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外文翻译--塑料注塑成型模塑的自动化装配组件 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--塑料注塑成型模塑的自动化装配组件 英文版.pdf

INTJADVMANUFTECHNOL200016739–7472000SPRINGERVERLAGLONDONLIMITEDAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYMODELLINGFORPLASTICINJECTIONMOULDSXGYE,JYHFUHANDKSLEEDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALANDPRODUCTIONENGINEERING,NATIONALUNIVERSITYOFSINGAPORE,SINGAPOREANINJECTIONMOULDISAMECHANICALASSEMBLYTHATCONSISTSOFPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTSANDPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTSTHISPAPERADDRESSESTHETWOKEYISSUESOFASSEMBLYMODELLINGFORINJECTIONMOULDS,NAMELY,REPRESENTINGANINJECTIONMOULDASSEMBLYINACOMPUTERANDDETERMININGTHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFAPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTINANASSEMBLYAFEATUREBASEDANDOBJECTORIENTEDREPRESENTATIONISPROPOSEDTOREPRESENTTHEHIERARCHICALASSEMBLYOFINJECTIONMOULDSTHISREPRESENTATIONREQUIRESANDPERMITSADESIGNERTOTHINKBEYONDTHEMERESHAPEOFAPARTANDSTATEEXPLICITLYWHATPORTIONSOFAPARTAREIMPORTANTANDWHYTHUS,ITPROVIDESANOPPORTUNITYFORDESIGNERSTODESIGNFORASSEMBLYDFAASIMPLIFIEDSYMBOLICGEOMETRICAPPROACHISALSOPRESENTEDTOINFERTHECONFIGURATIONSOFASSEMBLYOBJECTSINANASSEMBLYACCORDINGTOTHEMATINGCONDITIONSBASEDONTHEPROPOSEDREPRESENTATIONANDTHESIMPLIFIEDSYMBOLICGEOMETRICAPPROACH,AUTOMATICASSEMBLYMODELLINGISFURTHERDISCUSSEDKEYWORDSASSEMBLYMODELLING;FEATUREBASED;INJECTIONMOULDS;OBJECTORIENTED1INTRODUCTIONINJECTIONMOULDINGISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTPROCESSFORMANUFACTURINGPLASTICMOULDEDPRODUCTSTHENECESSARYEQUIPMENTCONSISTSOFTWOMAINELEMENTS,THEINJECTIONMOULDINGMACHINEANDTHEINJECTIONMOULDTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGMACHINESUSEDTODAYARESOCALLEDUNIVERSALMACHINES,ONTOWHICHVARIOUSMOULDSFORPLASTICPARTSWITHDIFFERENTGEOMETRIESCANBEMOUNTED,WITHINCERTAINDIMENSIONLIMITS,BUTTHEINJECTIONMOULDDESIGNHASTOCHANGEWITHPLASTICPRODUCTSFORDIFFERENTMOULDINGGEOMETRIES,DIFFERENTMOULDCONFIGURATIONSAREUSUALLYNECESSARYTHEPRIMARYTASKOFANINJECTIONMOULDISTOSHAPETHEMOLTENMATERIALINTOTHEFINALSHAPEOFTHEPLASTICPRODUCTTHISTASKISFULFILLEDBYTHECAVITYSYSTEMTHATCONSISTSOFCORE,CAVITY,INSERTS,ANDSLIDER/LIFTERHEADSTHEGEOMETRICALSHAPESCORRESPONDENCEANDOFFPRINTREQUESTSTODRJERRYYHFUH,DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALANDPRODUCTIONENGINEERING,NATIONALUNIVERSITYOFSINGAPORENUS,10KENTRIDGECRESCENT,SINGAPORE119260EMAILMPEFUHYHKNUSEDUSGANDSIZESOFACAVITYSYSTEMAREDETERMINEDDIRECTLYBYTHEPLASTICMOULDEDPRODUCT,SOALLCOMPONENTSOFACAVITYSYSTEMARECALLEDPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTSHEREINAFTER,PRODUCTREFERSTOAPLASTICMOULDEDPRODUCT,PARTREFERSTOTHECOMPONENTOFANINJECTIONMOULDBESIDESTHEPRIMARYTASKOFSHAPINGTHEPRODUCT,ANINJECTIONMOULDHASALSOTOFULFILANUMBEROFTASKSSUCHASTHEDISTRIBUTIONOFMELT,COOLINGTHEMOLTENMATERIAL,EJECTIONOFTHEMOULDEDPRODUCT,TRANSMITTINGMOTION,GUIDING,ANDALIGNINGTHEMOULDHALVESTHEFUNCTIONALPARTSTOFULFILTHESETASKSAREUSUALLYSIMILARINSTRUCTUREANDGEOMETRICALSHAPEFORDIFFERENTINJECTIONMOULDSTHEIRSTRUCTURESANDGEOMETRICALSHAPESAREINDEPENDENTOFTHEPLASTICMOULDEDPRODUCTS,BUTTHEIRSIZESCANBECHANGEDACCORDINGTOTHEPLASTICPRODUCTSTHEREFORE,ITCANBECONCLUDEDTHATANINJECTIONMOULDISACTUALLYAMECHANICALASSEMBLYTHATCONSISTSOFPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTSANDPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTSFIGURE1SHOWSTHEASSEMBLYSTRUCTUREOFANINJECTIONMOULDTHEDESIGNOFAPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTISBASEDONEXTRACTINGTHEGEOMETRYFROMTHEPLASTICPRODUCTINRECENTYEARS,CAD/CAMTECHNOLOGYHASBEENSUCCESSFULLYUSEDTOHELPMOULDDESIGNERSTODESIGNTHEPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTSTHEMOULDMOULDBASECOOLFILLLAYOUTPLUGSOCKETCAV_1CAV_2CAPLATEGUILDBUSHTCPPLATEBEPPLATECBPLATEEAPLATEEBPLATEGUIDPINIPPLATERETPINSLIDERBODYGUIDESTOPBLKHEELBLKHEADCORECAVITYPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTMOVEHALFFIXEDHALFFIG1ASSEMBLYSTRUCTUREOFANINJECTIONMOULD740XGYEETALAUTOMATICGENERATIONOFTHEGEOMETRICALSHAPEFORAPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTFROMTHEPLASTICPRODUCTHASALSOATTRACTEDALOTOFRESEARCHINTEREST1,2HOWEVER,LITTLEWORKHASBEENCARRIEDOUTONTHEASSEMBLYMODELLINGOFINJECTIONMOULDS,ALTHOUGHITISASIMPORTANTASTHEDESIGNOFPRODUCTDEPENDENTPARTSTHEMOULDINDUSTRYISFACINGTHEFOLLOWINGTWODIFFICULTIESWHENUSEACADSYSTEMTODESIGNPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTSANDTHEWHOLEASSEMBLYOFANINJECTIONMOULDFIRST,THEREAREUSUALLYAROUNDONEHUNDREDPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTSINAMOULDSET,ANDTHESEPARTSAREASSOCIATEDWITHEACHOTHERWITHDIFFERENTKINDSOFCONSTRAINTSITISTIMECONSUMINGFORTHEDESIGNERTOORIENTANDPOSITIONTHECOMPONENTSINANASSEMBLYSECONDLY,WHILEMOULDDESIGNERS,MOSTOFTHETIME,THINKONTHELEVELOFREALWORLDOBJECTS,SUCHASSCREWS,PLATES,ANDPINS,THECADSYSTEMUSESATOTALLYDIFFERENTLEVELOFGEOMETRICALOBJECTSASARESULT,HIGHLEVELOBJECTORIENTEDIDEASHAVETOBETRANSLATEDTOLOWLEVELCADENTITIESSUCHASLINES,SURFACES,ORSOLIDSTHEREFORE,ITISNECESSARYTODEVELOPANAUTOMATICASSEMBLYMODELLINGSYSTEMFORINJECTIONMOULDSTOSOLVETHESETWOPROBLEMSINTHISPAPER,WEADDRESSTHEFOLLOWINGTWOKEYISSUESFORAUTOMATICASSEMBLYMODELLINGREPRESENTINGAPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTANDAMOULDASSEMBLYINACOMPUTER;ANDDETERMININGTHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFACOMPONENTPARTINANASSEMBLYTHISPAPERGIVESABRIEFREVIEWOFRELATEDRESEARCHINASSEMBLYMODELLING,ANDPRESENTSANINTEGRATEDREPRESENTATIONFORTHEINJECTIONMOULDASSEMBLYASIMPLIFIEDGEOMETRICSYMBOLICMETHODISPROPOSEDTODETERMINETHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFAPARTINTHEMOULDASSEMBLYANEXAMPLEOFAUTOMATICASSEMBLYMODELLINGOFANINJECTIONMOULDISILLUSTRATED2RELATEDRESEARCHASSEMBLYMODELLINGHASBEENTHESUBJECTOFRESEARCHINDIVERSEFIELDS,SUCHAS,KINEMATICS,AI,ANDGEOMETRICMODELLINGLIBARDIETAL3COMPILEDARESEARCHREVIEWOFASSEMBLYMODELLINGTHEYREPORTEDTHATMANYRESEARCHERSHADUSEDGRAPHSTRUCTURESTOMODELASSEMBLYTOPOLOGYINTHISGRAPHSCHEME,THECOMPONENTSAREREPRESENTEDBYNODES,ANDTRANSFORMATIONMATRICESAREATTACHEDTOARCSHOWEVER,THETRANSFORMATIONMATRICESARENOTCOUPLEDTOGETHER,WHICHSERIOUSLYAFFECTSTHETRANSFORMATIONPROCEDURE,IEIFASUBASSEMBLYISMOVED,ALLITSCONSTITUENTPARTSDONOTMOVECORRESPONDINGLYLEEANDGOSSARD4DEVELOPEDASYSTEMTHATSUPPORTEDAHIERARCHICALASSEMBLYDATASTRUCTURECONTAININGMOREBASICINFORMATIONABOUTASSEMBLIESSUCHAS“MATINGFEATURE”BETWEENTHECOMPONENTSTHETRANSFORMATIONMATRICESAREDERIVEDAUTOMATICALLYFROMTHEASSOCIATIONSOFVIRTUALLINKS,BUTTHISHIERARCHICALTOPOLOGYMODELREPRESENTSONLY“PARTOF”RELATIONSEFFECTIVELYAUTOMATICALLYINFERRINGTHECONFIGURATIONOFCOMPONENTSINANASSEMBLYMEANSTHATDESIGNERSCANAVOIDSPECIFYINGTHETRANSFORMATIONMATRICESDIRECTLYMOREOVER,THEPOSITIONOFACOMPONENTWILLCHANGEWHENEVERTHESIZEANDPOSITIONOFITSREFERENCECOMPONENTAREMODIFIEDTHEREEXISTTHREETECHNIQUESTOINFERTHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFACOMPONENTINTHEASSEMBLYITERATIVENUMERICALTECHNIQUE,SYMBOLICALGEBRAICTECHNIQUE,ANDSYMBOLICGEOMETRICTECHNIQUELEEANDGOSSARD5PROPOSEDANITERATIVENUMERICALTECHNIQUETOCOMPUTETHELOCATIONANDORIENTATIONOFEACHCOMPONENTFROMTHESPATIALRELATIONSHIPSTHEIRMETHODCONSISTSOFTHREESTEPSGENERATIONOFTHECONSTRAINTEQUATIONS,REDUCINGTHENUMBEROFEQUATIONS,ANDSOLVINGTHEEQUATIONSTHEREARE16EQUATIONSFOR“AGAINST”CONDITION,18EQUATIONSFOR“FIT”CONDITION,6PROPERTYEQUATIONSFOREACHMATRIX,AND2ADDITIONALEQUATIONSFORAROTATIONALPARTUSUALLYTHENUMBEROFEQUATIONSEXCEEDSTHENUMBEROFVARIABLES,SOAMETHODMUSTBEDEVISEDTOREMOVETHEREDUNDANTEQUATIONSTHENEWTON–RAPHSONITERATIONALGORITHMISUSEDTOSOLVETHEEQUATIONSTHISTECHNIQUEHASTWODISADVANTAGESFIRST,THESOLUTIONISHEAVILYDEPENDENTONTHEINITIALSOLUTION;SECONDLY,THEITERATIVENUMERICALTECHNIQUECANNOTDISTINGUISHBETWEENDIFFERENTROOTSINTHESOLUTIONSPACETHEREFORE,ITISPOSSIBLE,INAPURELYSPATIALRELATIONSHIPPROBLEM,THATAMATHEMATICALLYVALID,BUTPHYSICALLYUNFEASIBLE,SOLUTIONCANBEOBTAINEDAMBLERANDPOPPLESTONE6SUGGESTEDAMETHODOFCOMPUTINGTHEREQUIREDROTATIONANDTRANSLATIONFOREACHCOMPONENTTOSATISFYTHESPATIALRELATIONSHIPSBETWEENTHECOMPONENTSINANASSEMBLYSIXVARIABLESTHREETRANSLATIONSANDTHREEROTATIONSFOREACHCOMPONENTARESOLVEDTOBECONSISTENTWITHTHESPATIALRELATIONSHIPSTHISMETHODREQUIRESAVASTAMOUNTOFPROGRAMMINGANDCOMPUTATIONTOREWRITERELATEDEQUATIONSINASOLVABLEFORMATALSO,ITDOESNOTGUARANTEEASOLUTIONEVERYTIME,ESPECIALLYWHENTHEEQUATIONCANNOTBEREWRITTENINSOLVABLEFORMSKRAMER7DEVELOPEDASYMBOLICGEOMETRICAPPROACHFORDETERMININGTHEPOSITIONSANDORIENTATIONSOFRIGIDBODIESTHATSATISFYASETOFGEOMETRICCONSTRAINTSREASONINGABOUTTHEGEOMETRICBODIESISPERFORMEDSYMBOLICALLYBYGENERATINGASEQUENCEOFACTIONSTOSATISFYEACHCONSTRAINTINCREMENTALLY,WHICHRESULTSINTHEREDUCTIONOFTHEOBJECT’SAVAILABLEDEGREESOFFREEDOMDOFTHEFUNDAMENTALREFERENCEENTITYUSEDBYKRAMERISCALLEDA“MARKER”,THATISAPOINTANDTWOORTHOGONALAXESSEVENCONSTRAINTSCOINCIDENT,INLINE,INPLANE,PARALLELFZ,OFFSETFZ,OFFSETFXANDHELICALBETWEENMARKERSAREDEFINEDFORAPROBLEMINVOLVINGASINGLEOBJECTANDCONSTRAINTSBETWEENMARKERSONTHATBODY,ANDMARKERSWHICHHAVEINVARIANTATTRIBUTES,ACTIONANALYSIS7ISUSEDTOOBTAINASOLUTIONACTIONANALYSISDECIDESTHEFINALCONFIGURATIONOFAGEOMETRICOBJECT,STEPBYSTEPATEACHSTEPINSOLVINGTHEOBJECTCONFIGURATION,DEGREESOFFREEDOMANALYSISDECIDESWHATACTIONWILLSATISFYONEOFTHEBODY’SASYETUNSATISFIEDCONSTRAINTS,GIVENTHEAVAILABLEDEGREESOFFREEDOMITTHENCALCULATESHOWTHATACTIONFURTHERREDUCESTHEBODY’SDEGREESOFFREEDOMATTHEENDOFEACHSTEP,ONEAPPROPRIATEACTIONISADDEDTOTHEMETAPHORICALASSEMBLYPLANACCORDINGTOSHAHANDROGERS8,KRAMER’SWORKREPRESENTSTHEMOSTSIGNIFICANTDEVELOPMENTFORASSEMBLYMODELLINGTHISSYMBOLICGEOMETRICAPPROACHCANLOCATEALLSOLUTIONSTOCONSTRAINTCONDITIONS,ANDISCOMPUTATIONALLYATTRACTIVECOMPAREDTOANITERATIVETECHNIQUE,BUTTOIMPLEMENTTHISMETHOD,ALARGEAMOUNTOFPROGRAMMINGISREQUIREDALTHOUGHMANYRESEARCHERSHAVEBEENACTIVELYINVOLVEDINASSEMBLYMODELLING,LITTLELITERATUREHASBEENREPORTEDONFEATUREBASEDASSEMBLYMODELLINGFORINJECTIONMOULDDESIGNKRUTHETAL9DEVELOPEDADESIGNSUPPORTSYSTEMFORANINJECTIONMOULDTHEIRSYSTEMSUPPORTEDTHEASSEMBLYDESIGNFORINJECTIONMOULDSTHROUGHHIGHLEVELFUNCTIONALMOULDOBJECTSCOMPONENTSANDFEATURESBECAUSETHEIRSYSTEMWASAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYMODELLING741BASEDONAUTOCAD,ITCOULDONLYACCOMMODATEWIREFRAMEANDSIMPLESOLIDMODELS3REPRESENTATIONOFINJECTIONMOULDASSEMBLIESTHETWOKEYISSUESOFAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYMODELLINGFORINJECTIONMOULDSARE,REPRESENTINGAMOULDASSEMBLYINCOMPUTERS,ANDDETERMININGTHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFAPRODUCTINDEPENDENTPARTINTHEASSEMBLYINTHISSECTION,WEPRESENTANOBJECTORIENTEDANDFEATUREBASEDREPRESENTATIONFORASSEMBLIESOFINJECTIONMOULDSTHEREPRESENTATIONOFASSEMBLIESINACOMPUTERINVOLVESSTRUCTURALANDSPATIALRELATIONSHIPSBETWEENINDIVIDUALPARTSSUCHAREPRESENTATIONMUSTSUPPORTTHECONSTRUCTIONOFANASSEMBLYFROMALLTHEGIVENPARTS,CHANGESINTHERELATIVEPOSITIONINGOFPARTS,ANDMANIPULATIONOFTHEASSEMBLYASAWHOLEMOREOVER,THEREPRESENTATIONSOFASSEMBLIESMUSTMEETTHEFOLLOWINGREQUIREMENTSFROMDESIGNERS1ITSHOULDBEPOSSIBLETOHAVEHIGHLEVELOBJECTSREADYTOUSEWHILEMOULDDESIGNERSTHINKONTHELEVELOFREALWORLDOBJECTS2THEREPRESENTATIONOFASSEMBLIESSHOULDENCAPSULA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