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外文翻译--在干燥和潮湿的条件下研究高速切削的费用以及便于机械制造过程的优化.doc

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外文翻译--在干燥和潮湿的条件下研究高速切削的费用以及便于机械制造过程的优化.doc

附录1英文原文英文原文CHAPTERIIICOSTSTUDYOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGUNDERDRYANDWETCONDITIONSFORMACHININGPROCESSESOPTIMIZATION3.1IntroductionTheaimofthisstudyistooptimizethemachiningprocessesbyinvestigatingtherelationshipbetweenthehighspeedmachiningHSMandthetoollifeforthecuttingconditionsundertesting.Furthermore,studyingtheeffectofcuttingfluidontheselectedwearcriterion,andrelationshipbetweendifferentwearcriteriaandmachiningcostforthecuttinginsertsunderHSM.Thisinvestigationshowedthatwearrateisproportionaltocuttingspeedsupportedwithsimilarobservations12,18,19.Studyingthecorrelationbetweenhighwearratesathighcuttingspeedandmachiningcosts,providesbetterunderstandingontheperformanceofthispolicyandthebenefitofitsadoption.Currently,littleornodatahavebeenpublishedrelatingthelifecyclecosts,toolperformance,workpiecesurfaceroughnessandworkpiecedimensionalaccuracywhenusingsolidandindexablecutters10.However,studieshavefoundthattoolcostsinmetalcuttingmachinesareathirdofthecostofproducingparts.Thereforereducingproductcostisthefirstobjectiveofatoolmanagementsystem16.Thebenefitsofadoptingthisresearchguidelinewillhelpdeterminetheoptimalmachiningcostandtoolreplacementpolicybasedondifferentwearcriterionvalues.Additionallythisstudyprovidesinsightinprocesscontrolandhelpsthemanagersintheearlyprocessplanningstepstoassociatefactorssuchaspreventivemaintenance,levelsofinventory,andmachiningcost.3.2ExperimentalStudyThestudydevelopedaguidelineofchoosingtherightcuttingtool,cuttingspeed,andselectingtheappropriatewearcriteriaofthecuttingtoolinsertsfortheworkmaterialunderstudy.Inthisstudyvariablewearcriteriarangingfrom0.lmmto0.6mmtoollifelimitweretakenintoconsideration.ThisexperimentwasconductedinaccordancewiththeInternationalStandardOrganizationISO3685199346.ThetestwasdoneonaClausing1300variablespindlespeedmachinewithamaximumpowerof7.5HpseeFigure31.Thetoolwearmeasurementswereperformedusinganopticalmicroscopewithamagnificationofupto300times,andaScanningElectronMicroscopeSEM.TherotationalspeedoftheworkpiecewasmeasuredbeforeeverycutbyaHT5100handhelddigitalTachometertoinsurethattheworkpiecewasaccuratelyrunningattheexactcuttingspeed.Ontheotherhand,theworkpiecematerialwasreplacedwhenthelength/diameterratioreaches10,basedonISO3685199346,toensureworkpiecestabilityandsafety.Twoprecutwerecarriedoutwith1.2mmdepth,tocleanupthethinlayerofrust,andtoensureworkpiecestraightness.Figure31Thetuningmachineusedduringthetest.3.2.1WorkpieceandCuttingInsertsInthisstudy,hotrolledASTM4140steelwasselectedastheworkpiecematerial.TheworkpiecepropertiesarelistedasfollowsDescriptionHotrolledalloysteelbars,SAE4140HUNSH4140Dimensions15cmDiameterx62.25cmlengthHeatTreatmentVacuumdegassed/processed,CalAltreated,annealedandspecialstraightened,conformingtoASTMA322andA304ChemicalcompositionsThecompositionoftheworkpiecematerialislistedinTable3.1accordingtotheASTMstandards.TheexperimentwascarriedoutinaccordancewiththeinternationalstandardorganizationISO36859346,theexperimentwasstoppedandtheworkpiecewaschangedwhenthelength/diameterratioreached10tomeettherequirementsofISO368546.Thehardnessofeachbarwascheckedacrossthediameter,andtheaveragehardnessmeasurementwas29HRC.ThetypesoftestedcuttingtoolinsertsarelistedonTable3.1accordingtotheISOdesignation.ThreetypesofcuttinginsertswereusedintheexperimentasillustratedinTable32andthecoatingpropertiesarealsolistedinTable33.TheconfigurationoftheinvestigatedthreecuttinginsertswasthesameaslistedinTable3.4.ThegeneralcuttinginsertassembledgeometryisshowninFigure32.TheinsertsweremountedrigidlyonatoolholderaredepictedinFigure33withanISOdesignationofSVJBR2525M16.Table31ChemicalcompositionofASTM4140steelusedinthetestCuttinginsertsISODesignationSubstrateGradeCompanyUncoatedcementedCarbideVBMT160408.........KC313KennametalTiAlNVBMT160408KC313KC5010KennametalTiNTiCNTiNVBMT160408KC313KC732KennametalTable32TypesofthetestedcuttinginsertsCarbonManganesePhosphorusSulfurSiliconNickelChromium0.40.910.0170.020.240.101.01Tin0.008Aluminum0.030Vanadium0.002Calcium0.0064Molly0.2Copper0.12Table33CoatingspropertiesCoatingThicknessNumberoflayersTiALN3.5µ1TiNTiCNTiN3µ3t1t3TiCNintermediate3.2.2CoolantPropertiesItisacommonbeliefthatcoolantemulsionhelpsinreducingwearrateandcuttingtemperature.ThecoolantusedinthetestwaswaterbasedemulsionhascommercialnameNovick.Itismixedwithwaterataconcentrationof10.ThecoolantcompositionincludesthelistedchemicalsinTable3.5.Previousresearchersonthebettercoolantstreamdirectionsmadedifferentsuggestions.Taylor17indicatedthattoreducetoolwearthecuttingfluidistobedirectedatthebackofthechipdirectionA.PigottandColwell47foundthatbyusinghighstreamjetofcoolantaimedindirectionBitwasabletoreducetoolwear.SmartandTrent48investigatedthedirectionofcoolantinreducingthetoolwearandfoundthatthemosteffectivedirectionbetweenallothersuggestedoptionswasdirectionB.Therefore,coolantwasappliedindirectionBaslistedinFigure3.4fromanozzlewithdiameterof1.3cmandaflowrateof7.1liters/minute.However,thecurrentstudyshowedthatthisisnotnecessarilytrueinallcasesascoolantextendsthetoollife.ItwasfoundthatcoolantemulsionhelpedreducetoollifebyactivatingcertainwearmechanismathighspeedmachiningHSM.DetailedexplanationsofthistypeofcoolanteffectwillbediscussedinChapter5.Furthermore,abriefsummaryandexplanationoftypesandusageofcoolantwillbecoveredinChapter5.Table34AssembledcuttingtoolgeometryToolgeometryDimensionNoseradius0.8mmBakerakeangle0°Endreliefangle5Endcuttingedgeangle52°Sidecuttingedgeangle30Siderakeangle0Sidereliefangle5

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