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外文翻译--柔性制造系统.doc

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外文翻译--柔性制造系统.doc

外文翻译英文原文FLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMALOGICALSTEPFROMTHECONCEPTSOFGROUPLAYOUTANDOFNCMACHINETOOLSANDROBOTICSARECOMPUTERCONTROLLEDINTERLINKEDOUTSTATIONMACHININGCOMPLEXES,OR11EXIBEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSFMSASTHEYHAVEBEDCLOTHESCALLDOSUCHSYSTEMSCANBELOOKEDUPONASHIGHLYAUTOMATEDCELLSMANUFACTURINGFAMILIESOFCOMPONENTSTHECONCEPTOFFMSISNOTANEWONE;THEFIRSTPROPOSALSWEREMADEINTHEMID1960SINRECENTYEARSWEHAVESEENAGROWTHINTHENUMBEROFSYSTEMS,PARTICULARLYINJAPAN,SUCHTHATITISESTIMATEDTHATINEXCESSOFAHUNDREDSYSTEMSHAVEBEENINSTALLEDWORLDWIDEAFLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMCONTAINSANUMBEROFFEATURESASFOLLOWS1INTERLINKEDNCWORKSTATIONSOPERATINGONALIMITEDRANGEORFAMILYOFWORKPIECESINEARLYPROPOSALESTHEMACHINESWEREOFMODULARCONSTRUCTION,BUTINRECENTSYSTEMSGENERALPURPOSENCMACHINES,INPARTICULARMACHININGCENTERS,AREMOSTCOMMONLYUSED2AUTOMATICTRANSPORTATION,LOADINGATUNLOADINGOFWORKPIECESANDTOOLS,USINGAUTOMATICGUIDEDVEHICLESAGVS,ROBOTS,ETC3WORKPIECESMOUNTEDONPALLETSFTTRANSPORTATION,PATTLYTOOVERCOMETHEPROBLEMSOFNEWSETUPSATEACHWORKSTATION4CENTRALIZEDNCORDNC,TOGETHERWITHOVERALLCOMPUTERCONTROLOFTHESYSTEM5OPERATIONFORSIGNIFICANTPERIODSOFTIMEWITHLITTLEORNOMANUALINTERVENTIONWITHFMSTHETERNFLEXIBILITYMEANSTHEABILITYTOAPTNESSAVARIETYOFCOMPONENTSWITHOUTHAVINGTOADJUSTMACHINESETUPSORCHANGETOOLINGHIGHFLEXIBILITYIMPLIESTHATALARGEFAMILYOFDIFFERENTCOMPONENTSCANBEPRODUCEDBYTHEPARTICULARSYSTEMFIGURE517SHOWTHATSEVERALVARIANTSOFTHEBASICFMSCONKEPTEXISTTHESEARE;LFLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGCELLSFMSTHESEAREBASICALLYMACHININGCENTUMBUTWITHTHEADDITIONOFAPALLETPOOLORMAGAZINEFIG5T8THEAIMISTOMACHINETHEWORKPIECEWITHONESTUPEFIESTYPEOFMACHINECANBEOPERATEDUNMANNEDFORLONGPERIODSOFTIME,WITHTHEPALLETIZEDWORKPIECESTRANSFORMEDAUSOMATICALLYTOANDFROMTHEMACHINEFLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGCELLSOFTHISTYPEMUSTBESERVEDBYMACHINESOROPERATORSENGAGEDINBLANKPREPARATIONANDPOLARIZATIONOFWORKPIECESTHESECELLSAREHIGHLYFLEXIBLEINOPERATION,HAVINGTHEABILITYTODEALWITHAWIDERANGEOFPATS40TO800,INSMALLBATCHESOFFROM15TO5002FLEXIBLETRANSFERLINESFALLTHESE,SYSTEMSCONSISTOFANUMBEROFNCORHEADCHANGEABLEMACHINETOOLSCONNECTEDBYAUTOMATICMATERIALTRANSFERSYSTEMSTHESYSTEMCANMACHINEDIFFERENTCOMPONENTSBUTWITHOUTFLEXIBLEROUTINGOFTHEWORKPIECESTHEFAMILYOFCOMPONENTSISRELATIVELYSMALL20ANDTHECOMPONENTSMUSTBEQUITESIMILARTOONEANOTHER,ASTHEOVERALLFLEXIBILITYOFTOTESYSTEMISTOOLOWFORALARGERVARIETYTOBEACCOMMODATEDINCONSEQUENCE,THEWORKCYCLESATEACHSTATIONNULLSAREQUITEWELLBALANCEDPRODUCTIONQUANTITIESMUSTBEQUITELARGEFORECONOMICUSEOFTHESESYSTEM1500TO15000PERANNUMFOREACHCOMPONENT3FLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSFMS,INTHESESYSTEMSNCWORKSTATIONSARELINKEDBYAUTOMATICWORKPIECETRANSFERANDHANDINGWITHFLEXIBLEROUTINGANDAUTOMATICWORKPIECELOADINGANDUNLOADINGACHININGTIMESATEACHSTATIONCANDIFFERCONSIDERABLYTHENUMBEROFDIFFERENTCOMPONENTSTHATCANBEPROCUSSEDBYTHESESYSTEMSISOHM10O150INGENERALANDMODERATEQUANTITIESCANBEPRODUCED15TO500COMPONENTSPERANNUMFORTYPE1.WORKHANDLINGFORFMSWORKPIECESAREUSUALLYMOUNTEDONSTANDARDPALLETSFORPROCESSINGINFMSANDTHESEPALLETSLOCATEAUTOMATICALLYATEACHWORKSTATIONINTHESYSTEMAVARIETYOFWORKHANDLINGDEVICESAREUSEDTOTRANSPORTPARTS,PALLETS,ANDTOOLSAROUNDTHESYSTEMSOMEOFTHESEATEASFOLLOWS1TOWCARTSTHESEARETHEMOSTCANNONDEVICESUSED;THEYCONSISTOFASIMPLEPLATFORMONCASTORSANDARETOWEDAROUNDTHESYSTEMBYENGAGEMENTWITHUNDERFLOOR,CONTINUOUSLYMOVINGCHAINSCATSSTOPATWORKSTATIONSBYMEANSOFAMECHANISMTOTALRELEASESTHETOWPINATTHEAPPROPRIATETIMEBRANCHESANDLOOPSARECANALLEDINASIMILARMANNERTORAILWAYSYSTEMS11TEMAINADVANTAGEOFTOWCARTSISTHEIRSIMPLICITYANDLOWCOST,SINCENOONBOARDPOWERISREQUIREDFORTHEIRMOVEMENTORCONTROLFACILITIESMUSTBEAVAILABLEATEACHWORKSTATIONTOLOADANDUNLOADPALLETSFROMTHECARTSALSO,THECIRCULATIONOFCARTSMUSTBEUNIDIRECTIONAL2AUTOMATICGUIDEDVEHICLESAGVSTHESEDEVICESAREUSUALLYDESIGNEDTOFOLLOWWINSBURIEDINTHEFLOOROFTHEPLANTORLINESPAINTEDONTOTEFLOORONBOARDPOWERANDCONTROLISREQUIREDFORBOLTMOVEMINTANDSTEERINGATEFORTOTEHANDLINGOFPALLETSAUTOMATICGUIDEDVEHICLESATEMOREEXPENSIVETHANTOWCATSANDAREBOTHLARGERANDHEAVIERTALEMAINADVANTAGEOFAGVSISTHEIRGREATERFLEXIBILITYOFOPERATONTHESEDEVICESMAYMOVEINEITHERDIRECTION,BUTFOREASEOFCONTROL,CIRCULATIONISUSUALLYRESTRICTEDTOONEDIRECTIONONLYINPRACTICE3RAILCATSTHESECARTSMOVEONRAILSANDAREGENERALLYRESTRICTEDTOBACKWARDANDFORWARDMOTIONALONGSTRAIGHTTRACKSPOWERANDCONTROLINSTRUCTIONSATETTUNSFERREDBYOVERHEADCONDUCTORSOREXTRARAILSRAILCARTSOFTENACCOMMODATETWOPALLETSTOALLOWFORPALLETEXCHANGEATTHESYSTEMWORKSTATIONS4ROLLERCONVEYORSMOSTOFTOTEEARLYFMSDEVELOPMENTSUTILIZEDPOWEREDROLLERCONVEYORSFORMOVINGWORKPIECESFROMSTATUETTETOSTATIONTHEUSEOFTHESECONVENTSINMODERNSYSTEMSISLESSCOMMONROLLERCONVEYORSAREEXPENSIVETOINSTALLANDOCCUPYVALUABLEFLOORSPACEINADDITION,THESECONVEYORSARERELATIVELYINFLEXIBLEINOPERATIONANDDIFFICULTTOALTERIFTHEOVERALLSYSTEMISEXPANDED5INDUSTRIALROBOTSROBOTSAREUSEDINFMSBUTNOTEXTENSIVELYUNLESSTHECELLCONSISTSOFONLYAFEWMACHINESTHEYMAYBEUSEDASSECONDATHANDLINGDEVICES,PARTICULARLYFORTURNEDWORKPIECES,WHICHMAYBETRANSPORTEDAROUNDTHESYSTEMINHATCHESONPALLETSBYOTHERHANDLINGDEVICESANDTHENTRANSFERREDTOTHEMACHINETOOLBYROBOTSATEACHWORKSTATIONGRIPPERDESIGNSSUITABLEFORHANDLINGAWIDEVARIETYOFCOMPONENTSAREIMPORTANTINTHISCASE2.LAYOUTSFORFMSAVARIETYOFDIFFERENTLAYOUTSFORTHEMACHINETOOLSINFMSHAVEBEENADOPTED,THECHOICEDEPENDSONTHESCOPEOFTHESYSTEMANDTHETYPEOFHANDLINGDEVICESUSEDFORTRANSPORTINGWORKPIECESFROMWORKSTATIONTOWORKSTATIONTHEUSEOFRAILCARTSMEANTHATASTRAIGHTTRACKMUSTBEUSED,WITHMACHINESLOCATEDATTHESIDEOFTOTETRACKEARLYSYSTEMSUSINGROLLERCONVEYORSUSUALLYEMPLOYEDASIMPLELOOPCONFIGURATIO11,WITHBRANCHESTOTHEWORKSTATIONSTHEINCREASEDUSEOFTOWCARTSANDAGVSHASRESULTEDINMORECOMPLEXMULTICOLORORTREETYPELAYOUTSBEINGUSEDTHELATTERTYPEISMOSTSUITABLEFORAGVSANDISPARTICULARLYUSEFULIFEXPANSIONOFTHESYSTEMWITHADDITIONALWORKSTATIONSISANTICIPATEDFIGURE519SHOWSATYPICALMULTICOLORLAYOUTUSINGTOWCARTS,ANDFIG520SHOWSATYPICALLAYOUTWHEREAGVSAREUSEDFORWORKHANDLING3.FACTORYOFTHEFUTUREONTHEBASISOFTHEADVANCESMADETODATEINALLASPECTSOFMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYANDCOMPUTERCONTROLS,WEMAYENVISAGETHEFACTORYOFTHEFUTUREASAFULLYAUTOMATEDFACILITYINWHICHHUMANBEINGSWOULDNOTBEDIRECTLYINVOLVEDWITHPRODUCTIONONTHESHOPI1OORHENCETHETERMUNMANNEDFACTORIESALLMANUFACTURING,MATERIALHANDLING,ASSEMBLY,ANDINSPECTIONWOULDBEDONEBYAUTOMATEDANDCOMPUTERCONTROLLEDMACHINERYANDEQUIPMENTSIMILARLY,ACTIVITIESSUCHASPROCESSINGINCOMINGORDERS,PRODUCTIONPLANNINGANDSCHEDULING,COSTACCOUNTING,ANDVARIOUSDECISIONMAKINGPROCESSESUSUALLYPERFORMEDBYMANAGEMENTWOULDALSOBEDONEAUTOMATICALLYBYCOMPUTERSTHEROLEOFHUMANBEINGSWOULDBECONFINEDTOACTIVITIESSUCHASSUPERVISING,MAINTAININGESPECIALLYPREVENTIVEMAINTENANCE,ANDUPGRADINGMACHINESANDEQUIPMENT;SHIPPINGANDRECEIVINGSUPPLIESANDFINISHEDPRODUCTS;PROVIDINGSECURITYFORTHEPLANTFACILITIES;ANDPROGRAMMING,UPGRADING,ANDMONITORINGCOMPUTERPROGRAMS,ANDMONITORING,MAINTAINING,ANDUPGRADINGHARDWAREINDUSTRIESSUCHASSOMEFOOD,PETROLEUM,ANDCHEMICALALREADYOPERATEAUTOMATICALLYWITHLITTLEHUMANINTERVENTIONTHESEARECONTINUOUSPROCESSESAND,UNLIKEPIECEPARTMANUFACTURING,AREEASIERTOAUTOMATEFULLYEVENSO,THEDIRECTINVOLVEMENTOFFEWERPEOPLEINMANUFACTURINGPRODUCTSISALREADYAPPARENTSURVEYSSHOWTHAT;ONLY1015PERCENTOFTHEWORKFORCEISDIRECTLYINVOLVEDINPRODUCTIONMOSTOFTHEWORKFORCEISINVOLVEDINGATHERINGANDPROCESSINGINFORMATIONVIRTUALLYUNMANNEDMANUFACTURINGCELLSALREADYMAKEPRODUCTSSUCHASENGINEBLOCKS,AXLES,ANDHOUSINGSFORCLUTCHESANDAIRCOMPRESSORSFORLARGESCALE,FLEXIBLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMS,HOWEVER,HIGHLYTRAINEDANDSKILLEDPERSONNELWILLALWAYSBENEEDEDTOPLAN,MAINTAIN,ANDOVERSEEOPERATIONTHERELIABILITYOFMACHINES,CONTROLSYSTEMS,ANDPOWERSUPPLYISCRUCIALTOFULLFACTORYAUTOMATIONALOCALORGENERALBREAKDOWNINMACHINERY,COMPUTERS,POWER,ORCOMMUNICATIONSNETWORKSWILL,WITHOUTRAPIDHUMANINTERVENTIONCRIPPLEPRODUCTIONTHECOMPUTERINTEGRATEDFACTORYOFTHEFUTURESHOULDBECAPABLEOFAUTOMATICALLYREROUTINGMATERIALSANDPRODUCTIONFLOWSTOOTHERCOMPUTERSINCASEOFSUCHEMERGENCIES

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