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外文翻译--制造分析.doc

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外文翻译--制造分析.doc

论文翻译MANUFACTURINGANALYSISHOWMUCHFLEXIBILITYInadditiontoproductionsystemsthatfabricateveryhighqualityproducts,atlowcost,andwithultrarapiddelivery,manystrategicplannersandeconomistspointtotheneedforflexibility.PublicationsfromJapanYoshio,1994Ohsono,1995expressasimilarview,andthemorerecentJ.D.Powerscomparativesurveysonautomobilesindicatethatnowthatothersareclosingthequalitygap,theJapanesehavetocompeteinotherareasseeRechtin,1994andtheannualJ.D.Powersreportseries.Emphasisisthusplaceonthesecombinedfactorsofquality,cost,delivery,andflexibilityQCDF.Theabilitytoreacttosmallerlotsizesandthequestforultrarapiddeliveryaremajorconconcerns,culminatinginthepossbilityofathreedaycarIwataetal.,1990_.Inanidealsituation,oncethevariousmarketsectorshavebeenestablished,productionwillsettleintoagrooveandbeconstantlyrefinedandimprovedbutwithnomajorupheavals.Unfortunately,inrecentyears,manufacturershavenotbeenabletorelyonlongperiodsofuninterruptedproductionbecauseeventsintheworldeconomyhaveforcedrapidchangesinconsumerdemandandtherangeofconsumerpreferences.HenryFordsfavoriteaphorismthathiscutomerscouldhaveanycolorofcartheywantedaslongasitwasblackisinsharpcontrasttotodaysrangeofconsumerpreferences.Thishasledtotheproposalbysomeacademicsthatmanufacteringcanbebuiltforcustomizedmassproduction.Thissoundsniceonfirsthearing.Howerver,forproductslikeautomobiles,thedegreeofcustomizationcangoonlysofarforagivenbatchsizeandpricepoint.OnlyhyperwealthyCEOsandmoviestarscangetprecisecustomizationinproductslikeautomobiles.Nevertheless,anabilitytobepreparedforanysuddenmarketshiftsisbecomingmoreofanissue.Asnewequipmentispurchased,manufacturingcompaniesmustdecidebetweenharwarethatisdedicatetoonlyafewtasksandisthusrelativelyinexpensive,andmorecostlybutmoreversatileequipmentthatmightperformunforeseentasksinthefuture.Themethodologiesforanalyzingcapitalexpenditures,returnsoninvestmentROI,anddepreciationsaregiveninmanytextsseeParkin,1992.thesecanbeusedtoanalyzetheROIfornewmachinerythathasbeenidentifiedasusefulandisthereforeabouttobepurchased.However,sincetodaysmarkettrendsaresouncertain,suchanalysesdonothelptopredictthespecificsystemstoinstallinthefirtplace.ThehopeisthatsomeoftheengineeringsolutionswillprovidemuchmoreflexiblemachineryforonlyamodestincreaseincostGreeenfeldetal.,1989.Inthisway,theinvestmentdilemnamightbelesscritical.Theprecedingdiscussionsemphasizethatflexibilityisamainchallengeforthecontinuedgrowthofamewcompany.ThemainquestionisCanadesignandfabricationsystemthatisfirstsetuptorespondtoonemarketsectorbequicklyreconfiquredtorespondtotheneedsofanothermarketsector,orevenanotherproduct,andbejustasefficientToday,theanswertothisquestionisprobablynot.Forexample,ifamachineshopiswellequippedwithlathesbuthasnoverticalboringmachines,therewillbeanaturallimitonachievabletolerances.Itisunlikelythatitwillbeabletosuddenlyjumpfromtrucktransmissionstohelicopterteansmissions.Andeveninthereversescenario,ifashophasdedicateditselftoprecisionboring.itisunlikelythattheequipmentandthecraftspeoplewillbeabletobrquicklyredeployedinacosteffectivemannertoroutineproductionproceduresandlessdemandingtolerancestheircompetitiveadvantagewouldbelost.Thesesamecomparisonscanbemadeforsemiconductormanufacturing.Manufacturerswhoarecurrentlyfocusingonthehighvolumeproductionofmemorychipswillnotreadilyswitchtoapplicationspecificdevicesorveceversa.Thegeneralconclusionmaybedrawnthattodaysmanufacturingtoolsspecificallymanufacturingsystemsarestilltoodedicatedtospecificmachinetools,robots,andmanuvacturingsystemsarestilltoodedicatedyospecificmarketsectorsandarenotflexibleenough.Thisgeneralneedforflexibl,reconfigurablemanufacturingsystemswasofcourseakeyaspectofCIMiitsoriginalxonception.Merchant1980ledanumberofindustyforecastsbetween1969and1971thatrefinedthedetailsandneedsoftheCIMphilosophy.However,theseforecastsoverestimatedtherateatwhichflexiblemanufacturingsystemsangrelatedtechnologywouldbeasorbedintofactories.Duringthe1970sand1980s,machinesexchangedhandshakeswhentaskswerecompleted.Ifthesetaskswerecompletesproperlyandontim,thenaflexiblemanufacturingsystemFMScontinuedtooperatesatisfactorily.However,ifthemachineswentseriouslyoutofbounds,thenthecommunicaationsbrokedownandtoofrequenthumaninterventionwasneededtomaketheFMSefficient.Duringthisera,theexperiencesofseveralresearchanddevelopmentgroupsshowedthattheinadequacyofcellcommunicationsoftwarewasprobablythekeyimpedimenttotheindustrialacceptanceofCIMHarrington,1973Merchant,1980Bjorke,1979.Ofinterestwasthatbythelate1980s.thereviewarticlesonCIMwereadvocatingmuchsmallerFMSsofonlythreeorfourmaxhinesasthemostefficientwayofutilizingthecellconcept.Allthesetrenssuggestesmoresophisticatedcomputerandsensorbasedtechniquesatthefactoryfloor.asdescribedlater.2.6.1DesignforFlexibilityReuseDesignforflexibilityintheautomobileindustrycanpayoffinabigwayifthereissomereusabilityoffixturefamilies.Theautomatedassemblylineswheretheframes,doors,andchassisareasembledwithrobotsandweldedtogetherareobviouslyintenselyexpensive.Thesearesualltwo_storyhighlinesasbigasmanyfootballfieldswhererobots,fixtures,andalignmentcradlesbringthebodycomponentstogetherforweldingandassemblu.Theintensecostoftheselinesishardtopicturewithoutavisittoastandardautomobileplant.Thekeyissueistomaximizetheuseandreuseofthesefixuringlines.Ifdesigerswereallowedtotalfreedom,eachvehicleinthefamilumightrequirespecialtooling,Thiswouldnotallowcosteffectivemanufacturing.Asmintionedearlier.thisfactorplacesanimportantresponsibilityonthedesigner.Inanidealsituationthenewlydesignedcomponentwillbemadeonexisigfactoryfloormachinery,readilyleadingtoanoff_theshelfautomationsolution,Inthebestcase,existingfixturesandevensomepartsofexistingdieswillalsoreused.Somecompanies,thosewithsmallerbatchsizes,mightuseamixedproductionline.Asoneviewssuchaline,severalbodystylesgobyperhapsthemixisassimpleasregularsedansandstationwagons.butthemixcanoftenbestretchedbeyondthistodufferentcarsofmoreorlessthesamesize.Withgooddesignformultipleusability,manyofthehardfixturesandrobotscahbeusedgorallthedifferingvehiclesinthefamily.Also,withgoodcooperationbetweenmanufacturinganddesign,theexistingrobotsandfixturesmightevenbeabletoupwardlyconstrainthevehicledesignspacefoorfuturevehickes.Therefore,viewedacrossseveralyearsandmorethanonefamilyofvehickes,automationcostsarerelativelylowerperindevidualvehicle2.62ConcludingRemarksdesignAestheticsversusManufacturingJusttokeepaproperperspectiveatthecloseofthissubsection,itmustveemphasizedthatdesignformanufacturabilityorflxibilityhastobeprudentlyappiedwiththeperceivedenduserconstantlyinmind,TheJapanesearticlesconcernedwithTQMYoshio,1994Iwataetal.,1990see

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