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外文翻译--欧洲桥梁研究.doc

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外文翻译--欧洲桥梁研究.doc

1BridgeresearchinEuropeAbriefoutlineisgivenofthedevelopmentoftheEuropeanUnion,togetherwiththeresearchplatforminEurope.ThespecialcaseofposttensionedbridgesintheUKisdiscussed.InordertoillustratethetypeofEuropeanresearchbeingundertaken,anexampleisgivenfromtheUniversityofEdinburghportfoliorelatingtotheidentificationofvoidsinposttensionedconcretebridgesusingdigitalimpulseradar.IntroductionThechallengeinanyresearcharenaistoharnessthefindingsofdifferentresearchgroupstoidentifyacoherentmassofdata,whichenablesresearchandpracticetobebetterfocused.AparticularchallengeexistswithrespecttoEuropewherelanguagebarriersareinevitablyverysignificant.TheEuropeanCommunitywasformedinthe1960sbaseduponapoliticalwillwithincontinentalEuropetoavoidtheEuropeancivilwars,whichdevelopedintoWorldWar2from1939to1945.ThestrongpoliticalmotivationformedtheoriginalcommunityofwhichBritainwasnotamember.ManyofthecontinentalcountriessawBritainsinterestasbeingpurelyeconomic.The1970ssawBritainjoiningwhatwasthentheEuropeanEconomicCommunityEECandthe1990shasseenthewideningofthecommunitytoaEuropeanUnion,EU,withcertainpoliticalgoalstogetherwiththeobjectiveofacommonEuropeancurrency.Notwithstandingthesefinancialandpoliticaldevelopments,civilengineeringandbridgeengineeringinparticularhavefoundgreatdifficultyinforminganykindofcommonthread.IndeedtheeducationalsystemsforUniversitytrainingarequitedifferentbetweenBritainandtheEuropeancontinentalcountries.TheformationoftheEUfundingschemese.g.Socrates,2BriteEuramandotherprogramshavehelpedsignificantly.TheSocratesschemeisbasedupontheexchangeofstudentsbetweenUniversitiesindifferentmemberstates.TheBriteEuramschemehasinvolvedtechnicalresearchgrantsgiventoconsortiaofacademicsandindustrialpartnerswithinanumberofthestatesaBriteEurambidwouldnormallybeledbyanindustrialist.Intermsofdisseminationofknowledge,twoquitedifferentstrandsappeartohaveemerged.TheUKandtheUSAhaveconcentratedprimarilyupondisseminatingbasicresearchinrefereedjournalpublicationsASCE,ICEandotherjournals.WhereasthecontinentalEuropeanshavefrequentlydisseminatedbasicresearchatconferenceswherethecirculationoftheproceedingsisrestricted.Additionally,languagebarriershaveprovedtobeverydifficulttobreakdown.IncountrieswhereEnglishisastrongsecondlanguagetherehasbeenenthusiasticparticipationininternationalconferencesbasedwithincontinentalEuropee.g.Germany,Italy,Belgium,TheNetherlandsandSwitzerland.However,countrieswhereEnglishisnotastrongsecondlanguagehavebeenhesitantparticipants}e.g.France.EuropeanresearchExamplesofresearchrelatingtobridgesinEuropecanbedividedintothreetypesofstructureMasonryarchbridgesBritainhasthelargeststockofmasonryarchbridges.IncertainregionsoftheUKupto60oftheroadbridgesarehistoricstonemasonryarchbridgesoriginallyconstructedforhorsedrawntraffic.ThisislesscommoninotherpartsofEuropeasmanyofthesebridgesweredestroyedduringWorldWar2.Concretebridges3Alargestockofconcretebridgeswasconstructedduringthe1950s,1960sand1970s.Atthetime,thesestructureswereseenasmaintenancefree.Europealsohasalargenumberofposttensionedconcretebridgeswithsteeltendonductspreventingradarinspection.ThisisaparticularprobleminFranceandtheUK.SteelbridgesSteelbridgeswentoutoffashionintheUKduetotheirneedformaintenanceasperceivedinthe1960sand1970s.However,theyhavebeenusedforlongspanandrailbridges,andtheyarenowreturningtofashionformotorwaywideningschemesintheUK.ResearchactivityinEuropeItgivesanindicationcertainareasofexpertiseandworkbeingundertakeninEurope,butisbynomeansexhaustive.InordertoillustratethetypeofEuropeanresearchbeingundertaken,anexampleisgivenfromtheUniversityofEdinburghportfolio.Theexamplerelatestotheidentificationofvoidsinposttensionedconcretebridges,usingdigitalimpulseradar.PosttensionedconcreterailbridgeanalysisOveArupandPartnerscarriedoutaninspectionandassessmentofthesuperstructureofa160mlongposttensioned,segmentalrailwaybridgeinManchestertodetermineitsloadcarryingcapacitypriortoatransferofownership,foruseintheMetrolinklightrailsystem..Particularattentionwaspaidtotheintegrityofitsposttensionedsteelelements.Physicalinspection,nondestructiveradartestingandotherexploratorymethodswereusedtoinvestigateforpossibleweaknessesinthebridge.SincethesuddencollapseofYnysyGwasBridgeinWales,UKin1985,therehasbeenconcernaboutthelongtermintegrityofsegmental,4posttensionedconcretebridgeswhichmaybepronetobrittlefailurewithoutwarning.Thecorrosionprotectionoftheposttensionedsteelcables,wheretheypassthroughjointsbetweenthesegments,hasbeenidentifiedasamajorfactoraffectingthelongtermdurabilityandconsequentstrengthofthistypeofbridge.Theidentificationofvoidsingroutedtendonductsatvulnerablepositionsisrecognizedasanimportantstepinthedetectionofsuchcorrosion.DescriptionofbridgeGeneralarrangementBessesothBarnBridgeisa160mlong,threespan,segmental,posttensionedconcreterailwaybridgebuiltin1969.Themainspanof90mcrossesoverboththeM62motorwayandA665BurytoPrestwickRoad.Minimumheadroomis5.18mfromtheA665andtheM62isclearedbyapprox12.5m.Thesuperstructureconsistsofacentralhollowtrapezoidalconcreteboxsection6.7mhighand4mwide.Themajorityofthesouthandcentralspansareconstructedusing1.27mlongprecastconcretetrapezoidalboxunits,posttensionedtogether.Thisboxsectionsupportstheinsiteconcretetransversecantileverslabsatbottomflangelevel,whichcarrytherailtracksandballast.Thecenterandsouthspansectionsareofposttensionedconstruction.Theseposttensionedsectionshavefivetypesofprestressing1.Longitudinaltendonsingroutedductswithinthetopandbottomflanges.2.Longitudinalinternaldrapedtendonslocatedalongsidethewebs.Thesearedeflectedatinternaldiaphragmpositionsandareencasedininsiteconcrete.3.Longitudinalmacalloybarsinthetransversecantileverslabsinthecentralspan.4.Verticalmacalloybarsinthe229mmwidewebstoenhanceshearcapacity.

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