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外文翻译--存储器的工作原理.DOC

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外文翻译--存储器的工作原理.DOC

1THEWORKPRINCIPLEOFTHEMEMORY1THESTRUCTUREOFTHEMEMORYTHEMEMORYISUSEDTODEPOSITTHEDATAITISTOMAKEUSEOFHIGHANDLOWEVENELECTRICITYTODEPOSITTHEDATA,ANDTHATISTOSAY,ITSDEPOSITINGDATAISANELECTRICITYEVENANDHIGHANDLOW,NOTTHE1234SUCHASARITHMETICFIGURE,THEN,OURRIDDLEUNDONESOCOMPUTERISNOTMYSTERIOUSTOOAMEMORYLOOKSLIKESOMESMALLDRAWERS,THEREAREEIGHTSMALLBLANKSINASMALLDRAWER,EVERYSMALLBLANKISUSEDTODEPOSITTHEELECTRICCHARGE,THEELECTRICCHARGESPREADSTOCOMEINORRELEASEPASSINGTHEELECTRICWIRETHATCONNECTWITHEACHOTHER,ASTOTHEELECTRICCHARGEHOWTOPLACEINTHESMALLBLANK,WENEEDNOTWORRIEDYOUCANTHINKTHEELECTRICWIREASWATERPIPETHEELECTRICCHARGEINTHEBLANKISWATERTHATISEASYTOCOMPREHENDTHESMALLDRAWERINSAVINGEACHONEINTHEMACHINEISAPLACETHATPUTSTHEDATA,WECALLITASAUNITWECANSTARTDEPOSITINGTHEDATAIFYOUWANTTOPUTINTOAFIGURE12,THATIS00001100,WEASLONGASSAVENO2ANDNO3SMALLBLANKINFULLELECTRICCHARGE,BUTOTHERSMALLELECTRICCHARGEINTHEBLANKTORELEASEBUTTHEPROBLEMCOMESOUT,MEMORYCONTAINALOTOFUNITS,THELINEISTOPARALLELWHENYOUPUTTHEELECTRICINTOABLANK,YOUWILLPUTTHEELECTRICCHARGEINTOALLUNITS,ANDWHENYOURELEASETHEELECTRICCHARGE,YOUWILLPUTALLELECTRICCHARGEINEVERYUNITSOHOWMANYUNITSTHEMEMORYHAVE,YOUCANPUTTHESAMEPIECE,THISOFCOURSEISNOTWHATWEHOPE,THEREFORE,WENEEDMAKESOMEVARIETIESONTHECONSTRUCTIONSLIGHTLYEVERYUNITHASACONTROLLINE,IWANTTOPUTTHEDATAINTOWHICHUNIT,THECONTROLLINETHATGIVEASIGNALINTHISUNITTHISCONTROLLINEOPENTHESWITCH,LIKETHIS,ELECTRICCHARGECANTHENFLUXFREE,ANDTHEOTHERUNITCONTROLLINESHAVENOTHESIGNAL,SOTHESWITCHDONOTOPEN,CANTSUFFERFROMTHEINFLUENCE,LIKETHIS,THECONTROLLINETHATONLYCONTROLTHEDIFFERENTUNIT,CANWRITEINTOEACHUNITTHEDIFFERENTDATATHESAMEAS,IFWANTTOTAKETHEDATAINACERTAINUNIT,ANDALSOASLONGASOPENTHEHOMOGENEOUSCONTROLTHESWITCHLINE2THEMEMORYTRANSLATESTHECODEHOWWECOMETOCONTROLTHEEVERYUNITCONTROLLINGLINEACONTROLFORRETURNINGREMARKABLY,EACHUNITDOLLARLINELEADSTHEOUTSIDEOFTHEINTEGRATEDCIRCUITNOTLINEAFFAIRCANDONTBESOSIMPLE,ONE27512HAVE65536UNITSINMEMORY,HAVEEACHLINETHEDERIVATIONTO,THISINTEGRATEDCIRCUITMUSTMORETHAN60,000FEETNOTLINE,HOWDO2WANTINGTHEVIEWPOINTREDUCESTHELINEARQUANTITYWEHAVEAKINDOFMETHODTOCALLTHISASTOTRANSLATETHECODE,THESIMPLEINTRODUCTIONISONCECANALINEREPRESENT2KINDSOFAPPEARANCES,CAN2LINESREPRESENT4KINDSOFAPPEARANCES,CAN3LINESREPRESENTHOWMANYKINDS,256KINDSOFAPPEARANCESNEEDAGAINHOWMANYLINESREPRESENT8KINDS8LINESSOWENEED16LINESTOREPRESENT65536KINDSOFAPPEARANCES3THEMEMORY’SENABLECHIPANDTHECONCEPTOFTHEBUSTOTHIS,TRANSLATETHEPROBLEMOFTHECODERESOLVED,LETUSCOMEAGAINTOPAYATTENTIONTOANOTHERPROBLEMSENDINGINTOEIGHTLINESOFEACHUNITISTOUSEFROMWHEREOFITISFROMTHECALCULATIONONBOARDTOCONNECTTOCOMEOVER,GENERALLY,THESEEIGHTLINESBESIDESCONNECTINGTHEMEMORY,STILLCONNECTOTHERMACHINEPIECE,LIKETHISPROBLEMCOMEOUT,THESEEIGHTLINESISNOTAMEMORYANDACOMPUTERAPPROPRIATLY,IFALWAYSACERTAINUNITCONNECTINGHEREEIGHTONLINE,NOTWELL,FOREXAMPLETHISSAVINGMACHINENUMBERINTHEUNITISFIRST0FFH,ANOTHERSAVINGMACHINEIS00H,SOTHISLINEAFTERALLISTOBEPLACEDINTHEHIGHELECTRICITYEVEN,STILLLOWELECTRICITYEVENWHOWILLBEHARMFULSOWEWANTTOLETTHEMSEPARATETHEWAYISEASYCERTAINLY,THELINETHATBETHEOUTSIDERECEIVESTHEINTEGRATEDCIRCUITLEADSTHEFEETAFTERCOMINGIN,DONTRECEIVEDIRECTLYEACHUNITGOTO,ADDINGONEMORESETOFSWITCHINTHECENTERLINEUSUALLYWESTEPASIDETHEPASSOPENS,IFFACESREALLYTHISISSAVINGTOWRITEINTHEDATAINTHEMACHINE,ORWANTTOREADADATAFROMTHEMEMORY,THENSTEPASIDETHEPASSCONNECTTHELINETHISSWITCHFROMTHREEFUSESCHOICEREADINGTHECONTROLCARRY,WRITESTHECONTROLCARRIESTOCHOOSETOCARRYWITHTHESLICEWANTTOWRITEINTHEDATAINTOASLICEOFINSIDE,PICKOUTFIRSTTHATCHIP,THENSENDOUTTOWRITEALETTERTHENUMBER,SWITCHMATCHTHETOP,COMBININGWILLSPREADTOCOMEOVEROFTHEDATAELECTRICCHARGEWRITESINANINSIDEIFREAD,PICKOUTFIRSTTHATSLICEOF,THENSENDOUTTOREADTHELETTERTHENUMBER,THESWITCHMATCHESTHETOP,DATAWASSENTOUTTOGOTOREADDIFFERENTFROMWRITINGALETTERTHENUMBERTOSTILLCONNECTTOTHEANOTHERTOSAVETHEMACHINEATTHESAMETIME,BUTBECAUSETHESLICECHOOSESDIFFERENTLY,ALTHOUGHREADORWRITEALETTERTHENUMBER,HAVENOTHECHIPENABLESIGNAL,SOANOTHERMEMORYCANTMISUNDERSTANDOPENTHEDOOR,RESULTINTHECLASHSOWOULDTHEDIFFERENTHOURPICKOUTTWOCHIPSASLONGASISTODESIGNTHESYSTEMCANT,DONOTISOURPERSONTOCONTROLBUTBECONTROLLEDBYCOMPUTER,IFREALLYTHEEMERGENCEAPPEARSTOPICKOUTTWOCHIPSCIRCUMSTANCESATTHESAMETIME,THATISTHEROWTHATELECTRICCIRCUITBREAKDOWN,THISISNOT3INOURDISCUSSIONFROMTHEINTRODUCTIONABOVEWEHAVESEEN,THEEIGHTLINESUSEDTODELIVERTHEDATAANDARENOTSPECIALUSED,BUTALOTOFCOMPONENTSAREPUBLICUSEDSOWECALLITASTHEDATATOTALLINE,BYNAMEBUSINENGLISHINTOTALLINE,TOTALNAMELYBUSWAY。