándezEnvironmentalandResourceStudiesProgram/DepartmentofGeography,TrentUniversityPeterborough,Ontario,CanadaandJ.ArciaComputerScienceDepartment,NationalSugarCaneResearchInstituteCarreteraCAIMartínezPrietokm2,CiudaddeLaHabana,CubaABSTRACTThemainobjectiveofthispapercentersonreviewingtheevolutionofDecisionSupportSystemsDSSarchitectures,particularlyastheyapplytonaturalresources.Todayitisdifficulttoconceivetheexistenceofaruralplanningautomatedsystemthatdoesntincludespatialanalysisfunctionalityandthatdoesnotconsidertheintegrateduseofdifferentanalyticalmodules.Thiswiderrangeoffunctionsallowforsolvingproblemsfromresourceandenvironmentalmanagement.GeographicalInformationSystemsGIS,automatedlandevaluation,multicriteriaparticipatoryanalysisindecisionmakingarebutthemostsalienttechnologiesinaDSS.DSShaveevolvedtheirarchitecture,modeofimplementation,aswellastheirfunctionalityandtheincorporationofnewcomputationaltechniqueshaveadvancedlately.IntheparticularcaseofCuba,thefirststepsinmaterializingthisevolutionhavebegun.Atpresent,theNationalSugarCaneResearchInstituteINICAleadsaresearchprojectorientedtowardsthedevelopmentandbuildingofadedicatedDSSforsugarcanecropping.ThisisconceivedasanintegratedSDSSSpatialDSStosupportdecisionmakingandmultipleproblemsolvinginsuchafundamentalproductiveactivitysuchassugarcaneagricultureinCuba.KeywordsDSS,decisionmaking,interoperability,SpatialDecisionSupportSystem.1.INTRODUCTIONThereisavarietyofdefinitionsontheconceptofDecisionSupportSystemsDSSinpublishedwork.TheDSSparadigmappearedattheendofthe70s.DSSweredevelopedforapplicationsindifferentfieldsofspecialization16.Someauthorslike17consideredaDSSasanycomputersystem,whichshouldsupporthumandecisionmaking.MostoftheexistentpublishedworkscoincideintheirunderstandingofDSSastoolstoaiddecisionmakingwithproblemsthatarenotwellstructured.Thistypeofanalysis,demandingarecursivemechanismforiterationsisthejustificationforusingsoftwareandhardwarethatsupportsthesearchandselectionofthemostappropriatealternativesforthesolutionofexistentproblems12,10and14.Ithasbeenpointedoutby30thatdecisionsupportsystemsshouldprovideintegrationandregenerationoftheinformation,supporttheexploratorynatureofthescientificdiscoveryprocessandallowthedevelopmentofalternativestoapplyinformationsystemtechnology,inordertoincreasetheeffectivenessofthoseresponsiblefordecisions,insituationswherethecomputercansupportandreinforcehumanjudgementinthefulfillmentoftasks,whichhaveelementsthatcannotbespecifiedbeforehand.Inthesesystemsdifferentmodulesarecombinedunderasoleinterface.Ithasbeenpointedout3,5,21,4,33and8thattheparadigmofintegrationinDSShasopenedupawiderangeofanalyticalpossibilitiesandpracticallylimitlessapplicationsareestablished,bytheuseofmodels,simulations,statisticalanalysis,imageprocessing,3Dandtemporaldimensionvisualization,togetherwiththepossibilityofcodingexpertreasoningdigitally.Also,softwarecustomizationispossiblespecificallyconfiguredtorequiredscalesandapplications,toachieveaflexibleinteroperationalenvironment.Allthosecapabilitiescontributetotheintegrationofapowerfuldecisionmakingtoolforagriculture,whereitsuseinnaturalresourcepreservationandenvironmentalmanagementwillhaveunquestionablyprofoundpracticalbenefits.ThetermsintelligentDSSorexpertDSShavebeenintroducedtomakereferencetotheuseofartificialintelligencetechniquestoextendthecapacitiesoftheDSSinthesolutionofproblems27y7.ThetrendintheevolutionoftheDSSparadigmleavesclearthatthefocusonrationalstaticanalysisisbeingleftinfavourofamoreiterative,complexandadaptativeparadigm25.WhenthespatialcomponentisaddedtoDSS,thenspatialinformationmanagementispossibleevolvingintoSpatialDecisionSupportSystemsSDSS.SixcharacteristicsofDSShavebeenidentified5and13.Thesecharacteristicsare1explicitdesigntosolvesemistructuredproblems2powerfuluserinterfaceandeasyuse3abilitytocombineanalyticalmodelswithdatainaflexibleway4abilitytoexplorethesolutionspacebuildingalternative5capacitytosupportvarietyofstylesindecisionmakingand6problemsolvinginaninteractiveandrecursiveway.Addedtothelistarethosecapacitiesandfunctions,whichdistinguishanSDSS1toprovidemechanismsforinputspatialdata2toallowtherepresentationoftherelationshipsandspatialstructures3toincludespatialandgeographicalanalysistechniques,and4toprovideoutputsindifferentspatialforms,includingmaps.As18outlined,thistypeofDSSmakesanimportantcontribution,notonlytoadvancingtechnologybutalsotoincorporatingthespatialdimensioninthedecisionmakingprocess,whichhasgreatsignificanceinareasrelatedtoconservationandmanagementofnaturalresources.2.RELATIONSHIPBETWEENGISANDSDSSSDSSandGeographicInformationSystemsGISarecloselyrelated.SpecialistsdonotevenconceivetheexistenceofaSDSSwithouttheinclusionofGISelementsorcomponents.Someauthorslike26carriedoutananalysiswhereGIS,DSSandSDSSwerecompared.TheyhaveconcludedthataGISisabletobeaneffectivetoolindecisionmakingprocessandthereforeitshouldbeintegratedwithsoftwareabletocarryoutmodelmanagement.Thishasbeenachievedwithsuccess.Storage,queries,andvisualizationofspatialdatawithGISispossible,inspiteofithavingthemathematicalmodelingofthesesystemslimitedtosimplearithmeticoperationsandspatialoverlays.ThisdeficiencyrequiresofexternalmodellingroutineuseanditcanbecorrectedwiththeconstructionofSDSS.Ontheotherhand,5exposedGISlimitationsandwhysometimesitisnecessarytouseSDSSforagroupofproblems1.ThecapacitiesofanalyticalmodelingfrequentlyarenotpartoftheGIS.2.Thegroupofvariablesorlayersinthedatabasecanbeinsufficientforcomplexmodels.3.Datahaveinsufficientscaleandresolution.Atthepresenttime,SDSSimplementationisnotconceivedwithoutconsideringGISintegrationinordertolinkitwiththegeospatialdataandwithagroupofanalyticalmodules,basedonmodelsofdiversetypesandorientations.Today,thereisanincreasinginterestinthedevelopmentofSDSS.Thesesystemsarecharacterizedbythespatialandgeometricrelationshipsofdatarepresentingobjectsandtheirpositioninthegeographicalspace.Toolsofspatialdecision,suchasGISandComputerAidDesignCADdonotincludetheanalyticalcapacitiesrepresentedbythemodulesmentionedabove,thereforetheyarenotabletoprovidecompleteanswerstosatisfytheneedsofmoderndecisionmaking.Theintegrationofalltheseautomatedtoolsinsideasingleworkingenvironmentandasingleusergraphicalinterfaceisdesirableifnotessential.However,manytechnicalproblemsshouldbesolved,andtheyarerelatedtodatamanagementanddatainteroperabilitybetweenmodules.Dataexchangeandtransfer,sharingofresultsandofparametersbetweenmodels,forasmoothdataflowandefficientinformationprocessing.Welldesignedandfunctionalinteroperabilitytasksareneededinordertosupportanefficientdecisionmakingprocess.Interoperabilityisthecapacitytoorganizeandtransferinformationamongmodelsandanalyticalmodulesandfunctionalcomponents,whichappearintegratedinasystem.InthecomponentsofaDSS,interoperabilityismeasuredbytheabilityofthesystemtoorchestratetheacquisition,transformationandpresentationoftheinformationduringthewholedecisionmakingprocess32.3.ARCHITECTURESOFASDSSASDSS,fromthestandpointofitsoperation,requiresessentiallyof4modulesormajoroperationsstosupportdecisionmaking.TheseareDatainpute.g.imagesanddata,DatabaseManagement,AnalysisandPresentation.FivekeymodulesforSDSSarchitecturehavebeensuggestedby1.Theseare1.ADatabaseManagementSystem.2.AnalyticalproceduresinaModelBaseManagementSystem.3.Ascreengenerator.4.Areportgenerator.5.Userinterface.ThecomponentsofaSDSSasdefinedby20are1.DatabaseManagementSystemDBMS,whichcontainsthefunctionsofmanipulationofthegeographicaldatabase.2.ModelBaseManagementSystemMBMS,whichcontainsthefunctionsformodeluseandmanagement.3.Dialoguegenerationandmanagementsystem,whichmanagestheinterfacebetweentheuserandtherestofthecomponentsofthesystem.Fortheprogrammer,thismodularstructurefacilitatesthedevelopmentofthesoftwareandfromtheusersperspectivetheSDSSappearsasseamlesslyintegrated.DifferentauthorshaveexaminedthehistoryandevolutionoftheDSS.Forinstance,28divideditin5stagesaccordingtotheevolutionoftheirarchitectures.ForthisanalysisthepatternSMPStructures,MechanismsandPoliciesparadigmwasused,23,beginningfromalgorithmsandsimpleprogramsandthefirstcomputersuntiltheemploymentofobjectorientation,sophisticatedcomputersandthearchitectureDSPDecisionSupportProcess–DecisionSupportSystemwithExecutableModelingLanguagesEMLFigure1.ThistypeofDSSmodelhaspresents3majoradvantages1.ItisindependentofthetypesofnecessarymodelsinthedecisionsupportsystemmakingtheDSPtobeportablethroughseveraldomainsofproblemsandtools.Figure1.DSParchitectureproposedby28.2.ItprovidesastableDSSarchitectureduetothefactthatnewtoolsandagentscanbeaddedwithouthavingtomodifythesuperiorlayersofthearchitecture.3.Itcreatesatoolintegrationenvironment.ADSParchitectureprovidesindependence,stabilityandintegration,threedesirableelementsthatmustbeincludedinageneraldesignofanAutomatedGeospatialDecisionSupportSystemforsugarcanePlanninginCubaAGDSSP.ThebasicarchitectureofaSDSSleaningontheelementsthat13exposedonthedefinitionofthesesystems,wasshownby15inFigure2.Someofthedesignproblemswereexposedby2.ThefirstDSSpresentedsuchproblemsandshowedhowtheadvancesininformationtechnologieshaveinfluencedthecreationofmoreflexibledesignsfasterandmoreresponsivesystems.Theexaminationsprovidedby22,6,and19,indicatestheimportanceoftheobjectorientationparadigm,achievingbenefitsinthedesignofSDSS,andmakingthemmoreinteractivesystemsFigure3.Figure2.SDSSArchitecturesuggestedby15.AnintegratedfocusforDSSinrelatedareaswithconservationandnaturalresourcemanagementwassuggestedby10Figure4.As25recognized,thisapproachcanonlybefeasibleforsophisticatedsoftwarekeepinginmindtheinclusionofaspectsandfunctionalityforparticipatorydecisionmaking.Specialistslike14addednewelements,whichallowtocorrectthedeficienciesofthepreviousoneastomeettheneedsofthedifferentusers,whichimpactonthedecisionmakingFigure5.Nevertheless,thisapproachdoesnotincludefeedbackmechanisms,whichaffectsnegativelyintheparticipatoryprocess.Ingeneral,DSSframeworksarebasedonsophisticatedcomputersoftwarebutwehaveconsideredthatitisveryimportantforthedevelopmentofAGDSSPtoincorporateascomponentsparticipatorydecisionmakingtoolsandmodelsandGIS.Thus,multiobjectiveoptimizationtoolsandmulticriteriagroupdecisionmakinghavebeenconsideredasimportantcomponentsinAGDSSPtoguaranteethesearchingforthebestsolutionsandfeedbackmechanisms.Figure3.ObjectorientedDSSarchitecturesuggestedby2.Figure4.Integratedschemaproposedby10.Asitwasmentionedbefore,SDSSneedGISelementsfortheirimplementation.CurrentdevelopmentsinGIStoolshaveportedthetechnologytotheinternet,inwhathascometobeknownasWebGIS,whichallowfordistributedGISfunctionalityinboth,Internetandintranets

注意事项

本文(外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc)为本站会员(英文资料库)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5