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外文翻译--数控机床性能测试设备的开发和利用 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--数控机床性能测试设备的开发和利用 英文版.pdf

THEDEVELOPMENTANDAPPLICATIONOFPERFORMANCETESTINGDEVICESFORCNCMACHINETOOLSWenyuhJyweProfessor,DepartmentofAutomationEngineering,NationalHuweiInstituteofTechnology,Huwei,Yunlin,Taiwan,632Address64WenhuaRoad,NationalHuweiInstituteofTechnologyHuwei,Yunlin,Taiwan,R.O.CEmailJywesunws.nhit.edu.twAbstractThetestingdevicesforperformancetestingonaCNCmachinetoolweredeveloped.AsmallradiuscontouringdevicewasemployedforcheckingthedynamicperformanceofaCNCmachinetool.Thisdevicewascomposedofalaserdiodeandaquadrantsensor.ForcheckinggeometricerrorofaCNCmachinetool,alongradiuscontouringdevicewasemployed.Theopticencodercontouringsystemswerealsorepresented.Experimentalworkwascarriedoutinthepaper.Copyright©2002IFACKeywordsContouringGeometricerrorCNCmachinetoolQuadrantsensorOpticscalemeasuringsystemPlanarencoder1.INTRODUCTIONJ.B.Bryan1982developedthefirstballbarsystemforthecontouringtest.However,inthissystem,theuncertaintyishighduetothefrictionbetweenthemasterballsandthemagneticsocketsandnoaccuratecontouringradiuswasgiven.Knappssystem1983,1983usedthecirclecomparisonstandarddiscmountedonthetestedtableofthemachinetoolandthe2Dprobe.Y.Kakinov1985,Y.Kakino,YIhara,A.Kamei1986andY.Kakinov,Y.IharaandY.Nakastsu1987.Y.Kakino,Y.IharaandY.Nakastu1986providedsomemethodsbyusingtheballbarsystemtocalibrateacoordinatemeasuringmachineandCNCmachinetools.W.Knapp1986,1988describedtherulestoreducetheerrorsduetothestickslipandothers.M.BurdekinandJ.Park1988modifiedtheoriginalballbarsystembyemployingafourrodlinkage.M.BurdekinandW.Y.Jywe1992providedamethodtodiagnosethecontouringerrorandtoadjusttheparametersoftheCNCcontrollertooptimizetheperformanceofthetestedCNCmachinetool.J.C.ZiegertandChritopher1994describedthelaserballbarsystembyguidingafiberwithalaserinterferometer.WenyuhJywe2001providedtheapplicationofthedevelopedlinkagetoverifythecontouringerrorofaCNClatheandalsoprovidedthemethodtocompensatefortheerror.Theabovecontouringsystemsprovidedthegeneralpurposeofacontouringtest.Withthehighcostofthemeasuringdevice,theystillcannotprovidepropercontouringsystemsforvariouspurposes.Thus,inthispaper,somesimpleandlowcostcontouringsystemsaredevelopedindividuallyfordifferenttestpurposes.Theyaresummarizedandrepresentedasfollowed1.Thelaserdiodeandthequadrantsensorcontouringsystemforsmallradiuscontouringlessthan4mminthecontouringradius.2.TheopticscalecontouringsystemforlargeradiuscontouringandforthevolumetricerrortestUpto300mminthecontouringradius.3.Theopticscalecontouringsystemforthevolumetricerrortest.4.Theselfsupportedballbarsystemforcontouringtestundercuttingsituation.2.THELASERDIODEANDTHEQUADRANTSENSORCONTOURINGSYSTEMQSCSFig.1describesthelaserdiodeandquadrantsensormeasuringsystem,composedofalaserdiode,anopticlenses,ashield,aquadrantsensor,asignalpropose,anA/DinterfacecardandaPC.Thequadrantsensoroutput4channelsofvoltageswhilethelaserlightisprojectedonit.Duetothelimitationofthesizeofthequadrantdetector,onlyupto4mmcontouringradiusisavailable.However,thereisgoodenoughforcheckingthedynamicperformanceoftheCNCCopyright©2002IFAC15thTriennialWorldCongress,Barcelona,Spainmachinetool.Fig1TheprinciplethequadrantsensorforperformancetestofamachinetoolAVBVCVDVXYDiodeLaserFig2TheworkingprincipleofalaserdiodeandaquadrantsensorAsshowninFig.2,Thelaserdiodeprovidesalaserlightandthelightisfocusedandprojectedonthequadrant.Thequadrantoutputsfourchannelsignalsintermofvoltages.Fromtheprojectedpointonthequadrantsensor,thepositioninXaxisandinYaxiscanbeobtained.LetVA,VB,VCandVDrepresenttheoutputvoltagesofthesensor.Fig.3showsthecalibrationdiagramtoobtainthepositionsinXaxisandinYaxis.XXxBABAbDaVVVV−XDXbBABAVVVV−aYYYDCDCbDaVVVV−YDYbDCDCVVVV−bFig3ThecalibratingdiagramofanaxisofaquadrantsensorAfterthecalibrating,theconstantswillbesavedinbePCandbeemployedforthefurtherapplications.Fig.4ThetestresultonaCNCverticalmillingmachinewithaFANUCSeriesOMcontroller3.1TheexperimentaltestsbyusingQSCSAsshowninFig.4,thequadrantsensorworkingrangeisabout6mm6mmafterthecalibration.ACNCverticalmillingmachinewithaFANUCseriesOMcontrolleristested.Thecontouringfeedrateisselectedat10,2100and3200mm/minindividually.A2mmcircularcontouringradiusissetforthreerunsforbothclockwiseandanticlockwise.Therepeatabilityforeach3runsisverygoodintheactualtest.Thecontouringradiusreduceswhenfeedrateincreases.Atafeedrateof3200mm/min,theradiuserrorisabout0.7mm.Also,thecontouringerrorresultinFig.4showsa45°ellipsepath.AllthesecontouringerrorsinFig.4arecorrespondingtothoseshowninthemanual1990providedbyFanucCo.3.THEOPTICSCALEMEASURINGSYSTEMInthissectionanopticscalemeasuringsystemisdeveloped.Basically,thesystemisemployedforcontouringtestonaCNCmachinetool.However,thevolumetricerrortestofemployingthissystemisalsostudied.Thenthemethodtoemploythissystemforsquarenesserrorstestisrepresented.3.1TheopticscalemeasuringsystemforthecontouringtestFig.5indicatestheopticscalemeasuringsystemforCNCmachinetoolperformancetest.Anopticscaleisfixedonthesupportingblock.Thereadingheadisguidedbytheguidingbarandmovedbythemovingbar.Onelinearbearingisfixedbetweenthesupportingblockandthemovingbarwhiletheotheroneisfixedbetweentheopticreadingheadandtheguidingbar.Onemasterballisconnectedtoamagneticbar,whichisfixedontheCNCmachinetoolspindlewhiletheothermasterballandmagneticbarelementisfixedonamagneticbase,whichissetonthetestingCNCmachinetooltable.Fig.5ThestructureoftheopticmeasuringsystemDuringatest,therelativedisplacementbetweentwomasterballsissampled.Foracircularcontouringtest,thecontouringcenterissetattheballcenterofthespindlewhilethetableismovedinthetwoaxesofthemachinetoolatthesametime.Thecontouringmotioncausestheopticscaletomovealongtheopticreadinghead.Therefore,thesamplecanbeobtainedandsenttothePCviaacounterinterfacecard.Furthermore,softwareiswrittentosimple,recordandtoanalyzethedata.Fig.6Thestructureofusingtheopticmeasuringsystemforvolumetricerrortest4.THEOPTICSCALEMEASURINGSYSTEMFORTHEVOLUMETRICERRORTESTAccordingtoISO2032orANSIB5standard,forCNCmachinetoolpositioningtest,asimplepositiontestcanbeexecuted,ingeneral,byanexpensivelaserinterferometersystem.Fordifferentmeasuringareas,differentsettingupsarenecessary.AspreviousstudybyWenyuhJywe2000,aspherevolumetricerrorcanbecarriedoutbyaballbarsystem.Inthatsystem,onlythepositionerrorandbacklashonthesurfaceofthespherecanbeobtainedduetothelimitationoftheworkingrangeoftheLVDTLinearVariableDifferentialTransformer,whichisemployedontheballbarsystem.Insummary,theopticscalemeasuringsystemtakesbothadvantagesofthetwomeasuringsystems.1.Inonesettingup,ahollowsphericalvolumetricerrorofaCNCmachinetoolcanbecarriedout.2.Thecostofthisopticscalesystemislow.Itiseasytooperation.3.FordifferentsizesofCNCmachinetools,differentrangesofopticscalesarealwaysavailable.Fig.6showsthesamplingpathofthehollowspherevolumeofaCNCmachinetool.Inonesettingup,thecenterofthemasterballoftheopticscalelinkageissetaboutatthecenterofthevolumeofthetestedCNCmachinetool.Thenpossibleevenspacingarrangementistakentoidentifythesamplingpath.Forexample,thesphereiscutinto5planes.Eachplaneisevenlycutinto6lines360°/60°.Eachlineincludes8samplingpoints240mm/30mm8.Thusinonesettingup240samplingpoints5x6x8240canbetaken.Totestthebacklashandtherepeatability3x2runsareneeded.Thus240x6runs1440samplingpointsaretaken.Ittakes2secondsforeachsampling.Thus,ittakesaboutonehourincludingsettinguptimetocarryoutthiswork.Fig.7ThetestarrangementforsquarenesserrorstestsofYZandZXplaneInthistestarrangementinFig.7,ahorizontalXYplanecontouringiscarriedout.Then,withthesamesettingupandthesameopticscalemeasuringsystem,letthespindlemoveupinZaxisatadistanceoffset.Thesecondcontouringtestisthenexecuted.Withthisopticscalemeasuringsystem,itisnotnecessarytochangethelinkageorthesettingupduringthissquarenesstest.Ifnosquarenesserrorexiststhesameanalyzedinitialsettinguperrorseccentricityinbothcontouringtestswillbeobtained.Underthisarrangement,thesecondsampleddatamustbemodifiedbeforeanalysis.Therefore,cosAngleSetoutputTransducerdataModifiedθθWhere,21cos1dtestnlinklongofLengthteststlinkshortofLengthAngleSet−−−Afterthesamplingtheoriginalsampledatawithshortlinkandthemodifieddatawithlonglinkareanalyzedbytheleastsquarefitting.Thetwoindividualanalyzedinitialsetuperrorsareusedforthecalculationofthesquarenesserror.SquarenessatZXplanetan121OffsetXX−−SquarenessatYZplanetan121OffsetYY−−Whereistheanalyzedcenterofthefirstcontouringtest11,YXWhereistheanalyzedcenterofthesecondcontouringtest22,YXOffsetisthemovementdistanceinZaxisafterthefirstcontouringtest4.1TheplanarencodercontouringdeviceforCNCmachinetoolsTheprincipleoftheplanarencoderAplanarencodersystem,suchasRenishawRGXgridplate,hasbeendevelopedforapplicationssuchassemiconductorandelectronicsmanufacturingequipment.Thesystemusesreadheadwith2orthogonalsensorsthatreadachegurepatternedgridinbothXandYdirectionssimultaneously.Thesystemwithgooddynamicresponsecanprovideupto0.1mresolutioninpositioning.Fig.8showsthearrangementofthecontouringtestbyusingasimpleplanarencoder.Thisplanarencoderprovidespositioninginformationineachaxisfora2Dcontouring.Duringthetest,theplanarencoderissetontheCNCmachinetool.ThereadingheadisfixedwiththespindleoftheCNCmachinetool.Thesoftwareofthecomputerviaacountercardcanreadthesamplingdata.Thissamplecontouringdeviceprovidesthefollowingfeatures.1.Duringacontouringtest,theindividualcontouringerrorineachaxiscanbeobtained.Thisisusefulforanalyzingandcompensatingthecontouringerror.2.Thecontouringareacanbeupto300mmx300mmwiththeselectionof0.1µmto1µmresolutionswithinthisarea,variouscontouringpathscanbearranged.3.Itiseasyforsettingupandoperation.Fig.8Theplanarencoderforcontouringtest4.2ThetestresultsAsimplecontouringtestiscarriedoutonaXYplaneofaverticalCNCmachinetoolwith0MFanuccontroller.ThecontouringresultisshowninFig.9.Theanticlockwiseandclockwisecontouringtestsat20mmradiuscanmeetISO2301and2302requirements.Fromtheresults,theabsoluteradiuserrorcanbefoundeasily.Forgeneralcontouringsystems,onlyoutofroundnessisgiven.Furthermore,theerrorineachaxiscanalsobefoundindividuallyifnecessary.Thisisusefulforanalysispurpose.Fig.9Thecontouringresultwithaplanarencoder4.THESELFSUPPORTEDLINKAGESYSTEMSLSInthissection,aselfsupportedlinkageisdevelopedfortheapplicationofcontouringtestundercuttingcondition.TheproposedSLSis

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