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外文翻译--太阳能发电的基础.doc

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外文翻译--太阳能发电的基础.doc

THEBASICSOFSOLARPOWERFORPRODUCINGELECTRICITYUSINGSOLARPOWERTOPRODUCEELECTRICITYISNOTTHESAMEASUSINGSOLARTOPRODUCEHEATSOLARTHERMALPRINCIPLESAREAPPLIEDTOPRODUCEHOTFLUIDSORAIRPHOTOVOLTAICPRINCIPLESAREUSEDTOPRODUCEELECTRICITYASOLARPANELISMADEOFTHENATURALELEMENT,SILICON,WHICHBECOMESCHARGEDELECTRICALLYWHENSUBJECTEDTOSUNLIGHTSOLARPANELSAREDIRECTEDATSOLARSOUTHINTHENORTHERNHEMISPHEREANDSOLARNORTHINTHESOUTHERNHEMISPHERETHESEARESLIGHTLYDIFFERENTTHANMAGNETICCOMPASSNORTHSOUTHDIRECTIONSATANANGLEDICTATEDBYTHEGEOGRAPHICLOCATIONANDLATITUDEOFWHERETHEYARETOBEINSTALLEDTYPICALLY,THEANGLEOFTHESOLARARRAYISSETWITHINARANGEOFBETWEENSITELATITUDEPLUS15DEGREESANDSITELATITUDEMINUS15DEGREES,DEPENDINGONWHETHERASLIGHTWINTERORSUMMERBIASISDESIRABLEINTHESYSTEMMANYSOLARARRAYSAREPLACEDATANANGLEEQUALTOTHESITELATITUDEWITHNOBIASFORSEASONALPERIODSTHEINTENSITYOFTHESUNSRADIATIONCHANGESWITHTHEHOUROFTHEDAY,TIMEOFTHEYEARANDWEATHERCONDITIONSTOBEABLETOMAKECALCULATIONSINPLANNINGASYSTEM,THETOTALAMOUNTOFSOLARRADIATIONENERGYISEXPRESSEDINHOURSOFFULLSUNLIGHTPERM,ORPEAKSUNHOURSTHISTERM,PEAKSUNHOURS,REPRESENTSTHEAVERAGEAMOUNTOFSUNAVAILABLEPERDAYTHROUGHOUTTHEYEARITISPRESUMEDTHATATPEAKSUN,1000W/MOFPOWERREACHESTHESURFACEOFTHEEARTHONEHOUROFFULLSUNPROVIDES1000WHPERM1KWH/MREPRESENTINGTHESOLARENERGYRECEIVEDINONEHOURONACLOUDLESSSUMMERDAYONAONESQUAREMETERSURFACEDIRECTEDTOWARDSTHESUNTOPUTTHISINSOMEOTHERPERSPECTIVE,THEUNITEDSTATESDEPARTMENTOFENERGYINDICATESTHEAMOUNTOFSOLARENERGYTHATHITSTHESURFACEOFTHEEARTHEVERY/HOURISGREATERTHANTHETOTALAMOUNTOFENERGYTHATTHEENTIREHUMANPOPULATIONREQUIRESINAYEARANOTHERPERSPECTIVEISTHATROUGHLY100SQUAREMILESOFSOLARPANELSPLACEDINTHESOUTHWESTERNUSCOULDPOWERTHECOUNTRYTHEDAILYAVERAGEOFPEAKSUNHOURS,BASEDONEITHERFULLYEARSTATISTICS,ORAVERAGEWORSTMONTHOFTHEYEARSTATISTICS,FOREXAMPLE,ISUSEDFORCALCULATIONPURPOSESINTHEDESIGNOFTHESYSTEMTOSEETHEAVERAGEPEAKSUNHOURSFORYOURAREAINTHEUNITEDSTATES,USSOLARINSOLATIONCHOOSETHEAREACLOSESTTOYOURLOCATIONFORAGOODINDICATIONOFYOURAVERAGEPEAKSUNHOURSFORAVIEWOFGLOBALSOLARISOLATIONVALUESPEAKSUNHOURSUSETHISLINKGLOBALPEAKSUNHOURMAPS,THEN,YOUCANUSEBACKORPREVIOUSONYOURBROWSERTORETURNRIGHTHEREIFYOUWANTTOSOITCANBECONCLUDEDTHATTHEPOWEROFASYSTEMVARIES,DEPENDINGONTHEINTENDEDGEOGRAPHICALLOCATIONFOLKSINTHENORTHEASTERNUSWILLNEEDMORESOLARPANELSINTHEIRSYSTEMTOPRODUCETHESAMEOVERALLPOWERASTHOSELIVINGINARIZONAWECANADVISEYOUONTHISIFYOUHAVEANYDOUBTSABOUTYOURAREATHEFOURPRIMARYCOMPONENTSFORPRODUCINGELECTRICITYUSINGSOLARPOWER,WHICHPROVIDESCOMMON120VOLTACPOWERFORDAILYUSEARESOLARPANELS,CHARGECONTROLLER,BATTERYANDINVERTERSOLARPANELSCHARGETHEBATTERY,ANDTHECHARGEREGULATORINSURESPROPERCHARGINGOFTHEBATTERYTHEBATTERYPROVIDESDCVOLTAGETOTHEINVERTER,ANDTHEINVERTERCONVERTSTHEDCVOLTAGETONORMALACVOLTAGEIF240VOLTSACISNEEDED,THENEITHERATRANSFORMERISADDEDORTWOIDENTICALINVERTERSARESERIESSTACKEDTOPRODUCETHE240VOLTSTHEOUTPUTOFASOLARPANELISUSUALLYSTATEDINWATTS,ANDTHEWATTAGEISDETERMINEDBYMULTIPLYINGTHERATEDVOLTAGEBYTHERATEDAMPERAGETHEFORMULAFORWATTAGEISVOLTSTIMESAMPSEQUALSWATTSSOFOREXAMPLE,A12VOLT60WATTSOLARPANELMEASURINGABOUT2044INCHESHASARATEDVOLTAGEOF171ANDARATED35AMPERAGEVAW171VOLTSTIMES35AMPSEQUALS60WATTSIFANAVERAGEOF6HOURSOFPEAKSUNPERDAYISAVAILABLEINANAREA,THENTHEABOVESOLARPANELCANPRODUCEANAVERAGE360WATTHOURSOFPOWERPERDAY;60WTIMES6HRS360WATTHOURSSINCETHEINTENSITYOFSUNLIGHTCONTACTINGTHESOLARPANELVARIESTHROUGHOUTTHEDAY,WEUSETHETERMPEAKSUNHOURSASAMETHODTOSMOOTHOUTTHEVARIATIONSINTOADAILYAVERAGEEARLYMORNINGANDLATEINTHEDAYSUNLIGHTPRODUCESLESSPOWERTHANTHEMIDDAYSUNNATURALLY,CLOUDYDAYSWILLPRODUCELESSPOWERTHANBRIGHTSUNNYDAYSASWELLWHENPLANNINGASYSTEMYOURGEOGRAPHICALAREAISRATEDINAVERAGEPEAKSUNHOURSPERDAYBASEDONYEARLYSUNDATAAVERAGEPEAKSUNHOURSFORVARIOUSGEOGRAPHICALAREASISLISTEDINTHEABOVESECTIONSOLARPANELSCANBEWIREDINSERIESORINPARALLELTOINCREASEVOLTAGEORAMPERAGERESPECTIVELY,ANDTHEYCANBEWIREDBOTHINSERIESANDINPARALLELTOINCREASEBOTHVOLTSANDAMPSSERIESWIRINGREFERSTOCONNECTINGTHEPOSITIVETERMINALOFONEPANELTOTHENEGATIVETERMINALOFANOTHERTHERESULTINGOUTERPOSITIVEANDNEGATIVETERMINALSWILLPRODUCEVOLTAGETHESUMOFTHETWOPANELS,BUTTHEAMPERAGESTAYSTHESAMEASONEPANELSOTWO12VOLT/35AMPPANELSWIREDINSERIESPRODUCES24VOLTSAT35AMPSFOUROFTHESEWIREDINSERIESWOULDPRODUCE48VOLTSAT35AMPSPARALLELWIRINGREFERSTOCONNECTINGPOSITIVETERMINALSTOPOSITIVETERMINALSANDNEGATIVETONEGATIVETHERESULTISTHATVOLTAGESTAYSTHESAME,BUTAMPERAGEBECOMESTHESUMOFTHENUMBEROFPANELSSOTWO12VOLT/35AMPPANELSWIREDINPARALLELWOULDPRODUCE12VOLTSAT7AMPSFOURPANELSWOULDPRODUCE12VOLTSAT14AMPSACHARGECONTROLLERMONITORSTHEBATTERYSSTATEOFCHARGETOINSURETHATWHENTHEBATTERYNEEDSCHARGECURRENTITGETSIT,ANDALSOINSURESTHEBATTERYISNTOVERCHARGEDCONNECTINGASOLARPANELTOABATTERYWITHOUTAREGULATORSERIOUSLYRISKSDAMAGINGTHEBATTERYANDPOTENTIALLYCAUSINGASAFETYCONCERNCHARGECONTROLLERSOROFTENCALLEDCHARGEREGULATORARERATEDBASEDONTHEAMOUNTOFAMPERAGETHEYCANPROCESSFROMASOLARARRAYIFACONTROLLERISRATEDAT20AMPSITMEANSTHATYOUCANCONNECTUPTO20AMPSOFSOLARPANELOUTPUTCURRENTTOTHISONECONTROLLERTHEMOSTADVANCEDCHARGECONTROLLERSUTILIZEACHARGINGPRINCIPALREFERREDTOASPULSEWIDTHMODULATIONPWMWHICHINSURESTHEMOSTEFFICIENTBATTERYCHARGINGANDEXTENDSTHELIFEOFTHEBATTERYEVENMOREADVANCEDCONTROLLERSALSOINCLUDEMAXIMUMPOWERPOINTTRACKINGMPPTWHICHMAXIMIZESTHEAMOUNTOFCURRENTGOINGINTOTHEBATTERYFROMTHESOLARARRAYBYLOWERINGTHEPANELSOUTPUTVOLTAGE,WHICHINCREASESTHECHARGINGAMPSTOTHEBATTERYBECAUSEIFAPANELCANPRODUCE60WATTSWITH172VOLTSAND35AMPS,THENIFTHEVOLTAGEISLOWEREDTOSAY14VOLTSTHENTHEAMPERAGEINCREASESTO42814V428AMPS60WATTSRESULTINGINA19INCREASEINCHARGINGAMPSFORTHISEXAMPLEMANYCHARGECONTROLLERSALSOOFFERLOWVOLTAGEDISCONNECTLVDANDBATTERYTEMPERATURECOMPENSATIONBTCASANOPTIONALFEATURETHELVDFEATUREPERMITSCONNECTINGLOADSTOTHELVDTERMINALSWHICHARETHENVOLTAGESENSITIVEIFTHEBATTERYVOLTAGEDROPSTOOFARTHELOADSAREDISCONNECTEDPREVENTINGPOTENTIALDAMAGETOBOTHTHEBATTERYANDTHELOADSBTCADJUSTSTHECHARGERATEBASEDONTHETEMPERATUREOFTHEBATTERYSINCEBATTERIESARESENSITIVETOTEMPERATUREVARIATIONSABOVEANDBELOWABOUT75FDEGREESTHEDEEPCYCLEBATTERIESUSEDAREDESIGNEDTOBEDISCHARGEDANDTHENRECHARGEDHUNDREDSORTHOUSANDSOFTIMESTHESEBATTERIESARERATEDINAMPHOURSAHUSUALLYAT20HOURSAND100HOURSSIMPLYSTATED,AMPHOURSREFERSTOTHEAMOUNTOFCURRENTINAMPSWHICHCANBESUPPLIEDBYTHEBATTERYOVERTHEPERIODOFHOURSFOREXAMPLE,A350AHBATTERYCOULDSUPPLY175CONTINUOUSAMPSOVER20HOURSOR35CONTINUOUSAMPSFOR10HOURSTOQUICKLYEXPRESSTHETOTALWATTSPOTENTIALLYAVAILABLEINA6VOLT360AHBATTERY;360AHTIMESTHENOMINAL6VOLTSEQUALS2160WATTSOR216KWHKILOWATTHOURSLIKESOLARPANELS,BATTERIESAREWIREDINSERIESAND/ORPARALLELTOINCREASEVOLTAGETOTHEDESIREDLEVELANDINCREASEAMPHOURSTHEBATTERYSHOULDHAVESUFFICIENTAMPHOURCAPACITYTOSUPPLYNEEDEDPOWERDURINGTHELONGESTEXPECTEDPERIODNOSUNOREXTREMELYCLOUDYCONDITIONSALEADACIDBATTERYSHOULDBESIZEDATLEAST20LARGERTHANTHISAMOUNTIFTHEREISASOURCEOFBACKUPPOWER,SUCHASASTANDBYGENERATORALONGWITHABATTERYCHARGER,THEBATTERYBANKDOESNOTHAVETOBESIZEDFORWORSTCASEWEATHERCONDITIONSTHESIZEOFTHEBATTERYBANKREQUIREDWILLDEPENDONTHESTORAGECAPACITYREQUIRED,THEMAXIMUMDISCHARGERATE,THEMAXIMUMCHARGERATE,ANDTHEMINIMUMTEMPERATUREATWHICHTHEBATTERIESWILLBEUSEDDURINGPLANNING,ALLOFTHESEFACTORSARELOOKEDAT,ANDTHEONEREQUIRINGTHELARGESTCAPACITYWILLDICTATETHEBATTERYSIZEONEOFTHEBIGGESTMISTAKESMADEBYTHOSEJUSTSTARTINGOUTDOESNOTUNDERSTANDTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENAMPSANDAMPHOURREQUIREMENTSOF120VOLTACITEMSVERSUSTHEEFFECTSONTHEIRDCLOWVOLTAGEBATTERIESFOREXAMPLE,SAYYOUHAVEA24VOLTNOMINALSYSTEMANDANINVERTERPOWERINGALOADOF3AMPS,120VAC,WHICHHASADUTYCYCLEOF4HOURSPERDAYYOUWOULDHAVEA12AMPHOURLOAD3A4HRS12AHHOWEVER,INORDERTODETERMINETHETRUEDRAINONYOURBATTERIESYOUHAVETODIVIDEYOURNOMINALBATTERYVOLTAGE24VINTOTHEVOLTAGEOFTHELOAD120V,WHICHIS5,ANDTHENMULTIPLYTHISTIMESYOUR120VACAMPHOURS512AHSOINTHISCASETHECALCULATIONWOULDBE60AMPHOURSDRAINEDFROMYOURBATTERIESNOTTHE12AHANOTHERSIMPLEWAYISTOTAKETHETOTALWATTHOURSOFYOUR120VACDEVICEANDDIVIDEBYNOMINALSYSTEMVOLTAGEUSINGTHEABOVEEXAMPLE;3AMPS120VOLTS4HOURS1440WATTHOURSDIVIDEDBY24DCVOLTS60AMPHOURSLEADACIDBATTERIESARETHEMOSTCOMMONINPVSYSTEMSBECAUSETHEIRINITIALCOSTISLOWERANDBECAUSETHEYAREREADILYAVAILABLENEARLYEVERYWHEREINTHEWORLDTHEREAREMANYDIFFERENTSIZESANDDESIGNSOFLEADACIDBATTERIES,BUTTHEMOSTIMPORTANTDESIGNATIONISTHATTHEYAREDEEPCYCLEBATTERIESLEADACIDBATTERIESAREAVAILABLEINBOTHWETCELLREQUIRESMAINTENANCEANDSEALEDNOMAINTENANCEVERSIONSAGMANDGELCELLDEEPCYCLEBATTERIESAREALSOPOPULARBECAUSETHEYAREMAINTENANCEFREEANDTHEYLASTALOTLONGER

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