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外文翻译--微型机器.doc

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外文翻译--微型机器.doc

邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)1附录MicromachineFromthebeginning,mankindseemsinstinctivelytohavedesiredlargemachinesandsmallmachines.Thatis,largeandsmallincomparisonwithhumanscale.Machinelargerthanhumanarepowerfulalliesinthebattleagainstthefuryofnaturesmallermachinesareloyalpartnersthatdowhatevertheyaretold.1.introduceIfwecomparethefacilityandtechnologyofmanufacturinglargermachines,commonsensetellsusthatthesmallermachinesareeasiertomake.Nevertheless,throughoutthehistoryoftechnology,largermachineshavealwaysstoodout.ThesizeoftherestoredmodelsofthewatermillinventedbyVitruviusintheRomanEra,thewindmilloftheMiddleAges,andthesteamengineinventedbyWattisoverwhelming.Ontheotherhand,smallermachinesinhistoryoftechnologyaremostlytools.Ifsmallermachinesareeasiertomake,avarietyofsuchmachinesshouldexist,butuntilmoderntimes,nosignificantsmallmachinesexistedexceptforgunsandclocksThisfactmayimplythatsmallermachineswereactuallymoredifficulttomake.Ofcourse,thisdoesnotmeansimplythatitwasdifficulttomakeasmallmachineItmeansthatitwasdifficulttoinventasmallmachinethatwouldbesignificanttohumanbeings.Somepeoplemightsaythatmankindmaynothavewantedsmallermachines.Thistheory,however,diesnotexplaintherecentpopularityofpalmsizemechatronicsproducts.Somepeoplemightsaythatmankindmaynothavewantedsmallermachines.Thistheory,however,doesnotexplaintherecentpopularityofpalmsizemechatronicsproducts.Theabsenceofsmallmachinesinhistorymaybeduetotheextremedifficultyinmanufacturingsmallprecisionparts.2.Whymicromachinenow邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)2Thedreamoftheultimatesmallmachine,ormicromachine,wasfirstdepictedindetailabout30yearsagointhe1966movieFantasticVoyage.Atthattime,thestudyofmicromachiningofsemiconductorshadalreadybegun.Therefore,manufacturingminutemechanismsthroughmicromachiningofsemiconductorswouldhavebeenpossible,eventhattime,.Therewas,however,awaitofover20yearsbeforetheintroduction,about10yearsago,ofelectrostaticmotorsandgearsmadebysemiconductormicromachining.WhydidntthestudyofmicromachiningandthedreamofmicromachinesmeetearlierApossiblereasonforthisisasfollows.Inadditiontomicromachining,thedevelopmentofmicromachinesrequiresanumberoftechnologiesincludingmaterials,instrumentations,control,energy,informationprocessing,anddesign.Beforemicromachineresearchanddevelopmentcanbestarted,allofthesetechnologiesmustreachacertainlevel.Inotherwords,theoveralltechnologicallevel,asawhole,mustreachacertaincriticalpoint,butithadntreachedthatpoint30ago.Approximately20yearsafterFantasticVoyage.,thetechnologylevelformicromachinesfinallyreachedacriticalpoint.Micromotorsandgearsmadebysemiconductormicromachiningwereintroducedataboutthattime,triggeringtheresearchondevelopmentofmicromachines.Thebackgroudofthemicromachineboom,whichstartedabout10yearsago,canbeexplainedbytheabove.3.micromachineasgentlemachinesHowdomicromachinesofthefuturedifferfromconventionalmachinesHowwilltheychangetherelationshipbetweennatureandhumansThemostuniquefeatureofmicromachineis,ofcourse,itssmallsize.Utilizingitstinydimensions,amicromachinecanperformtasksinarevolutionarywaythatwouldbeimpossibleforconventionalmachines.Thatis,micromachinesdonotaffecttheobjectortheenvironmentasmuchasconventionalmachinesdo.Micromachinesperformtheirtasksgently.This邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