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外文翻译--微型机器.doc

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外文翻译--微型机器.doc

邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)1附录MICROMACHINEFROMTHEBEGINNING,MANKINDSEEMSINSTINCTIVELYTOHAVEDESIREDLARGEMACHINESANDSMALLMACHINESTHATIS,LARGE”AND“SMALL”INCOMPARISONWITHHUMANSCALEMACHINELARGERTHANHUMANAREPOWERFULALLIESINTHEBATTLEAGAINSTTHEFURYOFNATURE;SMALLERMACHINESARELOYALPARTNERSTHATDOWHATEVERTHEYARETOLD1INTRODUCEIFWECOMPARETHEFACILITYANDTECHNOLOGYOFMANUFACTURINGLARGERMACHINES,COMMONSENSETELLSUSTHATTHESMALLERMACHINESAREEASIERTOMAKENEVERTHELESS,THROUGHOUTTHEHISTORYOFTECHNOLOGY,LARGERMACHINESHAVEALWAYSSTOODOUTTHESIZEOFTHERESTOREDMODELSOFTHEWATERMILLINVENTEDBYVITRUVIUSINTHEROMANERA,THEWINDMILLOFTHEMIDDLEAGES,ANDTHESTEAMENGINEINVENTEDBYWATTISOVERWHELMINGONTHEOTHERHAND,SMALLERMACHINESINHISTORYOFTECHNOLOGYAREMOSTLYTOOLSIFSMALLERMACHINESAREEASIERTOMAKE,AVARIETYOFSUCHMACHINESSHOULDEXIST,BUTUNTILMODERNTIMES,NOSIGNIFICANTSMALLMACHINESEXISTEDEXCEPTFORGUNSANDCLOCKSTHISFACTMAYIMPLYTHATSMALLERMACHINESWEREACTUALLYMOREDIFFICULTTOMAKEOFCOURSE,THISDOESNOTMEANSIMPLYTHATITWASDIFFICULTTOMAKEASMALLMACHINE;ITMEANSTHATITWASDIFFICULTTOINVENTASMALLMACHINETHATWOULDBESIGNIFICANTTOHUMANBEINGSSOMEPEOPLEMIGHTSAYTHATMANKINDMAYNOTHAVEWANTEDSMALLERMACHINESTHISTHEORY,HOWEVER,DIESNOTEXPLAINTHERECENTPOPULARITYOFPALMSIZEMECHATRONICSPRODUCTSSOMEPEOPLEMIGHTSAYTHATMANKINDMAYNOTHAVEWANTEDSMALLERMACHINESTHISTHEORY,HOWEVER,DOESNOTEXPLAINTHERECENTPOPULARITYOFPALMSIZEMECHATRONICSPRODUCTSTHEABSENCEOFSMALLMACHINESINHISTORYMAYBEDUETOTHEEXTREMEDIFFICULTYINMANUFACTURINGSMALLPRECISIONPARTS2WHYMICROMACHINENOW邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)2THEDREAMOFTHEULTIMATESMALLMACHINE,ORMICROMACHINE,WASFIRSTDEPICTEDINDETAILABOUT30YEARSAGOINTHE1966MOVIE“FANTASTICVOYAGE”ATTHATTIME,THESTUDYOFMICROMACHININGOFSEMICONDUCTORSHADALREADYBEGUNTHEREFORE,MANUFACTURINGMINUTEMECHANISMSTHROUGHMICROMACHININGOFSEMICONDUCTORSWOULDHAVEBEENPOSSIBLE,EVENTHATTIME,THEREWAS,HOWEVER,AWAITOFOVER20YEARSBEFORETHEINTRODUCTION,ABOUT10YEARSAGO,OFELECTROSTATICMOTORSANDGEARSMADEBYSEMICONDUCTORMICROMACHININGWHYDIDN’TTHESTUDYOFMICROMACHININGANDTHEDREAMOFMICROMACHINESMEETEARLIERAPOSSIBLEREASONFORTHISISASFOLLOWSINADDITIONTOMICROMACHINING,THEDEVELOPMENTOFMICROMACHINESREQUIRESANUMBEROFTECHNOLOGIESINCLUDINGMATERIALS,INSTRUMENTATIONS,CONTROL,ENERGY,INFORMATIONPROCESSING,ANDDESIGNBEFOREMICROMACHINERESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTCANBESTARTED,ALLOFTHESETECHNOLOGIESMUSTREACHACERTAINLEVELINOTHERWORDS,THEOVERALLTECHNOLOGICALLEVEL,ASAWHOLE,MUSTREACHACERTAINCRITICALPOINT,BUTITHADN’TREACHEDTHATPOINT30AGOAPPROXIMATELY20YEARSAFTER“FANTASTICVOYAGE”,THETECHNOLOGYLEVELFORMICROMACHINESFINALLYREACHEDACRITICALPOINTMICROMOTORSANDGEARSMADEBYSEMICONDUCTORMICROMACHININGWEREINTRODUCEDATABOUTTHATTIME,TRIGGERINGTHERESEARCHONDEVELOPMENTOFMICROMACHINESTHEBACKGROUDOFTHEMICROMACHINEBOOM,WHICHSTARTEDABOUT10YEARSAGO,CANBEEXPLAINEDBYTHEABOVE3MICROMACHINEASGENTLEMACHINESHOWDOMICROMACHINESOFTHEFUTUREDIFFERFROMCONVENTIONALMACHINESHOWWILLTHEYCHANGETHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENNATUREANDHUMANSTHEMOSTUNIQUEFEATUREOFMICROMACHINEIS,OFCOURSE,ITSSMALLSIZEUTILIZINGITSTINYDIMENSIONS,AMICROMACHINECANPERFORMTASKSINAREVOLUTIONARYWAYTHATWOULDBEIMPOSSIBLEFORCONVENTIONALMACHINESTHATIS,MICROMACHINESDONOTAFFECTTHEOBJECTORTHEENVIRONMENTASMUCHASCONVENTIONALMACHINESDOMICROMACHINESPERFORMTHEIRTASKSGENTLYTHIS邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)3ISAFUNDAMENTALDIFFERENCEBETWEENMICROMACHINESANDCONVENTIONALMACHINESTHEMEDICALFIELDHOLDSTHEHIGHESTEXPECTATIONSFORBENEFITSFROMTHISFEATUREOFMICROMACHINESDIADNOSISANDTREATMENTWILLCHANGEDRASTICALLYFROMCONVENTIONALMETHODS,AND“FANTASTICVOYAGE”MAYNOLONGERBEAFANTASYIFAMICROMACHINECANGENTLYENTERAHUMANBODYTOTREATILLNESS,HUMANSWILLBEFREEDFROMPAINFULSURGERYANDUNCOMFORTABLEGASTROCAMERATESTINGFURTHERORE,IFMICROMACHINESCANHALTTHETRENDOFEVERINCREASINGSIZEINMEDICALEQUIPMENT,ITCOULDSLOWTHEEXCESSGROWTHANDCOMPLEXITYOFMEDICALTECHNOLOGY,CONTRIBUTINGTOTHESOLVINGOFSERIOUSPROBLEMSWITHHIGHMEDICALCOSTSFORCITIZENSMICROMACHINESAREGENTLEALSOINTERMSOFMACHINEMAINTENANCE,SINCETHEYCANBEINSPECTEDANDREPAIREDWITHOUTDIFFICULTYINREACHINGANDOVERHAULINGTHEENGINEORPLANTTHEMORECOMPLEXTHEMACHINE,THEMORESUSCEPTIBLEITISTOMALFUNCTIONDUETOOVERHAULANDASSEMBLYINADDITION,THEREHAVEBEENMOREINSTANCESOFHUMANERRORSDURINGOVERHAULANDASSEMBLYITISGOODFORTHEMACHINEIFOVERHAULISNOTNECESSARYITISEVENBETTERIFMAINTENANCECANBEPERFORMEDWITHOUTSTOPPINGTHEMACHINEREPEATEDSTOPANDGOOPERATIONWILLACCELERATEDAMAGEOFTHEMACHINEDUETOEXCESSSTRESSCAUSEDBYTHERMALEXPANSIONSUCHGENTLENESSOFAMOCROMACHINEISANADVANTAGE,ASWELLASAWEAKNESSINTHATAMICROMACHINEISTOOFRAGILETORESISTTHEOBJECTORTHEENVIRONMENT;THISISTHEDRAWBACKOFTHEMICROSCALEOBJECTSFOREXAMPLE,AFISHCANSWIMFREELYAGAINSTTHECURRENT,BUTASMALLPLANKTONCANNOTTHISISRESULTOFPHYSICALLAWSANDNOTHINGCANCHANGEITSTILL,THEPLANKTONCANLIVEANDGROWINTHENATURALENVIRONMENTBYCONFORMINGTOTHEENVIRONMENTUNLIKECONVENTIONALMACHINESWHICHFIGHTANDCONTROLNATURAL,MICROMACHINESWILLPROBABLYADAPTTOANDUTILIZENATUREIFAMICROMACHINECANNOTPROCEEDAGAINSTTHECURRENT,AWAYWILLBEFOUNDTOPROCEEDWITHTHEFLOW,NATURALLYAVOIDINGCOLLISIONSWITHOBSTACLES邵阳学院毕业设计(论文)44MICROELECTRONICSANDMECHATRONICSTHECONCEPTOFMICROMACHINESANDRELATEDTECHNOLOGIESISSTILLNOTADEQUATELYUNIFIED,ASTHESEARESTILLATTHEDEVELOPMENTSTAGETHEMICROMACHINESANDRELATEDTECHNOLOGIESARECURRENTLYREFERREDTOBYAVARIETYOFDIFFERENTTERMSINTHEUNITEDSTATES,THEACCEPTEDTERMIS“MICROELECTROMECHANICALSYSTEMS”MEMS;INEUROPE,THETERM“MICROSYSTEMSTECHNOLOGY”MSTISCOMMON,WHILETHETERM“MICROENGINEERING”ISSOMETIMESUSEDINBRITAINMEANWHILEINAUSTRALIA“MICROMACHINE”THEMOSTCOMMONTERMIFITISTRANSLATEDINTOENGLISHIS“MICROMACHINE”THEMOSTCOMMONTERMIFITISTRANSLATEDINTOENGLISHIS“MICROMACHINE”INJAPANHOWEVER“MICROROBOT”AND“MICROMECHANISM”AREALSOAVAILABLECASEBYCASETHEAPPEARANCEOFTHESEVARIOUSTERMSSHOULDBEITEMSTAKENASREFLECTINGNOTMERELYDIVERSITYOFEXPRESSION,BUTDIVERSITYOFTHEITEMSREFERREDTODEPENDINGONWHETHERTHEITEMREFERREDTOISANOBJECTORATECHNOLOGY,THETERMINOLOGYMAYBESUMMEDUPASFOLLOWSOBJECTMICROROBOT,MICROMECHANISMTECHNOLOGYMICROENGINEERING,MSTOBJECTTECHNOLOGYMEMS,MICROMACHINEWITHREGARDTOTECHNOLOGY,IFWESUMMARIZETHETERMSACCORDINGTO1WHERETHETECHNOLOGYFORMICROMACHINESYSTEMSBRANCHEDFROM,AND2WHETHERTHEOBJECTDEALTWITHBYTHETECHNOLOGYINQUESTIONISANELEMENTORAMACHINESYSTEM,THETERMSCANBEORGANIZEDASFOLLOWSTHATIS,MEMSANDMSTSTEMFROMMECHATRONICS,ANDHAVEDEVELOPEDDEALINGMAINLYWITHMACHINESYSTEMSINTHISSENSE,MEMSANDMSTONTHEONEHANDMICROMACHINESANDMICROENGINEERINGONTHEOTHERHANDFORMTWOSEPARATEGROUPS,BUTASFORMERHASSTARTEDTOMOVEINTHEDIRECTIONOFMACHINESYSTEMS,WHILETHELATTERHASALREADYINCORPORATEDMICROELECTRONICS,THEDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHETWOGROUPSAREGRADUALLYDISAPPEARINGLOOKINGATTHEAREASINTHETWOGROUPS,GIVENTHATTHEMACHINESYSTEMSWHICHARETHEMAINCONCERNOFMICROMACHINEINCLUDEMICROELECTRONICS,IT

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