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外文翻译--机械手.doc

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外文翻译--机械手.doc

附录英文及翻译AmanipulatorRobotisatypeofmechantronicsequipmentwhichsynthesizesthelastresearchachievementofengineandprecisionengine,microelectronicsandcomputer,automationcontrolanddrive,sensorandmessagedisposeandartificialintelligenceandsoon.Withthedevelopmentofeconomicandthedemandforautomationcontrol,robottechnologyisdevelopedquicklyandalltypesoftherobotsproductsarecomeintobeing.Thepracticalityuseofrobotproductsnotonlysolvestheproblemswhicharedifficulttooperateforhumanbeing,butalsoadvancestheindustrialautomationprogram.Modernindustrialrobotsaretruemarvelsofengineering.Arobotthesizeofapersoncaneasilycarryaloadoveronehundredpoundsandmoveitveryquicklywitharepeatabilityof/0.006inches.Furthermoretheserobotscandothat24hoursadayforyearsonendwithnofailureswhatsoever.Thoughtheyarereprogrammable,inmanyapplicationsparticularlythoseintheautoindustrytheyareprogrammedonceandthenrepeatthatexactsametaskforyears.Atpresent,theresearchanddevelopmentofrobotinvolvesseveralkindsoftechnologyandtherobotsystemconfigurationissocomplexthatthecostatlargeishighwhichtoacertainextentlimittherobotabroaduse.Todevelopmenteconomicpracticalityandhighreliabilityrobotsystemwillbevaluetorobotsocialapplicationandeconomydevelopment.Withtherapidprogresswiththecontroleconomyandexpandingofthemoderncities,theletofsewageisincreasingquicklyWiththedevelopmentofmoderntechnologyandtheenhancementofconsciousnessaboutenvironmentreserve,moreandmorepeoplerealizedtheimportanceandurgentofsewagedisposal.Activebacteriamethodisaneffectivetechniqueforsewagedisposal,Thelacunarisplasticisaneffectivebasementforactivebacteriaadhesionforsewagedisposal.Theabundancerequirementforlacunarisplasticmakesitisaconsequentfortheplasticproducingwithautomationandhighproductivity.Therefore,itisverynecessarytodesignamanipulatorthatcanautomaticallyfulfilltheplasticholding.Withtheanalysisoftheproblemsinthedesignoftheplasticholdingmanipulatorandsynthesizingtherobotresearchanddevelopmentconditioninrecentyears,aeconomicschemeisconcludedonthebasisoftheanalysisofmechanicalconfiguration,transformsystem,drivedeviceandcontrolsystemandguidedbytheideaofthecharacteristicandcomplexofmechanicalconfiguration,electronic,softwareandhardware.Inthisarticle,themechanicalconfigurationcombinesthecharacterofdirectioncoordinateandthearthrosiscoordinatewhichcanimprovethestabilityandoperationflexibilityofthesystem.Themainfunctionofthetransmissionmechanismistotransmitpowertoimplementdepartmentandcompletethenecessarymovement.Inthistransmissionstructure,thescrewtransmissionmechanismtransmitstherotarymotionintolinearmotion.Wormgearcangivevarytransmissionratio.Bothofthetransmissionmechanismshaveacharacteristicofcompactstructure.Thedesignofdrivesystemoftenislimitedbytheenvironmentconditionandthefactorofcostandtechnicallever.Thestepmotorcanreceivedigitalsignaldirectlyandhastheabilitytoresponseouterenvironmentimmediatelyandhasnoaccumulationerror,whichoftenisusedindrivingsystem.Inthisdrivingsystem,openloopcontrolsystemiscomposedofsteppingmotor,whichcansatisfythedemandnotonlyforcontrolprecisionbutalsoforthetargetofeconomicandpracticality.Onthisbasis,theanalysisofsteppingmotorinpowercalculatingandstyleselectingisalsogiven.Theanalysisofkinematicsanddynamicsforobjectholdingmanipulatorisgivenincompletingthedesignofmechanicalstructureanddrivesystem.Kinematicsanalysisisthebasisofpathprogrammingandtrackcontrol.Thepositiveandreverseanalysisofmanipulatorgivestherelationshipbetweenmanipulatorspaceanddrivespaceinpositionandspeed.Therelationshipbetweenmanipulatorstippositionandarthrosisanglesisconcludedbycoordinatetransformmethod.Thegeometrymethodisusedinsolvinginversekinematicsproblemandtheresultwillprovidetheoryevidenceforcontrolsystem.Thef0unctionofdynamicsistogettherelationshipbetweenthemovementandforceandthetargetistosatisfythedemandofrealtimecontrol.inthischamfer,NewtonEuripidesmethodisusedinanalysisdynamicproblemofthecleaningrobotandthearthrosisforceandtorquearegivenwhichprovidethefoundationforstepmotorselectingandstructuredynamicoptimalting.Controlsystemisthekeyandcorepartoftheobjectholdingmanipulatorsystemdesignwhichwilldirecteffectthereliabilityandpracticalityoftherobotsysteminthedivisionofconfigurationandcontrolfunctionandalsowilleffectorlimitthedevelopmentcostandcycle.WiththedemandofthePCL839card,thePCcomputerwhichhasa.tightstructureandiseasytobeextendedisusedastheprincipalcomputercellandtakesthefunctionofsysteminitialization,dataoperationanddispose,stepmotordriveanderrordiagnoseandsoon.Atthesametime,theconfigurationstructurefeatures,taskprinciplesandthepositionfunctionwithhighprecisionofthecontrolcardPCL839areanalyzed.Hardwareisthematterfoundationofthecontrol.Systemandthesoftwareisthespiritofthecontrolsystem.Thetargetofthesoftwareistocombineallthepartsinoptimizingstyleandtoimprovetheefficiencyandreliabilityofthecontrolsystem.Thesoftwaredesignoftheobjectholdingmanipulatorcontrolsystemisdividedintoseveralblockssuchassysteminitializationblock,dataprocessblockanderrorstationdetectanddisposemodelandsoon.PCL839cardcansolvethecommunicationbetweenthemaincomputerandthecontrolcellsandtakethemeasureofreducingtheinfluenceoftheoutersignaltothecontrolsystem.Thestartandstopfrequencyofthestepmotorisfarlowerthanthemaximumrunningfrequency.Inordertoimprovetheefficiencyofthestepmotor,theincreaseanddecreaseofthespeedismustconsideredwhenthestepmotorrunninginhighspeedandstartorstopwithgreatacceleration.Theincreaseanddecreaseofthemotorsspeedcanbecontrolledbythepulsefrequencysenttothestepmotordrivewitharationalmethod.Thiscanbeimplementedeitherbyhardwareorbysoftware.Astepmotorshiftcontrolmethodisproposed,whichissimpletocalculate,easytorealizeandthetheorymeansisstraightforward.Themotorsaccelerationcanfitthetorquefrequencycurveproperlywiththismethod.Andtheamountofcalculationloadislessthanthelinearaccelerationshiftcontrolmethodandthemethodwhichisbasedontheexponentialruletochangespeed.Themethodistestedbyexperiment.Atlast,theresearchcontentandtheachievementaresumupandtheproblemsandshortagesinmainthecontentarealsolisted.Thedevelopmentandapplicationofrobotinthefutureisexpected.Thepurposeofmanipulatorcontrolistomaintainthedynamicresponseofacomputerbasedmanipulatorinaccordancewithsomeprespecifiedsystemperformanceanddesiredgoals.Ingeneral,thedynamicperformanceofamanipulatordirectlydependsontheefficiencyofthecontrolalgorithmsandthedynamicmodelofthemanipulator.Thecontrolproblemconsistsofobtainingdynamicmodelsofthephysicalrobotarmsystemandthenspecifyingcorrespondingcontrollawsorstrategiestoachievethedesiredsystemresponseandperformance.Currentindustrialapproachestorobotarmcontroltreateachjointoftherobotarmasasimplejointservomechanism.Theservomechanismapproachmodelsthevaryingdynamicsofamanipulatorinadequatelybecauseitneglectsthemotionandconfigurationofthewholearmmechanism.Thesechangesintheparametersofthecontrolledsystemsometimesaresignificantenoughtorenderconventionalfeedbackcontrolstrategiesineffective.Theresultisreducedservoresponsespeedanddamping,limitingtheprecisionandspeedoftheendeffectorandmakingitappropriateonlyforlimitedprecisiontasks.Manipulatorscontrolledinthismannermoveatslowspeedswithunnecessaryvibrations.Anysignificantperformancegaininthisandotherareasofrobotarmcontrolrequiretheconsiderationofmoreefficientdynamicmodels,sophisticatedcontrolapproaches,andtheuseofdedicatedcomputerarchitecturesandparallelprocessingtechniques.Intheindustrialproductionandotherfields,peopleoftenendangeredbysuchfactorsashightemperature,corrode,poisonousgasandsoforthatwork,whichhaveincreasedlaborintensityandevenjeopardizedthelifesometimes.Thecorrespondingproblemsaresolvedsincetherobotarmcomesout.Therobotarmscancatch,putandcarryobjects,anditsmovementsareflexibleanddiversified.Itappliestomediumandsmallscaleautomatedproductioninwhichproductionvarietiescanbeswitched.Anditiswidelyusedonsoftautomaticline.Therobotarmsaregenerallymadebywithstandhightemperatures,resistcorrosionofmaterialstoadapttotheharshenvironment.Sotheyreducedthelaborintensityoftheworkerssignificantlyandraisedworkefficiency.Therobotarmisanimportantcomponentofindustrialrobots,anditcanbecalledindustrialrobotsonmanyoccasions.Industrialrobotissetmachinery,electronics,control,computers,sensors,artificialintelligenceandotheradvancedtechnologiesintheintegrationofmultidisciplinaryimportantmodernmanufacturingequipment.Widelyusingindustrialrobots,notonlycanimproveproductqualityandproduction,butalsoisofgreatsignificanceforphysicalsecurityprotection,improvementoftheenvironmentforlabor,reducinglaborintensity,improvementoflaborproductivity,rawmaterialconsumptionsavingsandloweringproductioncosts.机械手机器人是典型的机电一体化装置,它综合运用了机械与精密机械、微电子与计算机、自动控制与驱动、传感器与信息处理以及人工智能等多学科的最新研究成果,随着经济的发展和各行各业对自动化程度要求的提高,机器人技术得到了迅速发展,出现了各种各样的机器人产品。现代工业机器人是人类真正的奇迹工程。一个像人那么大的机器人可以轻松地抬起超过一百磅并可以在误差0.006英寸误差范围内重复的移动。更重要的是这些机器人可以每天24小时永不停止地工作。在许多应用中(特别是在自动工业中)他们是通过编程控制的,但是他们一旦编程一次,他们可以重复地做同一工作许多年。机器人产品的实用化,既解决了许多单靠人力难以解决的实际问题,又促进了工业自动化的进程。目前,由于机器人的研制和开发涉及多方面的技术,系统结构复杂,开发和研制的成本普遍较高,在某种程度上限制了该项技术的广泛应用,因此,研制经济型、实用化、高可靠性机器人系统具有广泛的社会现实意义和经济价值。由于我国经济建设和城市化的快速发展,城市污水排放量增长很快,污水处理己经摆在了人们的议事日程上来。随着科学技术的发展和人类知识水平的提高,人们越来越认识到污水处理的重要性和迫切性,科学家和研究人员发现塑料制品在水中是用于污水处理的很有效的污泥菌群的附着体。塑料制品的大量需求,使得塑料制品生产的自动化和高效率要求成为经济发展的必然。本文结合塑料一次挤出成型机和塑料抓取机械手的研制过程中出现的问题,综述近儿年机器人技术研究和发展的状况,在充分发挥机、电、软、硬件各自特点和优势互补的基础上,对物料抓取机械手整体机械结构、传动系统、驱动装置和控制系统进行了分析和设计,提出了一套经济型设计方案。采用直角坐标和关节坐标相结合的框架式机械结构形式,这种方式能够提高系统的稳定性和操作灵活性。传动装置的作用是将驱动元件的动力传递给机器人机械手相应的执行机构,以实现各种必要的运动,传动方式上采用结构紧凑、传动比大的蜗轮蜗杆传动和将旋转运动转换为直线运动的螺旋传动。机械手驱动系统的设计往往受到作业环境条件的限制,同时也要考虑价格因素的影响以及能够达到的技术水平。由于步进电机能够直接接收数字量,响应速度快而且工作可靠并无累积误差,常用作数字控制系统驱动机构的动力元件,因此,在驱动装置中采用由步进电机构成的开环控制方式,这种方式既能满足控制精度的要求,又能达到经济性、实用化目的,在此基础上,对步进电机的功率计一算及选型问题经行了分析。在完成机械结构和驱动系统设计的基础上,对物料抓取机械手运动学和动力学进行了分析。运动学分析是路径规划和轨迹控制的基础,对操作臂进行了运动学正、逆问题的分析可以完成操作空间位置和速度向驱动空间的映射,采用齐次坐标变换法得到了操作臂末端位置和姿态随关节夹角之间的变换关系,采用几何法分析了操作臂的逆向运动学方程求解问题,对控

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