)3isafundamentaldifferencebetweenmicromachinesandconventionalmachines.Themedicalfieldholdsthehighestexpectationsforbenefitsfromthisfeatureofmicromachines.Diadnosisandtreatmentwillchangedrasticallyfromconventionalmethods,andFantasticVoyagemaynolongerbeafantasy.Ifamicromachinecangentlyenterahumanbodytotreatillness,humanswillbefreedfrompainfulsurgeryanduncomfortablegastrocameratesting.Furtherore,ifmicromachinescanhaltthetrendofeverincreasingsizeinmedicalequipment,itcouldslowtheexcessgrowthandcomplexityofmedicaltechnology,contributingtothesolvingofseriousproblemswithhighmedicalcostsforcitizens.Micromachinesaregentlealsointermsofmachinemaintenance,sincetheycanbeinspectedandrepairedwithoutdifficultyinreachingandoverhaulingtheengineorplant.Themorecomplexthemachine,themoresusceptibleitistomalfunctionduetooverhaulandassembly.Inaddition,therehavebeenmoreinstancesofhumanerrorsduringoverhaulandassembly.Itisgoodforthemachineifoverhaulisnotnecessary.Itisevenbetterifmaintenancecanbeperformedwithoutstoppingthemachine.Repeatedstopandgooperationwillacceleratedamageofthemachineduetoexcessstresscausedbythermalexpansion.Suchgentlenessofamocromachineisanadvantage,aswellasaweaknessinthatamicromachineistoofragiletoresisttheobjectortheenvironmentthisisthedrawbackofthemicroscaleobjects.Forexample,afishcanswimfreelyagainstthecurrent,butasmallplanktoncannot.Thisisresultofphysicallawsandnothingcanchangeit.Still,theplanktoncanliveandgrowinthenaturalenvironmentbyconformingtotheenvironment.Unlikeconventionalmachineswhichfightandcontrolnatural,micromachineswillprobablyadapttoandutilizenature.Ifamicromachinecannotproceedagainstthecurrent,awaywillbefoundtoproceedwiththeflow,naturallyavoidingcollisionswithobstacles.邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)44.MicroelectronicsandmechatronicsTheconceptofmicromachinesandrelatedtechnologiesisstillnotadequatelyunified,asthesearestillatthedevelopmentstage.Themicromachinesandrelatedtechnologiesarecurrentlyreferredtobyavarietyofdifferentterms.IntheUnitedStates,theacceptedtermismicroelectromechanicalsystemsMEMSinEurope,ThetermMicrosystemstechnologyMSTiscommon,whilethetermmicroengineeringissometimesusedinBritain.MeanwhileinAustraliamicromachine.ThemostcommontermifitistranslatedintoEnglishismicromachine.ThemostcommontermifitistranslatedintoEnglishismicromachineinJapan.Howevermicrorobotandmicromechanismarealsoavailablecasebycase.Theappearanceofthesevarioustermsshouldbeitemstakenasreflectingnotmerelydiversityofexpression,butdiversityoftheitemsreferredto.Dependingonwhethertheitemreferredtoisanobjectoratechnology,theterminologymaybesummedupasfollowsObjectmicrorobot,micromechanismTechnologymicroengineering,MSTObjecttechnologyMEMS,micromachineWithregardtotechnology,ifwesummarizethetermsaccordingto1wherethetechnologyformicromachinesystemsbranchedfrom,and2whethertheobjectdealtwithbythetechnologyinquestionisanelementoramachinesystem,thetermscanbeorganizedasfollows.Thatis,MEMSandMSTstemfrommechatronics,andhavedevelopeddealingmainlywithmachinesystems.Inthissense,MEMSandMSTontheonehandmicromachinesandmicroengineeringontheotherhandformtwoseparategroups,butasformerhasstartedtomoveinthedirectionofmachinesystems,whilethelatterhasalreadyincorporatedmicroelectronics,thedifferencebetweenthetwogroupsaregraduallydisappearing.Lookingattheareasinthetwogroups,giventhatthemachinesystemswhicharethemainconcernofmicromachineincludemicroelectronics,it

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