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外文翻译--标准62.1-2004:系统设置:动态重置操作.doc

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外文翻译--标准62.1-2004:系统设置:动态重置操作.doc

9.翻译STANDARD6212004SYSTEMOPERATIONDYNAMICRESETOPTIONSEVENTEENYEARSAGO,THEVENTILATIONRATESESTABLISHEDBYANSI/ASHRAESTANDARD621989,VENTILATIONFORACCEPTABLEINDOORAIRQUALITY,INCREASEDSUBSTANTIALLYOVERTHOSEPREVIOUSLYREQUIREDBYTHE1981VERSIONOFTHESTANDARDFIFTEENYEARSLATER,STANDARD622004PRESCRIBEDNEWMINIMUMBREATHINGZONEVENTILATIONRATEANDANEWCALCULATIONPROCEDURETOFINDTHEMINIMUMINTAKEAIRFLOWNEEDEDFORDIFFERENTVENTILATIONSYSTEMSDESCRIBEDINPREVIOUSARTICLES,THESENEWRATESANDPROCEDURESMUSTBEUSEDTOFINDTHEDESIGNOR“WORSTCASE”OUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOW,WHICHESTABLISHESTHEREQUIREDCAPACITYOFMECHANICALSYSTEMEQUIPMENTINTHISARTICLE,WETURNFROMVENTILATIONSYSTEMDESIGNTOOPERATIONVARIATIONINOCCUPANCYORVENTILATIONAIRFLOWTHENUMBEROFOCCUPANTSINMANYVENTILATIONZONESCHANGESDURINGNORMALACTUALZONEPOPULATIONOFTENFALLSSHORTOFPARKDESIGNPOPULATIONUSEDTOESTABLISHTHEHIGHESTZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWANDOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWNEEDEDCONSEQUENTLY,STANDARD621ALLOWSBREATHINGZONEAND/ORINTAKEAIRFLOWTOBERESETINRESPONSETOCHANGESINZONEPOPULATIONORTHERESULTINGCHANGESINTHEZONEVENTILATIONAIRFLOWPERPERSONTORESETVENTILATIONBASEDONTHECURRENTPOPULATIONWITHINAZONEREQUIRESAREASONABLYACCURATEESTIMATEOFPOPULATIONORBREATHINGZONEOUTDOORAIRRATESTANDARD621LISTSFOUREXAMPLEMEASURESUSEDTOESTIMATEVARIATIONSINOCCUPANCYANDONEMEASURETOESTIMATEVARIATIONINVENTILATIONAIRFLOWDIRECTCOUNTOFPEOPLEINSOMEZONES,OCCUPANTENTRYANDEXITMAYBEORDERLYUSINGAPPROPRIATESENSORSANDCOUNTINGCONTROLS,THEDIFFERENCEBETWEENENTRYANDEXITEVENTSCANBEUSEDTOESTIMATEPOPULATIONBASEDONADIRECT“COUNT”TICKETSALESMIGHTALSOBEUSEDASANESTIMATEOFPOPULATIONSOMERETAILSTORESORAUDITORIUMSMAYBECONFIGUREDTOUSETHESEAPPROACHESSENSORSTHATACTUALLYSENSEINDIVIDUALOCCUPANTSALSOMIGHTBEUSED,ALTHOUGHSUCHARENOTCOMMONPRESENCEOFPEOPLEAVARIATIONTOCOUNTINGOCCUPANTSDIRECTLYINVOLVESSIMPLYSENSINGTHEPRESENCEOFOCCUPANTSMOTIONDETECTORSCANSENSEHUMANACTIVITYINOFFICES,CONFERENCEROOMSANDSOONUPONDETECTINGMOTION,THECONTROLSYSTEMASSUMESTHATTHEZONEISOCCUPIEDATPARKPOPULATIONANDCALLSFORVENTILATIONACCORDINGLYTIMEOFDAYSCHEDULEINSOMEZONES,POPULATIONCANBEPREDICTEDBASEDONTIMEOFDAYFORINSTANCE,THEPOPULATIONINAGIVENCLASSROOMINANELEMENTARYSCHOOLMAYBEESTIMATEDQUITEACCURATELYDURINGANYHOUROFTHEDAYTHEDAILYSCHEDULEFORMRBROWN’SFIFTHGRADERSPLACESTHEMINMRBROWN’SCLASSROOMFROM8AMUNTIL10AM,INTHEARTROOMFROM10AMUNTIL11AM,THENBACKINTHECLASSROOMFROM11AMUNTILNOON,ANDSOONIFTHEBUILDINGCONTROLSYSTEMINCLUDESANOCCUPANCYSCHEDULEFORTHECLASSROOM,CURRENTPOPULATIONCANBEESTIMATEANDOUTDOORAIRFLOWCANBERESETTOMATCHPRESCRIBEDVENTILATIONAIRFLOWTOCURRENTPOPULATIONESTIMATEOFOCCUPANCYBASEDONCO2ANDAIRFLOWASMUMMAHASSHOWN,INASINGLEZONESYSTEM,ZONEANDOUTDOORCO2LEVELALONGWITHINTAKEAIRFLOWCOULDBESENSEDANDASSUMINGANOCCUPANTACTIVITYLEVEL,USEDTOESTIMATECURRENTPOPULATIONATSTEADYSTATECO2CONCENTRATIONZONEPOPULATIONCOULDBEFOUND,BUTINPRACTICE,ZONESSELDOMREACHSTEADYSTATECONDITIONSO,INADDITIONTOACCURATECO2ANDAIRFLOWSENSORS,THISAPPROACHREQUIRESACONTROLLERCAPABLEOFSOLVINGANONSTEADYSTATEEQUATIONAND,SINCEOCCUPANTACTIVITYLEVELANDCO2GENERATIONRATECANVARYWIDELY,CALCULATEDPOPULATIONMAYNOTBEACCURATEDUETOITSCOST,ITSCOMPLEXITYANDITSPOTENTIALFORPOORACCURACY,NOTMANYDESIGNERSUSETHISAPPROACHHOWEVER,DONOTCONFUSETHISCO2BASED“PEOPLECOUNTING”MEASUREWITHOURNEXTTOPICTRADITIONCO2–BASED“DEMANDCONTROLLEDVENTILATION”CO2–BASEDESTIMATEOFCURRENTOUTDOORAIRFLOWPERPERSONSINCECHANGESINPOPULATIONCHANGEVENTILATION“DEMAND”,ANYDYNAMICRESETAPPROACHTHATRESPONDSTOZONEPOPULATIONCOULDBEREFERREDTOASDEMANDCONTROLLEDVENTILATIONDCVHOWEVER,THISACRONYMHASBEENUSEDFORYEARSTOREFERSPECIFICALLYTOCONTROLMEASURESTHATSENSECO2CONCENTRATIONASASURROGATEFORTHECONCENTRATIONOFHUMANBIOEFFLUENTSTHEMOSTPOPULARDYNAMICRESETAPPROACHTOPARTLOADVENTILATION,DCVCONTROLSADJUSTOUTDOORAIRFLOWRATETOMAINTAINZONECO2–ANDTHEREBYBIOEFFLUENTSATLEVELSTHATWOULDRESULTFROMVENTILATINGAT,ORABOVE,PRESCRIBEDMINIMUMOUTDOORAIRFLOWRATESASEXPLAINEDBYTAYLOR,CO2–BASEDCO2DVCASSUMESTHATPEOPLEPRODUCEBOTHODORSANDCO2INPROPORTIONTOTHEIRACTIVITYLEVEL,THATOCCUPANTACTIVITYLEVELINAZONECANBEESTIMATEDWITHREASONABLEACCURACYANDTHATSTEADYSTATEEQUATIONSCANBEUSEDTOESTIMATEVENTILATIONLOADMUCHTHESAMEASSTEADYSTATEEQUATIONSCANBEUSEDTOESTIMATEHEATING/COOLINGLOADFORSINGLEZONESYSTEMSTHEMINIMUMREQUIREDOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWCANBERELATEDTOTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENINDOORANDOUTDOORCO2LEVELTAYLORGOESOTOEXPLAINHOWDIFFERENTIALCO2LEVELCANBEINCORPORATEDINONEPOSSIBLEDVCAPPROACH–ALSODISCUSSEDINTHE621USER’SMANUALANDDETAILEDBELOWASONEOFSEVERALAPPROACHES–TOCONTROLINTAKEAIRFLOWTOEQUALOREXCEEDTHEMINIMUMREQUIREDVENTILATIONRATETHEPOPULATIONESTIMATERESULTINGFROMANYOFTHEFIRSTFOURMEASURESCANBEUSEDTORECALCULATETHEMINIMUMBREATHINGZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWREQUIREDBYSTANDARD621FORTHECURRENTPOPULATIONTHISNEWOUTDOORAIRFLOWVALUETHENCANBEUSEDTOFINDCURRENTMINIMUMZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWNEEDEDFORSINGLEZONESYSTEMS,THEZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWREQUIREMENTEQUALSTHEINTAKEAIRFLOWANYCONTROLLERUSEDTOIMPLEMENTTHESEFOURRESETAPPROACHESMUSTBECAPABLEOFDOINGSOMESIMPLECALCULATION,SINCETHEPOPULATIONESTIMATEMUSTBETRANSLATEDTOACURRENTOUTDOORAIRFLOWSETPOINT,ANDMUSTINCLUDEMEANSTOADJUSTOUTDOORAIRFLOWTOMAINTAINTHECURRENTSETPOINTTHEFIFTHMEASUREDESCRIBEDEARLIERCANBEUSEDTOCONTROLINTAKEAIRFLOWDIRECTLY,WITHOUTACTUALLYCALCULATINGEITHERCURRENTPOPULATIONORTHEMINIMUMOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWCURRENTREQUIREDBYSTANDARD621INASENSE,ANYDCVAPPROACHTHATMAINTAINSCONTROLSBIOEFFLUENTSDIRECTLYINRESPONSETOBOTHCURRENTPOPULATIONANDCURRENTINTAKEAIRFLOWDVCAPPROACHESNEEDCONTROLSTHATSENSEDIFFERENTIALCO2ANDMAINTAINITBYADJUSTINGOUTDOORAIRFLOWINCREMENTALLYWITHOUTSENSINGITWEDISCUSSSEVERALPOSSIBLEDVCIMPLEMENTATIONBELOWVARIATIONINEFFICIENCYTHESECONDOPERATINGCONDITIONLISTEDINSECTION627RELATESTOVENTILATIONEFFICIENCYSTANDARD621REQUIRESACCOUNTINGFORBOTHZONEAIRDISTRIBUTIONEFFECTIVENESSANDSYSTEMVENTILATIONEFFICIENCYZONEAIRDISTRIBUTIONEFFECTIVENESSAPPLIESTOALLVENTILATIONZONESINANYSYSTEMANDINDICATESTHEFRACTIONOFOUTDOORAIRDELIVEREDTOAZONETHATACTUALLYENTERSTHEBREATHINGZONESYSTEMVENTILATIONEFFICIENCY,ONTHEOTHERHAND,ONLYAPPLIESTOMULTIPLEZONERECIRCULATIONSYSTEMSANDINDICATESTHEFRACTIONOFOUTDOORAIRENTERINGTHESYSTEMTHATACTUALLYDILUTESCONTAMINANTSINTHEBREATHINGZONECHANGESINTHESEEFFICIENCYVALUESDURINGOPERATIONEFFECTIVELYCHANGEVENTILATION“DEMAND”NOTASARESULTOFVARYINGPOPULATIONBUTASARESULTOFVARYINGZONEANDSYSTEMAIRFLOWATDIFFERENTLOADCONDITIONSTHEDEFAULTVALUEFORZONEAIRDISTRIBUTIONEFFECTIVENESSCANCHANGEDURINGNORMALOPERATIONFORINSTANCE,IFTHESAMEOVERHEADDIFFUSERSDELIVERWARMAIRDURINGHEATINGMODEANDCOOLAIRDURINGCOOLINGMODETHELIKELIHOODOFAIRBYPASSINGTHEBREATHINGZONECHANGESWHENHEATING,WARMDISCHARGEAIRTENDSTOFLOATABOVECOOLERZONEAIRIFIT’STOOWARM,APORTIONOFITBYPASSESTHEBREATHINGZONE,INWHICHCASEE08,ACCORDINGTOSTANDARD621WHENCOOLING,HOWEVER,ALLOFTHEDISCHARGEAIRDROPSINTOTHEBREATHINGZONE,SOE10FORDESIGNPURPOSES,ZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWMAYNEEDTOEXCEEDTHEBREATHINGZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWBYAFACTOROF125INTHEHEATINGMODEHOWEVER,DURINGNORMALOPERATION,ZONEAIRDISTRIBUTIONEFFECTIVENESSMAYINCREASEFROM08WHENHEATINGTO10WHENCOOLING,SOZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWCOULDBERESETDOWNWARDTOEQUALTHEREQUIREDBREATHINGZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWVARIATIONSINZONEAIRDISTRIBUTIONEFFECTIVENESSCANBEUSEDTORECALCULATEANDDYNAMICALLYRESETZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWINANYVENTILATIONSYSTEM,BUTSINGLEZONEHEATINGCOOLINGSYSTEMSARELIKELYTOBENEFITMOSTFROMTHISRESETAPPROACHSINGLEZONESYSTEMSWITHINCREASEDENEEDLESSZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWANDLESSOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWDURINGCOOLINGOPERATIONTHANDURINGHEATING,WHICHREDUCESCOOLINGENERGYDEDICATEDOUTDOORAIRSYSTEMSSUPPLYING100OUTDOORAIR,ONTHEOTHERHAND,USUALLYDELIVERVENTILATIONAIRATORBELOWZONETEMPERATURE,SOEDOESN’TVARYWITHLOADANDINTAKEAIRFLOWISUSUALLYCONSTANTNODYNAMICRESETOPPORTUNITIESAND,FORMULTIPLEZONERECIRCULATINGSYSTEMS,INCREASEDEINTHE“CRITICALONE”DURINGCANMEANLESSINTAKEAIRFLOWSYSTEMVENTILATIONEFFICIENCYETTHERATIOOFOUTDOORAIRUSEDINALLBREATHINGZONESTOOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFORTHESYSTEMEVVOU/VOTVARIESWIDELYINVAVMULTIPLY–ZONESYSTEMS,SINCEBOTHZONEANDSYSTEMAIRFLOWCHANGEINRESPONSETOLOADFORDESIGNPURPOSES,MINIMUMOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWFORTHESESYSTEMSMUSTDETERMINEDUSINGTHELOWESTEFFICIENCYANDTHEHIGHESTOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWFORPROPEROPERATION,HOWEVER,MINIMUMINTAKEAIRFLOWMAYBEDETERMINEDUSINGTHESYSTEMVENTILATIONEFFICIENCYATCURRENTOPERATINGCONDITIONSTHISARTICLEFOCUSESONDCVFORSINGLEZONESYSTEMSADETAILEDDISCUSSIONOFDYNAMICRESETAPPROACHESINMULTIPLEZONESYSTEMSISLEFTFORAFUTUREARTICLEVARIATIONSININTAKEAIRFLOWSTANDARD621CITESATHIRDCONDITIONTHATMAYBEUSEDASTHEBASISFORDYNAMICRESETCONTROLITRELATESTOVARIATIONSINTHEFRACTIONOFOUTDOORAIRINTHEPRIMARYAIRSTREAMDUETOTHEINTRODUCTIONOFEXCESSVENTILATIONAIRINTHEPROCESSOFPROVIDINGFREECOOLINGWITHOUTDOORAIRORPROVIDINGINTAKETOVAVMULTIPLEZONESYSTEMSSINCEITALLOWSRESETTINGZONEMINIMUMPRIMARYAIRFLOWSETTINGSCANSAVELOCALREHEATENERGYINSOMESYSTEMSATSOMELOADCONDITIONSSINCETHISAPPROACHWORLDCOMMONLYBECOMBINEDWITH“VARIATIONSINEFFICIENCY”FORMULTIPLEZONESYSTEMS,AMOREDETAILEDDISCUSSIONREMAINSFORAFUTUREARTICLEWHATCHANGEDTHISARTICLEFOCUSESONDYNAMICRESETOFOUTDOORAIRINTAKEFLOWINRESPONSETOVARIATIONSINPOPULATIONINSINGLEZONESYSTEMSSINCE1989,STANDARD62HASSPECIFIEDMINIMUMVENTILATIONRATESINTERMSOFOUTDOORAIRFLOWPERPERSONFORMOSTOCCUPANCYCATEGORIESTHISWASHANDYFORCO2BASEDDCVBECAUSEITALLOWEDTHEVENTILATIONRATEPERPERSONTOBEHELDCONSTANTBYSIMPLYADJUSTINGZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWASNECESSARYTOMAINTAINTHESENSEDZONECO2LEVELCONSTANTALTHOUGHNOTEXPLICITLYALLOWEDBYEARLIERVERSIONSOFSTANDARD621,DCVHASBEENUSEDEFFECTIVELYBYMANYSYSTEMMANUFACTURERSANDDESIGNERS,ANDITWASSUPPORTEDBYSEVERALOFFICIALINTERPRETATIONSOFTHESTANDARDHOWDIDITWORKFOREXAMPLE,ASSUMETHATASINGLEZONE,CONSTANTVOLUMEROOFTOPUNITSERVESA1000FT2LECTURECLASSROOMDESIGNEDFOR65PEOPLESTANDARD622001REQUIREDAMINIMUMBREATHINGZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWOF970CFMATDESIGNWITHZONEAIRDISTRIBUTIONEFFECTIVENESSOF10,ZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWATDESIGNEQUALEDBREATHINGZONEOUTDOORAIRFLOWASSUMINGAVERAGEOCCUPANTACTIVITYLEVELOF125METANDATYPICALCO2GENERATIONRATE,THEREQUIREDRATEOF15CFM/PERSONRESULTEDINADIFFERENTIALCO2LEVELOF0000700WITHOUTDCV,INTAKEAIRFLOWWOULDBEMAINTAINEDAT970CFMREGARDLESSOFCHANGESINPOPULATIONIFPOPULATIONDROPPEDTO50PEOPLE,DIFFERENTIALCO2WOULDDROPTO540PPMFIGURE/BUT,50PEOPLEREQUIREDINTAKEAIRFLOWOFONLY750CFMINTRODUCING750CFMOFOUTDOORAIRFOR50OCCUPANTSAGAINWOULDHAVERESULTEDINADIFFERENTIALCO2LEVEL

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