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外文翻译--太阳能发电.doc

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外文翻译--太阳能发电.doc

文献翻译英文原文SOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONALONGWITHECONOMICALDEVELOPMENT,SOCIETYSPROGRESS,THEPEOPLETOTHEENERGYPROPOSEDTHATMOREANDMOREHIGHREQUEST,SEEKSFORTHENEWENERGYTOBECOMETHEURGENTTOPICWHICHTHECURRENTHUMANITYFACESTHEEXISTINGENERGYMAINLYHAS3KINDS,NAMELYTHERMALPOWER,WATERANDELECTRICITYANDNUCLEARPOWERTHETHERMALPOWERNEEDSTOBURNFOSSILFUELSANDSOONBUNKERCOAL,PETROLEUMONTHEONEHANDTHEFOSSILFUELRESERVESLIMITED,THEFEVERARELESS,ISFACINGTHEDANGERWHICHDRIESUPITISESTIMATEDTHATTHEWORLDOILRESOURCEWILLHAVE30YEARSTHENTODRYUPAGAINONTHEOTHERHANDTHECOMBUSTIONFUELWILLDISCHARGECO2ANDTHESULFUROXIDECOMPOUND,WILLTHEREFORECAUSETHEGREENHOUSEEFFECTANDTHEACIDRAIN,WILLWORSENTHETERRESTRIALENVIRONMENTTHEWATERANDELECTRICITYMUSTSUBMERGETHEMASSIVELANDS,HASTHEPOSSIBILITYTOCAUSETHEECOLOGICALENVIRONMENTTODESTROY,MOREOVERLARGERESERVOIR,ONCECOLLAPSES,THECONSEQUENCEWILLBEINCONCEIVABLEMOREOVER,COUNTRYSHYDROELECTRICRESOURCESAREALSOLIMITED,MOREOVERMUSTRECEIVETHESEASONINFLUENCETHENUCLEARPOWERINTHENORMALCONDITIONNODOUBTISCLEAN,BUTHASTHENUCLEARLEAKAGEACCIDENTALLY,THECONSEQUENCEISSIMILARLYFEARFULTHEFORMERSOVIETUNIONCHERNOBYLNUCLEARPOWERSTATIONACCIDENT,HASCAUSED9,000,000PEOPLETORECEIVETHEVARYINGDEGREEHARM,MOREOVERTHISINFLUENCEHASNOTTERMINATEDTHESEFORCETHEPEOPLETOSEEKFORTHENEWENERGYTHENEWENERGYMUSTSIMULTANEOUSLYMEETTWOCONDITIONSFIRST,THEIMPLICATIONRICHWILLNOTDRYUP;SECOND,ISSAFE,ISCLEAN,WILLNOTTHREATENTHEHUMANITYANDTHEDESTRUCTIONENVIRONMENTATPRESENTFOUNDTHENEWENERGYMAINLYHADTWOKINDSFIRST,SOLARENERGY;SECOND,FUELCELLMOREOVER,THEWINDPOWERGENERATIONMAYALSOBETHEAUXILIARYNEWENERGYAND,THEMOSTIDEALNEWENERGYISGREATLYPOSITIVEENERGY1THESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONISTHEMOSTIDEALNEWENERGYSHINESISHUGEONEARTHSSOLARENERGY,ABOUT40MINUTESSHINEONEARTHSSOLARENERGY,THENSUFFICIENTLYSUPPLIESGLOBALHUMANITYONEYEARENERGYTHEEXPENSEITCANBESAIDTHATTHESOLARENERGYISTRUEINEXHAUSTIBLE,THEINEXHAUSTIBLEENERGYMOREOVERTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONISABSOLUTELYCLEAN,DOESNOTHAVETHEENVIRONMENTALDAMAGETHEREFORETHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONISHONOREDASISTHEIDEALENERGYOBTAINSTHEELECTRICPOWERFROMTHESOLARENERGY,MUSTCARRYONTHEELECTROOPTICALTRANSFORMATIONTHROUGHTHEGREATLYPOSITIVEBATTERYTOREALIZEITCOMPLETELYWASFORMERLYDIFFERENTWITHOTHERPOWERSOURCEELECTRICITYGENERATIONPRINCIPLE,HASTHEFOLLOWINGCHARACTERISTIC①NONDEPLETIONDANGER;②CLEANDOESNOTHAVEENVIRONMENTALDAMAGEABSOLUTELY;③ITISNOTDISTRIBUTEDTHERESOURCESTHEREGIONTHELIMIT;④BUTISUSINGELECTRICITYPLACENEARBYGENERATESELECTRICITY;⑤THEENERGYQUALITYISHIGH;⑥THEUSEREASYTOACCEPTFROMTHESENTIMENT;⑦THEGAINENERGYEXPENDITURESTIMEISSHORTTHEDEFICIENCYIS①THEILLUMINATIONENERGYDISTRIBUTIONDENSITYISSMALL,NAMELYMUSTTAKETHEHUGEAREA;②OBTAINSTHEENERGYWITHFOURSEASONS,THEDAYANDNIGHTSANDCLOUDYCLEARANDSOONMETEOROLOGICALCONDITIONSCONCERNSBUTGENERALLYSPEAKING,THEFLAWDOESNOTCOVERTHEFINEJADE,TAKESTHENEWENERGY,THESOLARENERGYHASTHEENORMOUSMERIT,THEREFORERECEIVESVARIOUSCOUNTRIESTHEVALUEMUSTENABLETHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONTOACHIEVETHEPRACTICALLEVELTRULY;FIRST,MUSTRAISETHESOLARENERGYELECTROOPTICCONVERSIONEFFICIENCYANDREDUCEITSCOST;SECOND,MUSTREALIZETHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONWITHPRESENTSELECTRICALNETWORKNETWORKINGATPRESENT,SOLARPANELSMAINLYHASTHEMONOCRYSTALLINESILICON,THEPOLYCRYSTALLINESILICON,THEAMORPHOUSSTATESILICONTHREEKINDSTHEMONOCRYSTALLINESILICONSOLARCELLCONVERSIONEFFICIENCYISHIGHEST,HASREACHEDABOVE20,BUTTHEPRICEISALSOTHEMOSTEXPENSIVETHEAMORPHOUSSTATESILICONSOLARCELLCONVERSIONEFFICIENCYISLOWEST,BUTTHEPRICEISTHECHEAPEST,FROMNOWONMOSTWILLBEHOPEFULUSESINGENERALLYGENERATINGELECTRICITYWILLBETHISKINDOFBATTERYONCEITSBIGAREAMODULEELECTROOPTICCONVERSIONEFFICIENCYACHIEVES10,EACHWATTGENERATINGSETPRICEFALLSTO12USDOLLARS,THENSUFFICIENTLYCOMPETEWITHPRESENTSELECTRICITYGENERATIONWAYITISESTIMATEDTHATATTHEENDOFTHISCENTURYITMAYACHIEVETHISLEVELCERTAINLY,INTHESPECIALUSEANDTHELABORATORYUSESTHESOLARCELLEFFICIENCYMUSTBEMUCHHIGHER,IFTHEUSBOEINGDEVELOPSBYTHEGALLIUMARSENICSEMICONDUCTORWITHTHEPOSITIVEELECTRICITYPLACEWHICHTOOTHESTIBIUMGALLIUMSEMICONDUCTOROVERLAPSBECOMES,THEELECTROOPTICCONVERSIONEFFICIENCYMAYREACH36,HASCAUGHTUPWITHTHECOALBURNINGELECTRICITYGENERATIONEFFICIENCYQUICKLYBUTBECAUSEITISTOOEXPENSIVE,ATPRESENTCANONLYBERESTRICTEDONTHESATELLITEUSES2SOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONAPPLICATIONALTHOUGHSOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONDAYANDNIGHTS,CLEARANDRAIN,SEASONINFLUENCE,BUTMAYCARRYONSCATTERED,THEREFOREITISSUITABLEFORVARIOUSEACHHOUSEHOLDMINUTETOCARRYONTHEELECTRICITYGENERATIONSEVERALLY,