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外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc

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外文翻译--决策支持系统建筑学的演变-在古巴地理系统计划的编制和管理的申请.doc

英文原文EVOLUTIONOFDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMARCHITECTURESAPPLICATIONSFORLANDPLANNINGANDMANAGEMENTINCUBASSEGRERACOMPUTERSCIENCEDEPARTMENT,NATIONALSUGARCANERESEARCHINSTITUTECARRETERACAIMARTNEZPRIETOKM2,CIUDADDELAHABANA,CUBARPONCEHERNNDEZENVIRONMENTALANDRESOURCESTUDIESPROGRAM/DEPARTMENTOFGEOGRAPHY,TRENTUNIVERSITYPETERBOROUGH,ONTARIO,CANADAANDJARCIACOMPUTERSCIENCEDEPARTMENT,NATIONALSUGARCANERESEARCHINSTITUTECARRETERACAIMARTNEZPRIETOKM2,CIUDADDELAHABANA,CUBAABSTRACTTHEMAINOBJECTIVEOFTHISPAPERCENTERSONREVIEWINGTHEEVOLUTIONOFDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEM’SDSSARCHITECTURES,PARTICULARLYASTHEYAPPLYTONATURALRESOURCESTODAYITISDIFFICULTTOCONCEIVETHEEXISTENCEOFARURALPLANNINGAUTOMATEDSYSTEMTHATDOESNTINCLUDESPATIALANALYSISFUNCTIONALITYANDTHATDOESNOTCONSIDERTHEINTEGRATEDUSEOFDIFFERENTANALYTICALMODULESTHISWIDERRANGEOFFUNCTIONSALLOWFORSOLVINGPROBLEMSFROMRESOURCEANDENVIRONMENTALMANAGEMENTGEOGRAPHICALINFORMATIONSYSTEMSGIS,AUTOMATEDLANDEVALUATION,MULTICRITERIAPARTICIPATORYANALYSISINDECISIONMAKINGAREBUTTHEMOSTSALIENTTECHNOLOGIESINADSSDSSHAVEEVOLVED;THEIRARCHITECTURE,MODEOFIMPLEMENTATION,ASWELLASTHEIRFUNCTIONALITYANDTHEINCORPORATIONOFNEWCOMPUTATIONALTECHNIQUESHAVEADVANCEDLATELYINTHEPARTICULARCASEOFCUBA,THEFIRSTSTEPSINMATERIALIZINGTHISEVOLUTIONHAVEBEGUNATPRESENT,THENATIONALSUGARCANERESEARCHINSTITUTEINICALEADSARESEARCHPROJECTORIENTEDTOWARDSTHEDEVELOPMENTANDBUILDINGOFADEDICATEDDSSFORSUGARCANECROPPINGTHISISCONCEIVEDASANINTEGRATEDSDSSSPATIALDSSTOSUPPORTDECISIONMAKINGANDMULTIPLEPROBLEMSOLVINGINSUCHAFUNDAMENTALPRODUCTIVEACTIVITYSUCHASSUGARCANEAGRICULTUREINCUBAKEYWORDSDSS,DECISIONMAKING,INTEROPERABILITY,SPATIALDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEM1INTRODUCTIONTHEREISAVARIETYOFDEFINITIONSONTHECONCEPTOFDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMSDSSINPUBLISHEDWORKTHEDSSPARADIGMAPPEAREDATTHEENDOFTHE70SDSSWEREDEVELOPEDFORAPPLICATIONSINDIFFERENTFIELDSOFSPECIALIZATION16SOMEAUTHORSLIKE17CONSIDEREDADSSASANYCOMPUTERSYSTEM,WHICHSHOULDSUPPORTHUMANDECISIONMAKINGMOSTOFTHEEXISTENTPUBLISHEDWORKSCOINCIDEINTHEIRUNDERSTANDINGOFDSSASTOOLSTOAIDDECISIONMAKINGWITHPROBLEMSTHATARENOTWELLSTRUCTUREDTHISTYPEOFANALYSIS,DEMANDINGARECURSIVEMECHANISMFORITERATIONSISTHEJUSTIFICATIONFORUSINGSOFTWAREANDHARDWARETHATSUPPORTSTHESEARCHANDSELECTIONOFTHEMOSTAPPROPRIATEALTERNATIVESFORTHESOLUTIONOFEXISTENTPROBLEMS12,10AND14ITHASBEENPOINTEDOUTBY30THATDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMSSHOULDPROVIDEINTEGRATIONANDREGENERATIONOFTHEINFORMATION,SUPPORTTHEEXPLORATORYNATUREOFTHESCIENTIFICDISCOVERYPROCESSANDALLOWTHEDEVELOPMENTOFALTERNATIVESTOAPPLYINFORMATIONSYSTEMTECHNOLOGY,INORDERTOINCREASETHEEFFECTIVENESSOFTHOSERESPONSIBLEFORDECISIONS,INSITUATIONSWHERETHECOMPUTERCANSUPPORTANDREINFORCEHUMANJUDGEMENTINTHEFULFILLMENTOFTASKS,WHICHHAVEELEMENTSTHATCANNOTBESPECIFIEDBEFOREHANDINTHESESYSTEMSDIFFERENTMODULESARECOMBINEDUNDERASOLEINTERFACEITHASBEENPOINTEDOUT3,5,21,4,33AND8THATTHEPARADIGMOFINTEGRATIONINDSSHASOPENEDUPAWIDERANGEOFANALYTICALPOSSIBILITIESANDPRACTICALLYLIMITLESSAPPLICATIONSAREESTABLISHED,BYTHEUSEOFMODELS,SIMULATIONS,STATISTICALANALYSIS,IMAGEPROCESSING,3DANDTEMPORALDIMENSIONVISUALIZATION,TOGETHERWITHTHEPOSSIBILITYOFCODINGEXPERTREASONINGDIGITALLYALSO,SOFTWARECUSTOMIZATIONISPOSSIBLESPECIFICALLYCONFIGUREDTOREQUIREDSCALESANDAPPLICATIONS,TOACHIEVEAFLEXIBLEINTEROPERATIONALENVIRONMENTALLTHOSECAPABILITIESCONTRIBUTETOTHEINTEGRATIONOFAPOWERFULDECISIONMAKINGTOOLFORAGRICULTURE,WHEREITSUSEINNATURALRESOURCEPRESERVATIONANDENVIRONMENTALMANAGEMENTWILLHAVEUNQUESTIONABLYPROFOUNDPRACTICALBENEFITSTHETERMSINTELLIGENTDSSOREXPERTDSSHAVEBEENINTRODUCEDTOMAKEREFERENCETOTHEUSEOFARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCETECHNIQUESTOEXTENDTHECAPACITIESOFTHEDSSINTHESOLUTIONOFPROBLEMS27Y7THETRENDINTHEEVOLUTIONOFTHEDSSPARADIGMLEAVESCLEARTHATTHEFOCUSONRATIONALSTATICANALYSISISBEINGLEFTINFAVOUROFAMOREITERATIVE,COMPLEXANDADAPTATIVEPARADIGM25WHENTHESPATIALCOMPONENTISADDEDTODSS,THENSPATIALINFORMATIONMANAGEMENTISPOSSIBLEEVOLVINGINTOSPATIALDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMSSDSSSIXCHARACTERISTICSOFDSSHAVEBEENIDENTIFIED5AND13THESECHARACTERISTICSARE1EXPLICITDESIGNTOSOLVESEMISTRUCTUREDPROBLEMS;2POWERFULUSERINTERFACEANDEASYUSE;3ABILITYTOCOMBINEANALYTICALMODELSWITHDATAINAFLEXIBLEWAY;4ABILITYTOEXPLORETHESOLUTIONSPACEBUILDINGALTERNATIVE;5CAPACITYTOSUPPORTVARIETYOFSTYLESINDECISIONMAKING;AND6PROBLEMSOLVINGINANINTERACTIVEANDRECURSIVEWAYADDEDTOTHELISTARETHOSECAPACITIESANDFUNCTIONS,WHICHDISTINGUISHANSDSS1TOPROVIDEMECHANISMSFORINPUTSPATIALDATA;2TOALLOWTHEREPRESENTATIONOFTHERELATIONSHIPSANDSPATIALSTRUCTURES;3TOINCLUDESPATIALANDGEOGRAPHICALANALYSISTECHNIQUES,AND4TOPROVIDEOUTPUTSINDIFFERENTSPATIALFORMS,INCLUDINGMAPSAS18OUTLINED,THISTYPEOFDSSMAKESANIMPORTANTCONTRIBUTION,NOTONLYTOADVANCINGTECHNOLOGYBUTALSOTOINCORPORATINGTHESPATIALDIMENSIONINTHEDECISIONMAKINGPROCESS,WHICHHASGREATSIGNIFICANCEINAREASRELATEDTOCONSERVATIONANDMANAGEMENTOFNATURALRESOURCES2RELATIONSHIPBETWEENGISANDSDSSSDSSANDGEOGRAPHICINFORMATIONSYSTEMSGISARECLOSELYRELATEDSPECIALISTSDONOTEVENCONCEIVETHEEXISTENCEOFASDSSWITHOUTTHEINCLUSIONOFGISELEMENTSORCOMPONENTSSOMEAUTHORSLIKE26CARRIEDOUTANANALYSISWHEREGIS,DSSANDSDSSWERECOMPAREDTHEYHAVECONCLUDEDTHATAGISISABLETOBEANEFFECTIVETOOLINDECISIONMAKINGPROCESSANDTHEREFOREITSHOULDBEINTEGRATEDWITHSOFTWAREABLETOCARRYOUTMODELMANAGEMENTTHISHASBEENACHIEVEDWITHSUCCESSSTORAGE,QUERIES,ANDVISUALIZATIONOFSPATIALDATAWITHGISISPOSSIBLE,INSPITEOFITHAVINGTHEMATHEMATICALMODELINGOFTHESESYSTEMSLIMITEDTOSIMPLEARITHMETICOPERATIONSANDSPATIALOVERLAYSTHISDEFICIENCYREQUIRESOFEXTERNALMODELLINGROUTINEUSEANDITCANBECORRECTEDWITHTHECONSTRUCTIONOFSDSSONTHEOTHERHAND,5EXPOSEDGISLIMITATIONSANDWHYSOMETIMESITISNECESSARYTOUSESDSSFORAGROUPOFPROBLEMS1THECAPACITIESOFANALYTICALMODELINGFREQUENTLYARENOTPARTOFTHEGIS2THEGROUPOFVARIABLESORLAYERSINTHEDATABASECANBEINSUFFICIENTFORCOMPLEXMODELS3DATAHAVEINSUFFICIENTSCALEANDRESOLUTIONATTHEPRESENTTIME,SDSSIMPLEMENTATIONISNOTCONCEIVEDWITHOUTCONSIDERINGGISINTEGRATIONINORDERTOLINKITWITHTHEGEOSPATIALDATAANDWITHAGROUPOFANALYTICALMODULES,BASEDONMODELSOFDIVERSETYPESANDORIENTATIONSTODAY,THEREISANINCREASINGINTERESTINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSDSSTHESESYSTEMSARECHARACTERIZEDBYTHESPATIALANDGEOMETRICRELATIONSHIPSOFDATAREPRESENTINGOBJECTSANDTHEIRPOSITIONINTHEGEOGRAPHICALSPACETOOLSOFSPATIALDECISION,SUCHASGISANDCOMPUTERAIDDESIGNCADDONOTINCLUDETHEANALYTICALCAPACITIESREPRESENTEDBYTHEMODULESMENTIONEDABOVE,THEREFORETHEYARENOTABLETOPROVIDECOMPLETEANSWERSTOSATISFYTHENEEDSOFMODERNDECISIONMAKINGTHEINTEGRATIONOFALLTHESEAUTOMATEDTOOLSINSIDEASINGLEWORKINGENVIRONMENTANDASINGLEUSERGRAPHICALINTERFACEISDESIRABLEIFNOTESSENTIALHOWEVER,MANYTECHNICALPROBLEMSSHOULDBESOLVED,ANDTHEYARERELATEDTODATAMANAGEMENTANDDATAINTEROPERABILITYBETWEENMODULESDATAEXCHANGEANDTRANSFER,SHARINGOFRESULTSANDOFPARAMETERSBETWEENMODELS,FORASMOOTHDATAFLOWANDEFFICIENTINFORMATIONPROCESSINGWELLDESIGNEDANDFUNCTIONALINTEROPERABILITYTASKSARENEEDEDINORDERTOSUPPORTANEFFICIENTDECISIONMAKINGPROCESSINTEROPERABILITYISTHECAPACITYTOORGANIZEANDTRANSFERINFORMATIONAMONGMODELSANDANALYTICALMODULESANDFUNCTIONALCOMPONENTS,WHICHAPPEARINTEGRATEDINASYSTEMINTHECOMPONENTSOFADSS,INTEROPERABILITYISMEASUREDBYTHEABILITYOFTHESYSTEMTOORCHESTRATETHEACQUISITION,TRANSFORMATIONANDPRESENTATIONOFTHEINFORMATIONDURINGTHEWHOLEDECISIONMAKINGPROCESS323ARCHITECTURESOFASDSSASDSS,FROMTHESTANDPOINTOFITSOPERATION,REQUIRESESSENTIALLYOF4MODULESORMAJOROPERATIONSSTOSUPPORTDECISIONMAKINGTHESEAREDATAINPUTEGIMAGESANDDATA,DATABASEMANAGEMENT,ANALYSISANDPRESENTATIONFIVEKEYMODULESFORSDSSARCHITECTUREHAVEBEENSUGGESTEDBY1THESEARE1ADATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEM2ANALYTICALPROCEDURESINAMODELBASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEM3ASCREENGENERATOR4AREPORTGENERATOR5USERINTERFACETHECOMPONENTSOFASDSSASDEFINEDBY20ARE1DATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMDBMS,WHICHCONTAINSTHEFUNCTIONSOFMANIPULATIONOFTHEGEOGRAPHICALDATABASE2MODELBASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMMBMS,WHICHCONTAINSTHEFUNCTIONSFORMODELUSEANDMANAGEMENT3DIALOGUEGENERATIONANDMANAGEMENTSYSTEM,WHICHMANAGESTHEINTERFACEBETWEENTHEUSERANDTHERESTOFTHECOMPONENTSOFTHESYSTEMFORTHEPROGRAMMER,THISMODULARSTRUCTUREFACILITATESTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHESOFTWAREANDFROMTHEUSER’SPERSPECTIVETHESDSSAPPEARSASSEAMLESSLYINTEGRATEDDIFFERENTAUTHORSHAVEEXAMINEDTHEHISTORYANDEVOLUTIONOFTHEDSSFORINSTANCE,28DIVIDEDITIN5STAGESACCORDINGTOTHEEVOLUTIONOFTHEIRARCHITECTURESFORTHISANALYSISTHEPATTERNSMPSTRUCTURES,MECHANISMSANDPOLICIESPARADIGMWASUSED,23,BEGINNINGFROMALGORITHMSANDSIMPLEPROGRAMSANDTHEFIRSTCOMPUTERSUNTILTHEEMPLOYMENTOFOBJECTORIENTATION,SOPHISTICATEDCOMPUTERSANDTHEARCHITECTUREDSPDECISIONSUPPORTPROCESS–DECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMWITHEXECUTABLEMODELINGLANGUAGESEMLFIGURE1THISTYPEOFDSSMODELHASPRESENTS3MAJORADVANTAGES1ITISINDEPENDENTOFTHETYPESOFNECESSARYMODELSINTHEDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEM;MAKINGTHEDSPTOBEPORTABLETHROUGHSEVERALDOMAINSOFPROBLEMSANDTOOLSFIGURE1DSPARCHITECTUREPROPOSEDBY282ITPROVIDESASTABLEDSSARCHITECTUREDUETOTHEFACTTHATNEWTOOLSANDAGENTSCANBEADDEDWITHOUTHAVINGTOMODIFYTHESUPERIORLAYERSOFTHEARCHITECTURE3ITCREATESATOOLINTEGRATIONENVIRONMENTADSPARCHITECTUREPROVIDESINDEPENDENCE,STABILITYANDINTEGRATION,THREEDESIRABLEELEMENTSTHATMUSTBEINCLUDEDINAGENERALDESIGNOFANAUTOMATEDGEOSPATIALDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMFORSUGARCANEPLANNINGINCUBAAGDSSPTHEBASICARCHITECTUREOFASDSSLEANINGONTHEELEMENTSTHAT13EXPOSEDONTHEDEFINITIONOFTHESESYSTEMS,WASSHOWNBY15INFIGURE2SOMEOFTHEDESIGNPROBLEMSWEREEXPOSEDBY2THEFIRSTDSSPRESENTEDSUCHPROBLEMSANDSHOWEDHOWTHEADVANCESININFORMATIONTECHNOLOGIESHAVEINFLUENCEDTHECREATIONOFMOREFLEXIBLEDESIGNSFASTERANDMORERESPONSIVESYSTEMSTHEEXAMINATIONSPROVIDEDBY22,6,AND19,INDICATESTHEIMPORTANCEOFTHEOBJECTORIENTATIONPARADIGM,ACHIEVINGBENEFITSINTHEDESIGNOFSDSS,ANDMAKINGTHEMMOREINTERACTIVESYSTEMSFIGURE3FIGURE2SDSSARCHITECTURESUGGESTEDBY15ANINTEGRATEDFOCUSFORDSSINRELATEDAREASWITHCONSERVATIONANDNATURALRESOURCEMANAGEMENTWASSUGGESTEDBY10FIGURE4AS25RECOGNIZED,THISAPPROACHCANONLYBEFEASIBLEFORSOPHISTICATEDSOFTWAREKEEPINGINMINDTHEINCLUSIONOFASPECTSANDFUNCTIONALITYFORPARTICIPATORYDECISIONMAKINGSPECIALISTSLIKE14ADDEDNEWELEMENTS,WHICHALLOWTOCORRECTTHEDEFICIENCIESOFTHEPREVIOUSONEASTOMEETTHENEEDSOFTHEDIFFERENTUSERS,WHICHIMPACTONTHEDECISIONMAKINGFIGURE5NEVERTHELESS,THISAPPROACHDOESNOTINCLUDEFEEDBACKMECHANISMS,WHICHAFFECTSNEGATIVELYINTHEPARTICIPATORYPROCESSINGENERAL,DSSFRAMEWORKSAREBASEDONSOPHISTICATEDCOMPUTERSOFTWAREBUTWEHAVECONSIDEREDTHATITISVE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