WHOCANWALKAND16ADDRESSESLINEISTOBECONNECTEDTOGETHER,CALLITASTHEADDRESSTOTALLINE4THESEMICONDUCTORMEMORY’SCLASSIFICATIONACCORDINGTOITSFUNCTION,THEMEMORYCANBEDIVIDEDINTOREADANDREADRANDOMMEMORYTWOMAJORTYPESOCALLEDACONTENTSFORREADING,FROMTHETYPEFACECOMPREHENSIONISCANONLYWITHFROMINSIDEREADING,CANTWRITINGINTO,ITSIMILARLYINOURBOOK,HAIRARRIVINGOURRETURNINGAFTER,OURCANREADINGINSIDE,MUSTNOTCHANGETHECONTENTSONTHEBOOKASONESPLEASESANENGLISHFORREADINGSAVINGMACHINEABBREVIATIONISROMREADONLYMEMORYMEMORYSOCALLEDRANDOMACCESS,CANREWRITEATANYTIMENAMELY,THEDATATHATALSOCANREADTHEINSIDE,ITISSIMILARINOURBLACKBOARD,ICANWRITEATANYTIMETHETHINGGOESUP,ALSOCANWIPETOREWRITEWITHTHEBLACKBOARDSAVINGTHEENGLISHABBREVIATIONOFTHEMACHINEASWITHTHEMACHINERAMREADRANDOMMEMORYTHESETWOKINDSOFSAVINGMACHINESENGLISHABBREVIATIONMUSTKEEPINMINDATTENTIONTHESOCALLEDREADTOPOINTWITHRANDOMACCESSALLTHETIMEOFNORMALWORKCIRCUMSTANCEDESCENDINGANDSPEECH,ANDALSOISATUSINGTHETHISPIECEOFSAVINGTHEMACHINE,NOTTIMETOPOINTTOMAKETHISPIECEOFCHIPOTHERWISE,READTHESAVINGDATAINTHEMACHINETOHOWCOMEOFINFACT,THISTRUTHISVERYEASYTOCOMPREHEND,THEBOOKGETSHOLDOFOURHANDISTOCANTCHANGE,CANBEITSTILLWHITEPAPERINININORIGINALMATERIALOFTIME,WASPRINTEDBYPRINTINGPRESSUPCERTAINLY5EXPLAINTHEOTHERAFEWANDFAMILIARCONCEPTSBYTHEWAYPROM,CALLITASTHEPROGRAMMABLEROMTHISISLIKEOUREXERCISEBOOK,BUYOFTHETIMEISBLANK,CANWRITETHETHINGGOUP,CANONCEWRITEUP,WIPEDTODONOTDROP,SOITCANUSETOWRITEONCE,IFWRITEMISTAKE,SUBMITANEXPENSEACCOUNTEPROM,CALLITASTHATTHEULTRAVIOLETRAYWIPESTHEPROGRAMMABLETHATDIVIDEDBYREADSTHESAVINGMACHINEITINSIDEOFAFTERCONTENTSWRITEGOUP,IFFEELDISSATISFIED,CANREWRITEAFTERTHROWINGAWAYWITHAKINDOFSPECIALMETHOD,THISISTOUSESTHEULTRAVIOLETRAYIRRADIATION,ULTRAVIOLETRAYELEPHANTTHEWORDOFWORKSPROPERLY,CANTHROWAWAYTHEWORD,THENREWRITECERTAINLYTHENUMBEROFTIMESAREMANY,ANDALSOINEFFECTIVELIGHT,SO4ANUMBEROFTIMESFORCANWIPEDIVIDEDBYISALSOALIMITEDSEVERAL100TIMESFLASHROM,CALLITASTHETHINGTHATSAVETHEMACHINESOON,ITISSIMILARWITHTHEEPROM,WRITINGUPCANALSOWIPEOFFTOREWRITE,BUTITWANTTHECONVENIENCETHESOME,DONOTNEEDTHELIGHTSHONEON,ASLONGASUSETHESCIENCEOFELECTRICITYMETHODANDTHENCANWIPETODIVIDEDBY,SOTHECONVENIENCEISMANY,ANDTHELIFEISTOOVERYLONGSEVERALTENTHOUSANDARRIVESEVERALDONOTWAIT100,000TIMESEMPHASIZEAGAIN,THETHINGSHEREWRITEAREALLNOTATTHENORMALWORKTERMWHETHERITISAPROM,EPROMORFLASHROM,THEIRWRITINGALLHASSPECIALLIMITSGENERALLY,WEUSEAKINDOFCALLEDASPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERTODOTHISWORKONCEPACKEDTOTHEWORKPOSITION,YOUWON’TREWRITELITERALLY6INADDITION,TODESCRIBETHESINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTER8051’SCONFIGURATION8051FILMSHAVEROMPROCEDUREMEMORY,ONLYTIMEANDRAMDATAMEMORY,COULDWRITEREADABLECATEGORIES,WHICHARESEPARATEMEMORYADDRESSSPACE,ANDGENERALCOMPUTERMEMORYALLOCATIONMETHODISTHESAMEUSUALLYONLYONEGENERALCOMPUTERADDRESSSPACE,ROMANDRAMTHATCANBEARBITRARILYPLACEDINTHECONTEXTOFADIFFERENTADDRESSSPACE,ROMANDRAMADDRESSESINALEAGUEWITHDIFFERENTADDRESSESINTHEDISTRIBUTIONSPACECPUVISITSTHEROM,ACORRESPONDENCEADDRESSONLYMEMORYMODULECANBEROM,ANDCANALSOBERAM,ANDASIMILARVISITDIRECTIVE8051INTHEMEMORYSTRUCTUREISDIVIDEDINTOPHYSICALPROCESSESMEMORYSPACEANDDATAMEMORYSPACE,ATOTALOFFOURSTORAGESPACEINTERIORFILMS,EXTERIORFILMSANDPROCEDURESPROCEEDROMMEMORYSPACEANDDATAMEMORYOFTHEFILMSANDFILMSOUTSIDEDATAMEMORYSPACE,APROCEDUREMEMORYANDDATAMEMORYSEPARATESTRUCTURE,CALLEDHARVARDARCHITECTUREFROMTHEUSERSPERSPECTIVE,THE8051MEMORYADDRESSSPACEISDIVIDEDINTOTHREECATEGORIES1INTERIORANDFOREIGNFILMSUNIFORMPROCEDURESFORSITE0000HFFFFHTHE64KBROMADDRESSSPACE16BITSPACEINTHEADDRESS264KBOFDATAMEMORYADDRESSSPACEFILM,THEADDRESSFROM0000HFFFFHSERIESSITEWITH16ADDRESSESFORTHESITE3256KBDATAMEMORYADDRESSSPACEWITHEIGHTADDRESSLINESTHETHREEOVERLAPPINGMEMORYSPACEADDRESSISHOWTODISTINGUISHBETWEENTHREEDIFFERENTLOGICALSPACE8051INSTRUCTIONSDIFFERENTDATATRANSMISSIONSYSTEMSDESIGNDIRECTIVEKEYCPUVISITOFFILMS,FOREIGNFILMSDIRECTEDBYMOVCROM,RAM,VISITFILMDIRECTEDBYMOVXVISITFILMSOFRAMUSINGMOVINSTRUCTIONS

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