MOREOVERMUSTJOININTHEPOWERSUPPLYNETWORK,CAUSESEACHFAMILYWHENTHEELECTRICPOWERISWEALTHYMAYSOLDITTOTHEELECTRICITYCOMPANY,WHENTHEINSUFFICIENCYBEPOSSIBLEFROMTHEELECTRICITYCOMPANYTOBUYUPREALIZESTHISPOINT’STECHNOLOGYNOTTOBEDIFFICULTTOSOLVE,THEKEYLIESINMUSTHAVETHECORRESPONDINGLEGALSAFEGUARDNOWTHEUS,JAPANANDSOONDEVELOPEDCOUNTRYHASMADETHECORRESPONDINGLAW,GUARANTEEDTHATCARRIESONTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONTHEFAMILYBENEFIT,ENCOURAGESTHEFAMILYTOCARRYONTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONJAPANHASREALIZEDTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONSYSTEMTHESAMEELECTRICITYCOMPANYELECTRICALNETWORKSNETWORKINGINAPRIL,1992,HADSOMEFAMILIESTOSTARTTOINSTALLTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONEQUIPMENTTHEJAPANESEMINISTRYOFINTERNATIONALTRADEANDINDUSTRYSTARTEDFROM1994TAKEINDIVIDUALHOUSINGASANOBJECT,IMPLEMENTEDTOPURCHASESTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONEQUIPMENTSEXPENSETOSUBSIDIZE2/3SYSTEMSREQUESTSTHEFIRSTYEARHAD1000HOUSEHOLDSFAMILIES,WHEN2000TOHAVE70,000HOUSEHOLDSFAMILIESTOINSTALLTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONEQUIPMENTACCORDINGTOTHEJAPANESEDEPARTMENTCONCERNEDESTIMATESINTHEJAPANESE21,000,000HOUSEHOLDSINDIVIDUALHOUSING,IFHAS80TOINSTALLTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONEQUIPMENT,THENMAYSATISFY14WHICHTHENATIONALTOTALPOWERNEEDS,IFUNITSANDSOONFACTORYANDOFFICEBUILDINGALSOCARRYONTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONWITHTHEROOM,THENTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONWILLOCCUPYTHENATIONALELECTRICPOWER3040THECURRENTHINDRANCESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONPOPULARMOSTPRIMARYFACTORISTHEEXPENSEISEXPENSIVEINORDERTOSATISFYTHEGENERALFAMILYPOWERREQUIREMENT3KILOWATTGENERATINGSYSTEM,NEEDS6,000,000TO7,000,000JAPANESEYEN,HASNOTINCLUDEDTHEINSTALLMENTWAGESTHECONCERNEDEXPERTBELIEVEDTHATWHENMUSTFALLATLEASTTO1,000,000TO2,000,000JAPANESEYEN,THESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONONLYTHENCANPOPULARIZETRULYTHEKEYTOREDUCETHEEXPENSELIEINTHESOLARCELLTORAISETHECONVERSIONEFFICIENCYANDTOREDUCETHECOSTSOMETIMEAGO,THEUSTEXASINSTRUMENTSCOMPANYANDSCECORPORATIONANNOUNCEDTHATTHEYDEVELOPONEKINDOFNEWSOLARCELL,EACHUNITISTHEDIAMETERLESSTHAN1MILLIMETERBEAD,THEYDISTRIBUTEREGULARLYDENSELYANDNUMEROUSLYONTHESOFTALUMINUMFOIL,LOOKSLIKEMANYSILKWORMEGGSTOCLINGONTHEPAPERISTHESAMETHENDISTRIBUTESINABOUT50SQUARECENTIMETERSAREAHAS1,700SUCHUNITSTHISKINDOFNEWBATTERYSCHARACTERISTICIS,ALTHOUGHTHECONVERSIONEFFICIENCYHAS810,BUTTHEPRICEISCHEAPMOREOVERALUMINUMFOILBOTTOMBUSHSOFTSOLID,MAYLOOKLIKETHECLOTHTOFOLDEQUALLYATWILL,ANDDURABLE,HANGSINTOWARDTHESUNPLACETHENMAYGENERATEELECTRICITY,ISCONVENIENTITISSAIDTHATUSESTHISKINDOFNEWSOLARCELL,SOLONGASEACHWATTPOWERCAPACITYEQUIPMENT15TO2USDOLLARS,MOREOVEREACHROUNDOFONCEELECTRICITYSEXPENSEMIGHTALSOFALLTO14CENTSABOUT,DEFINITELYMAYCOMPETEWITHTHEORDINARYPOWERPLANTEACHFAMILYHANGSTHISKINDOFBATTERYONTHEROOF,THEWALLTOWARDTHESUN,EVERYYEARMAYOBTAIN1,0002,000DEGREESELECTRICPOWERS3SOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONPROSPECTTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONHASAMOREEXCITINGPLANFIRST,JAPANPROPOSESCREATESTHECENTURYPLANPREPARESTHEDESERTANDTHESEAAREACARRIESONTHEELECTRICITYGENERATIONUSINGTHEGROUND,ANDTHROUGHSUPERCONDUCTINGCABLEWHOLEWORLDSOLARPOWERSTATIONCONNECTIONUNIFICATIONELECTRICALNETWORKINORDERTOGLOBALACCORDINGTORECKONING,TO2000,IN2050,IN2100,EVENIFALLUSESTHESOLARELECTRICALENERGYGENERATIONSUPPLIESTHEWHOLEWORLDENERGY,THEOCCUPYINGLANDAREAISALSO651,100SQUAREKILOMETER,1,867,900SQUAREKILOMETER,8,291,900SQUAREKILOMETERS8,291,900SQUAREKILOMETERSONLYOCCUPYTHECOMPLETESEAAREA23ORTHECOMPLETEDESERTAREA514,EVENISTHESAHARAAREA915THEREFORETHISPLANHASTHEPOSSIBILITYTOREALIZEANOTHERONEISTHESPACEELECTRICITYGENERATIONPLANASEARLYASIN1980THENASAANDDEPARTMENTOFENERGYPROPOSEDTHATINTHESPATIALCONSTRUCTIONSOLARPOWERSTATIONTENTATIVEPLAN,PREPARESONTHESYNCHRONOUSORBITTOPUTONELONG10KILOMETERS,TOEXTEND5KILOMETERBIGPLATES,ABOVECOVERSENTIRELYTHESOLARCELL,LIKETHISTHENMAYPROVIDE5,000,000KILOWATTSELECTRICPOWERSBUTTHISNEEDSTOSOLVETOTHEGROUNDWIRELESSELECTRICTRANSMISSIONQUESTIONALREADYPROPOSEDWITHTHEMICROWAVEBEAM,THELASERBEAMANDSOONEACHKINDOFPLANATPRESENTALTHOUGHHASREALIZEDTHESHORTDISTANCE,THESHORTTIME,THELOWPOWERMICROWAVEWIRELESSELECTRICTRANSMISSIONWITHTHEMOCKUP,BUTTOTRUEPRACTICALALSOHASTHELONGDISTANCEALONGWITHOURCOUNTRYTECHNOLOGYSDEVELOPMENT,IN2006,CHINAHADTHREEENTERPRISESTOENTERGLOBALFIRSTTEN,SYMBOLIZESTHATCHINAWILLBECOMEONEOFGLOBALNEWENERGYSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYCENTRAL,INTHEWORLDTHESOLARENERGYLIGHTBENDSDOWNWIDESPREADAPPLICATION,WHATCAUSEDPRESENTTOBEDEFICIENTWASRAWMATERIAL

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