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外文翻译--废水回收与在使用 中文版.pdf

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外文翻译--废水回收与在使用 中文版.pdf

EDITORIALSWASTEWATERRECYCLINGANDREUSEASISWELLKNOWN,WASTEWATERSHAVEBEENRECLAIMEDFORAGRICULTURALUSEFORCENTURIESTHEARTICLEBYFATTAL,ETAL,INTHISISSUEOFTHEJOURNALREPORTSRESULTSOFANEPIDEMIOLOGICALSTUDYOFTHEIMPACTOFPOORQUALITYWASTEWATEREFFLUENTUSEDFORIRRIGATIONOFNONFOODCROPSONTHEHEALTHOFPEOPLERESIDINGINNEARBYKIBBUTZIMINISRAELTHEPRACTICEOFUSINGWASTEWATERSFORIRRIGATIONISCOMMONINMANYARIDANDSEMIARIDAREASOFTHEWORLD,INCLUDINGTHEUNITEDSTATESCURRENTLY,THEREISCONSIDERABLEINTERESTINTHEPOTENTIALHEALTHEFFECTSASSOCIATEDWITHTHEDIRECTANDINDIRECTHUMANCONSUMPTIONOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSINDIRECTHUMANCONSUMPTIONOFWASTEWATERSOCCURSWHENSURFACEWATERS,PARTICULARLYRIVERSRECEIVINGWASTEWATERDISCHARGES,AREUSEDFORWATERSUPPLYTHESESURFACESOURCES,ALONGWITHANINCREASINGNUMBEROFGROUNDWATERRESOURCES,ARECONTAMINATEDBYTHEWASTEDISCHARGESFROMCOMMUNITIES,INDUSTRIALACTIVITIES,AGRICULTURALANDURBANRUNOFF,ANDSTORMWATERUSINGTHESESOURCESOFSUPPLY,WATERTREATMENTPLANTSHAVEPRODUCEDWATERTHATISCONSIDEREDSAFEFORHUMANUSE,ALTHOUGHTHESEFINISHEDWATERSMAYCONTAINLOWLEVELSOFORGANICCHEMICALSWHICHMAYBEPOTENTIALLYHARMFULFOLLOWINGLONGTERMINGESTIONANEARLYEXAMPLEOFTHEDIRECTREUSEOFWASTEWATERFORPOTABLEPURPOSESOCCURREDINCHANUTE,KANSASFOLLOWINGTHEDROUGHTOF1952572DURINGTHEPERIODFROMOCTOBER14,1956THROUGHMARCH14,1957,BECAUSEOFTHECRITICALSHORTAGEOFWATER,MUNICIPALWASTEWATERTREATMENTPLANTEFFLUENTWASRECYCLEDTHROUGHTHEWATERTREATMENTPLANTANDINTRODUCEDINTOTHEWATERDISTRIBUTIONSYSTEMALTHOUGHTHEWATERMETEXISTINGMICROBIALSTANDARDS,WITHCONTINUEDRECYCLINGPUBLICACCEPTANCEDECREASEDANDBOTTLEDWATERSALESFLOURISHEDCURRENTLY,THEONLYKNOWNSOURCEOFDIRECTREUSEOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERISTHATATWINDHOEK,NAMIBIAINSOUTHWESTAFRICA,WHEREWASTEWATERS,DEVOIDOFTOXICINDUSTRIALWASTES,AREDISCHARGEDAFTEREXTENSIVETREATMENTTOMATURATIONPONDSBEFOREADMIXTUREWITHUNCONTAMINATEDSOURCEWATERSWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFNEWTECHNOLOGIESFORTHETREATMENTOFWASTEWATERADVANCEDORTERTIARYTREATMENT,FOSTEREDINPARTBYTHEFEDERALWATERPOLLUTIONACTOF1972ANDSECTION1444OFTHESAFEDRINKINGWATERACTOF1974,34EXTENSIVESTUDIESHAVESHOWNTHATTREATEDWASTEWATERSCOULDBEPRODUCEDWHICHMEETALLOFTHEMAXIMUMCONCENTRATIONLIMITSSTIPULATEDINTHEDRINKINGWATERSTANDARDS56THEDRINKINGWATERSTANDARDSSTATEPRIORITYSHOULDBEGIVENTOTHESELECTIONOFTHEPURESTSOURCEPOLLUTEDSOURCESSHOULDNOTBEUSEDANDABATEMENTANDCONTROLOFPOLLUTIONWILLSIGNIFICANTLYAIDINPRODUCINGDRINKINGWATERINFULLCOMPLIANCEWITHTHESESTANDARDSANDWILLBEAESTHETICALLYACCEPTABLETOTHECONSUMERIEVENTHOUGHTHESTANDARDSCALLFOROBTAININGTHEWATERSUPPLYFROMTHELEASTPOLLUTEDSOURCE,THEREAREAREAS,PARTICULARLYINTHESUNBELT,WHICHAREALREADYUSINGWATERBEYONDTHECAPACITYOFTHEAVAILABLENATURALSUPPLIES,3ANDWHEREITMAYNOTBEECONOMICALLYFEASIBLETOIMPORTWATERSOFPOTABLEQUALITYINTHEINTERESTOFCONSERVINGEXISTINGWATERSUPPLYSOURCES,RECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSAREBEINGUSEDFORINDUSTRIALPURPOSES,78AGRICULTURALCROPIRRIGATION,79URBANIRRIGATION,,79RECREATIONALPURPOSES,7ANDGROUNDWATERRECHARGE4105DEPENDINGONTHEEXTENTOFTREATMENTRECEIVEDBEFOREREUSE,THEREAREPUBLICHEALTHCONCERNSRELATEDTOEACHOFTHESEREUSEPRACTICESTHESEINCLUDEMICROBIALPATHOGENSANDINDICATORS;722TRACEORGANICCONSTITUENTSANDTHEIREFFECTS;7151923TRACEINORGANICCONTAMINANTSANDTHEIREFFECTS;751922ANDPHYSICALCONSTITUENTS,SUCHASSUSPENDEDSOLIDSANDTURBIDITY7INTHEMOSTCOMPREHENSIVESTUDYTODATETOEVALUATETHEEFFECTSONHEALTHOFUSINGTREATEDWASTEWATERFORGROUNDWATERREPLENISHMENTATTHEWHITTIERNARROWSGROUNDWATERREPLENISHMENTPLANT,THEAUTHORS24CONCLUDEDTHATTHEREWERENODEMONSTRABLEORMEASURABLEADVERSEEFFECTSONEITHERTHEAREASGROUNDWATERORONTHEHEALTHOFTHEPEOPLEINGESTINGTHEWATERROBERTS5INDICATEDTHATTHOSERESPONSIBLEFORPOSSIBLEHEALTHDECISIONSINTHEUSEOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSTAKEANUNDERSTANDABLYCAUTIOUSATTITUDETOWARDTHEYETUNQUANTIFIEDRISKOFCHRONICHEALTHEFFECTSCAUSEDBYTRACEORGANICSALTHOUGHMAXIMUMCONCENTRATIONLIMITSHAVEBEENESTABLISHEDFORSEVERALINORGANICANDAFEWORGANICPESTICIDESINPOTABLEWATERSUPPLIES,56LIMITSFORMANYCOMPOUNDS,PARTICULARLYORGANIC,HAVENOTBEENESTABLISHEDHOWEVER,LIMITSHAVEBEENPROPOSEDFORADDITIONALORGANICCOMPOUNDSINWATER25MAXIMUMCONCENTRATIONLIMITSAREFORSINGLEENTITIESANDDONOTRELATETOTHEPOSSIBLEADDITIVE,SYNERGISTIC,ORANTAGONISTICBEHAVIOROFMANYCONTAMINANTSCALIFORNIAHASBEENALEADERINDEVELOPINGSTANDARDSFORRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSUSEDINAGRICULTUREANDFORTHERECHARGEOFGROUNDWATERS40926INLIEUOFSTANDARDSFORASSESSINGTHEQUALITYOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATER,WORK,ETAL,27PROPOSEDTHATTREATMENTATDENVERBECAPABLEOFREMOVINGTHEINCREMENTADDEDTOTHEWASTETHROUGHUSE,THUSRETURNINGTHEWATERTOTHEQUALITYINITIALLYPRESENTINTHEWATERSUPPLYSOURCETHIS,OFCOURSE,WOULDENTAILMEASUREMENTOFALLKNOWNPARAMETERS,BUTNOTUNKNOWNSUBSTANCESCAPABLEOFINDUCINGHEALTHEFFECTSAFTERLONGTERMCONSUMPTIONASINDICATEDEARLIER,PROCESSESAREAVAILABLETOTREATWASTEWATERSTOMEETCURRENTDRINKINGWATERSTANDARDS;6HOWEVER,THEEXTENTOFTREATMENTISAFUNCTIONOFCOSTREMOVALOFTHERESIDUALREFRACTORYMATERIALSBECOMESINCREASINGLYEXPENSIVE,ANDTHEPUBLICISNOTCONDITIONEDTOPAYAHIGHERPRICEFORITSMUNICIPALWATERSUPPLYTHEREFRACTORYSUBSTANCESOFMOSTCONCERNARETHEORGANICCOMPOUNDSSPECIFICSTUDIESHAVEBEENCARRIEDOUTTOEVALUATE2829ANDDEVELOP8ADDITIONALMETHODSFORTHEIRREMOVALTHEMAJORUNRESOLVEDPROBLEMISTHEHANDLINGANDDISPOSALOFTHETOXICINORGANICANDORGANICSUBSTANCESTHATAREPRESENTINTHESLUDGES,SLURRIES,AND/ORRESIDUALCONCENTRATESPRODUCEDDURINGTREATMENTANALTERNATIVETOEXTENSIVETREATMENTFORURBANUSEOFNONPOTABLERECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSHASBEENTOPROVIDEDUALDISTRIBUTIONSYSTEMSONEFORTHEPOTABLESUPPLYANDASEPARATEONEFORTHENONPOTABLESUPPLYALTHOUGHFEASIBLEANDINUSEINSEVERALCOMMUNITIES,8926THEAMERICANWATERWORKSASSOCIATIONAWWA,INTHEFOREWORDTOITSMANUALONDUALSYSTEMS,STATESTHATTHEUSEOFADUALDISTRIBUTIONSYSTEMISNOTARECOMMENDEDSTANDARDOFPRACTICEBUTAJPHAUGUST1986,VOL76,NO8960AREPORTOFTHESTATEOFTHEART8SINCETHEPUBLICDRINKSONLYABOUT1PERCENTOFTHEWATERSUPPLIEDTOTHECOMMUNITY,ANDIF,ASSTATEDBYLYNCH,30WHATAMOUNTSTOZERORISKEVERBECOMESTHEWILLOFTHEPEOPLE,ITMIGHTBENECESSARYTOEXCHANGEOURTRADITIONALONESYSTEMAPPROACHTOWATERDISTRIBUTIONFORADUALSYSTEMINWHICHTHEWATERINTENDEDFORHUMANCONSUMPTIONWOULDUNDERGOEXTREMESOFMONITORING,TESTING,ANDTREATMENTANDTHERESTWOULDBEKEPTATLEVELSOFQUALITYORSAFETYTHATUNTILNOWHAVEBEENDEEMEDTOBESATISFACTORYINTHETREATMENTOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSFORINDIRECTREUSE,ACRITICALISSUEISTHERELIABILITYOFTHETREATMENTPROCESSROBERTS5REPORTSTHATWATERFACTORY21HASDEMONSTRATEDTHATPOTABLEWATERQUALITYSTANDARDSCANBESATISFIED,FORTHEMOSTPART,WITHBETTERTHAN95PERCENTRELIABILITYBASEDONCALIFORNIACONTAMINATIONLEVELSTANDARDSWITHPROPERDESIGNOFFACILITIES,CAREFULOPERATION,ADEQUATELYTRAINEDPERSONNEL,ANDPOSSIBILITYOFOCCASIONALBYPASSING,MOSTPLANTSSHOULDBEABLETOPERFORMASWELLSCIENTIFICALLY,OURABILITYTOIDENTIFYANDTOQUANTIFYTHELOWLEVELSOFCONTAMINANTSPRESENTINWATERHASFAROUTSTRIPPEDOURCAPABILITIESTOEVALUATEANDINTERPRETTHESIGNIFICANCEOFTHELEVELSMEASUREDINASSESSINGPOTENTIALCHRONICHEALTHEFFECTSTHEREISANEEDTODEVELOPAPPROPRIATETESTPROCEDURESTODETERMINETHEHEALTHSIGNIFICANCEOFTHEMANYSUBSTANCESCURRENTLYIDENTIFIABLEINWATERBEFOREREUSEOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERCANBECOMEAREALITY,THEPUBLICMUSTACCEPTTHEPRODUCTPUBLICATTITUDESURVEYSHAVESHOWNTHATALARGESEGMENTOFTHEPUBLICENDORSESWASTEWATERREUSEFORAGRICULTURALANDURBANIRRIGATION,INDUSTRIALUSE,TOILETFLUSHING,ANDSCENICLAKESWHEREASALESSERFRACTIONSUPPORTSITSUSEFORBOATING/FISHING,LAUNDRY,ANDBEACHESANDBATHING,ANDASTILLSMALLERFRACTIONFORFOODCANNING,COOKING,ANDDRINKING273133GENERALACCEPTANCEFORDRINKINGRECLAIMEDWATERRANGEDFROM40TOMORETHAN80PERCENTIFTHERECLAIMEDWATERWASTOBEOFTHESAMEORBETTERQUALITYTHANTHECURRENTSUPPLY,RESULTSOFADENVERSURVEYSHOWEDTHAT841PERCENTOFTHEPUBLICAGREEDTOSOMEDEGREE2732SOME63PERCENTOFDENVERRESIDENTSFAVOREDEVENTUALPOTABLEWATERREUSE27BRUVOLD33CHARACTERIZEDTHEMEMBERSOFTHEPUBLICANDTHEINDIVIDUALSHAVINGTHEMOSTFAVORABLEATTITUDETOWARDREUSINGRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERFORDRINKINGASWELLASTHOSETHATDIDNOTHAVEAFAVORABLEATTITUDEINARECENTARTICLE,WOLMAN34INDICATEDTHATPEOPLEWEREMILITANT,CONCERNED,FEARFUL,ANDEVENHYSTERICALINTHEIRSEARCHFORGUARANTEEDSAFETYANDZERORISKHEIDENTIFIEDASAPARAMETERPUBLICCONFRONTATION,ANDNOTEDTHATTHISCOMPLEXHUMANBEHAVIORCOMPOUNDEDBYCONCERN,IGNORANCE,MISCONCEPTION,HYSTERIA,ANDFEAROFTHEUNKNOWNHASITSORIGININPRESSUREGROUPS,OFFICIALDOM,ANDTHECOMMUNICATIONSMEDIATHESEPHENOMENAAREOFHIGHIMPORT,HOWEVER,INANYASSESSMENTOFTHESIGNIFICANCEOFWATERBORNEILLNESSESFROMWASTEWATERDISCHARGESHASTHISCOMPLEXHUMANBEHAVIORRELATIVETOTHESAFETYOFOURWATERSUPPLIESBEENTHEMOTIVATINGFACTORFORTHETREMENDOUSSURGEINTHEUSEOFBOTTLEDWATERANDBEVERAGESINCONCLUSION,THEDIRECTREUSEOFRECLAIMEDWASTEWATERSFORPOTABLEPURPOSESSHOULDBEDEFERREDUNTILENOUGHSCIENTIFICEVIDENCEISAVAILABLETOADEQUATELYASSESSTHEPOTENTIALLYADVERSEHEALTHEFFECTS,BOTHACUTEANDCHRONIC9THEREISANEEDFORADDITIONALCOMPREHENSIVEHEALTHEFFECTSSTUDIESOFTHETYPEREPORTEDBYNELLOR,ETAL24WEALSOANTICIPATETHERESULTSOFTHELONGTERMHEALTHEFFECTSSTUDIESPLANNEDBYTHECITYOFDENVERASAPARTOFITSDEMONSTRATIONPROJECTTOEDITORIALSEVALUATETHEFEASIBILITYOFRECLAIMINGWASTEWATERFORDIRECTREUSE35REFERENCES1FATTALB,WAXY,DAVIESM,SHUVALHIHEALTHRISKSASSOCIATEDWITHWASTEWATERIRRIGATIONANEPIDEMIOLOGICALSTUDYAMJPUBLICHEALTH1986;769779792METZLERDF,CULPRL,STOLTENBERGHA,WOODWARDRL,WALTONG,CHANGSL,CLARKENA,PALMERCM,MIDDLETONFMEMERGENCYUSEOFRECLAIMEDWATERFORPOTABLESUPPLYATCHANUTE,KANSASJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1958;50102110573ENGLISHJN,BENNETTER,LINDSTEDTKDRESEARCHREQUIREDTOESTABLISHCONFIDENCEINTHEPOTABLEREUSEOFWASTEWATERJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1977;691311364ROBERTSPV,MCCARTYPL,ROMANWHDIRECTINJECTIONOFRECLAIMEDWATERINTOANAQUIFERJENVIRONENGRDIV,AMSOCCIVILENGRS1978;1049339495NATIONALINTERIMPRIMARYDRINKINGWATERREGULATIONS1977;EPA570/976003WASHINGTON,DCOFFICEOFWATERSUPPLY,ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONAGENCY6FEDERALREGISTER1979;4414042918JULY187GARRISONWE,MIELERPCURRENTTRENDSINWATERRECLAMATIONTECHNOLOGYJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1977;693643698DEBOERJGWASTEWATERREUSEARESOURCEORANUISANCEJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1983;753483569OKUNDAREUSEPANACEAORPIEINTHESKYJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1985;772610ASANOT,WASSERMANKLGROUNDWATERRECHARGEOPERATIONSINCALIFORNIAJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1980;7238038511SONTHEIMERHEXPERIENCEWITHRIVERBANKFILTRATIONALONGTHERHINERIVERJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1980;7238639012PIETGJ,ZOETEMANBCJORGANICWATERQUALITYCHANGESDURINGSANDBANKANDDUNEFILTRATIONOFSURFACEWATERSINTHENETHERLANDSJAMWATERWORKSASSOC1980;7240040413IDELOVITCHEENVIRONMENT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