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外文翻译--柔性制造系统.doc

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外文翻译--柔性制造系统.doc

外文翻译英文原文FlexibleManufacturingSystemAlogicalstepfromtheconceptsofgrouplayoutandofNCmachinetoolsandroboticsarecomputercontrolledinterlinkedoutstationmachiningcomplexes,or11exibemanufacturingsystemsFMSastheyhavebedclothescall.do.Suchsystemscanbelookeduponashighlyautomatedcellsmanufacturingfamiliesofcomponents.TheconceptofFMSisnotanewonethefirstproposalsweremadeinthemid1960s.Inrecentyearswehaveseenagrowthinthenumberofsystems,particularlyinJapan,suchthatitisestimatedthatinexcessofahundredsystemshavebeeninstalledworldwide.Aflexiblemanufacturingsystemcontainsanumberoffeaturesasfollows1.InterlinkedNCworkstationsoperatingonalimitedrangeorfamilyofworkpieces.Inearlyproposalesthemachineswereofmodularconstruction,butinrecentsystemsgeneralpurposeNCmachines,inparticularmachiningcenters,aremostcommonlyused.2.Automatictransportation,loadingatunloadingofworkpiecesandtools,usingautomaticguidedvehiclesAGVs,robots,etc.3.Workpiecesmountedonpalletsfttransportation,pattlytoovercometheproblemsofnewsetupsateachworkstation.4.CentralizedNCorDNC,togetherwithoverallcomputercontrolofthesystem.5.Operationforsignificantperiodsoftimewithlittleornomanualintervention.WithFMStheternflexibilitymeanstheabilitytoaptnessavarietyofcomponentswithouthavingtoadjustmachinesetups.Orchangetooling.Highflexibilityimpliesthatalargefamilyofdifferentcomponentscanbeproducedbytheparticularsystem.Figure5.17showthatseveralvariantsofthebasicFMSconkeptexist.Thesearel.FlexiblemanufacturingcellsFMsThesearebasicallymachiningcentumbutwiththeadditionofapalletpoolormagazineFig.5.t8.Theaimistomachinetheworkpiecewithonestupefiestypeofmachinecanbeoperatedunmannedforlongperiodsoftime,withthepalletizedworkpiecestransformedausomaticallytoandfromthemachine.Flexiblemanufacturingcellsofthistypemustbeservedbymachinesoroperatorsengagedinblankpreparationandpolarizationofworkpieces.Thesecellsarehighlyflexibleinoperation,havingtheabilitytodealwithawiderangeofpats40to800,insmallbatchesoffrom15to500.2.FlexibletransferlinesfallThese,systemsconsistofanumberofNCorheadchangeablemachinetoolsconnectedbyautomaticmaterialtransfersystems.Thesystemcanmachinedifferentcomponentsbutwithoutflexibleroutingoftheworkpieces.Thefamilyofcomponentsisrelativelysmall20andthecomponentsmustbequitesimilartooneanother,astheoverallflexibilityoftotesystemistoolowforalargervarietytobeaccommodated.Inconsequence,theworkcyclesateachstationnullsarequitewellbalanced.Productionquantitiesmustbequitelargeforeconomicuseofthesesystem1500to15000perannumforeachcomponent.3.FlexiblemanufacturingsystemsFMS,inthesesystemsNCworkstationsarelinkedbyautomaticworkpiecetransferandhanding.Withflexibleroutingandautomaticworkpieceloadingandunloading.Achiningtimesateachstationcandifferconsiderably.Thenumberofdifferentcomponentsthatcanbeprocussedbythesesystemsisohm10o150ingeneralandmoderatequantitiescanbeproduced15to500componentsperannumfortype1.WorkHandlingforFMSWorkpiecesareusuallymountedonstandardpalletsforprocessinginFMSandthesepalletslocateautomaticallyateachworkstationinthesystem.Avarietyofworkhandlingdevicesareusedtotransportparts,pallets,andtoolsaroundthesystem.Someoftheseateasfollows1.TowcartsThesearethemostcannondevicesusedtheyconsistofasimpleplatformoncastorsandaretowedaroundthesystembyengagementwithunderfloor,continuouslymovingchains.Catsstopatworkstationsbymeansofamechanismtotalreleasesthetowpinattheappropriatetime.Branchesandloopsarecanalledinasimilarmannertorailwaysystems.11temainadvantageoftowcartsistheirsimplicityandlowcost,sincenoonboardpowerisrequiredfortheirmovementorcontrol.Facilitiesmustbeavailableateachworkstationtoloadandunloadpalletsfromthecarts.Also,thecirculationofcartsmustbeunidirectional.2.AutomaticguidedvehiclesAGVs.Thesedevicesareusuallydesignedtofollowwinsburiedintheflooroftheplantorlinespaintedontotefloor.Onboardpowerandcontrolisrequiredforboltmovemintandsteeringatefortotehandlingofpallets.Automaticguidedvehiclesatemoreexpensivethantowcatsandarebothlargerandheavier.TalemainadvantageofAGVsistheirgreaterflexibilityofoperaton.Thesedevicesmaymoveineitherdirection,butforeaseofcontrol,circulationisusuallyrestrictedtoonedirectiononlyinpractice.3.RailcatsThesecartsmoveonrailsandaregenerallyrestrictedtobackwardandforwardmotionalongstraighttracks.Powerandcontrolinstructionsatettunsferredbyoverheadconductorsorextrarails.Railcartsoftenaccommodatetwopalletstoallowforpalletexchangeatthesystemworkstations.4.RollerconveyorsMostoftoteearlyFMSdevelopmentsutilizedpoweredrollerconveyorsformovingworkpiecesfromstatuettetostation.Theuseoftheseconventsinmodernsystemsislesscommon.Rollerconveyorsareexpensivetoinstallandoccupyvaluablefloorspace.Inaddition,theseconveyorsarerelativelyinflexibleinoperationanddifficulttoalteriftheoverallsystemisexpanded.5.IndustrialrobotsRobotsareusedinFMSbutnotextensivelyunlessthecellconsistsofonlyafewmachines.Theymaybeusedassecondathandlingdevices,particularlyforturnedworkpieces,whichmaybetransportedaroundthesysteminhatchesonpalletsbyotherhandlingdevicesandthentransferredtothemachinetoolbyrobotsateachworkstation.Gripperdesignssuitableforhandlingawidevarietyofcomponentsareimportantinthiscase.2.LayoutsforFMSAvarietyofdifferentlayoutsforthemachinetoolsinFMShavebeenadopted,Thechoicedependsonthescopeofthesystemandthetypeofhandlingdevicesusedfortransportingworkpiecesfromworkstationtoworkstation.Theuseofrailcartsmeanthatastraighttrackmustbeused,withmachineslocatedatthesideoftotetrack.Earlysystemsusingrollerconveyorsusuallyemployedasimpleloopconfiguratio11,withbranchestotheworkstations.TheincreaseduseoftowcartsandAGVshasresultedinmorecomplexmulticolorortreetypelayoutsbeingused.ThelattertypeismostsuitableforAGVsandisparticularlyusefulifexpansionofthesystemwithadditionalworkstationsisanticipated.Figure5.19showsatypicalmulticolorlayoutusingtowcarts,andFig.5.20showsatypicallayoutwhereAGVsareusedforworkhandling.3.FactoryoftheFutureOnthebasisoftheadvancesmadetodateinallaspectsofmanufacturingtechnologyandcomputercontrols,wemayenvisagethefactoryofthefutureasafullyautomatedfacilityinwhichhumanbeingswouldnotbedirectlyinvolvedwithproductionontheshopi1oorhencethetermunmannedfactories.Allmanufacturing,materialhandling,assembly,andinspectionwouldbedonebyautomatedandcomputercontrolledmachineryandequipment.Similarly,activitiessuchasprocessingincomingorders,productionplanningandscheduling,costaccounting,andvariousdecisionmakingprocessesusuallyperformedbymanagementwouldalsobedoneautomaticallybycomputers.Theroleofhumanbeingswouldbeconfinedtoactivitiessuchassupervising,maintainingespeciallypreventivemaintenance,andupgradingmachinesandequipmentshippingandreceivingsuppliesandfinishedproductsprovidingsecurityfortheplantfacilitiesandprogramming,upgrading,andmonitoringcomputerprograms,andmonitoring,maintaining,andupgradinghardware.Industriessuchassomefood,petroleum,andchemicalalreadyoperateautomaticallywithlittlehumanintervention.Thesearecontinuousprocessesand,unlikepiecepartmanufacturing,areeasiertoautomatefully.Evenso,thedirectinvolvementoffewerpeopleinmanufacturingproductsisalreadyapparentSurveysshowthatonly1015percentoftheworkforceisdirectlyinvolvedinproduction.Mostoftheworkforceisinvolvedingatheringandprocessinginformation.Virtuallyunmannedmanufacturingcellsalreadymakeproductssuchasengineblocks,axles,andhousingsforclutchesandaircompressors.Forlargescale,flexiblemanufacturingsystems,however,highlytrainedandskilledpersonnelwillalwaysbeneededtoplan,maintain,andoverseeoperation.Thereliabilityofmachines,controlsystems,andpowersupplyiscrucialtofullfactoryautomation.Alocalorgeneralbreakdowninmachinery,computers,power,orcommunicationsnetworkswill,withoutrapidhumaninterventioncrippleproduction.Thecomputerintegratedfactoryofthefutureshouldbecapableofautomaticallyreroutingmaterialsandproductionflowstoothercomputersincaseofsuchemergencies.

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