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外文翻译--汽车电子节气门的自适应控制 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--汽车电子节气门的自适应控制 英文版.pdf

ControlEngineeringPractice14a,MartinUniversityaccepted3throttlecompensators.Theemphasisisonthedevelopmentofanadaptivecontrolstrategy,whichisaimedtoenhancethecontrolstrategyrobustnesswithrespecttoprocessparametervariations,causedbyproductiondeviations,variationsofexternalconditions,andisbeingreplacedinmodernvehiclesbyanelectronicthrottle,wherethelinkbetweenthegaspedalandtheusuallyincludeaninnercurrentcontroller.Thethrottlemotionisconstrainedbyadualreturnspringwhichprovidingalinearsystemlikebehaviorforawiderangeofthrottleoperation.ThestepresponseofcontrolsystemischaracterizedbythesettlingtimeofapproxiARTICLEINPRESSC3Correspondingauthor.Tel.38516168325fax38516168351.Emailaddressesdanijel.pavkovicfsb.hrD.Pavkovic´,mately70msandthesteadystateaccuracybetterthan0.11.Thecontrolstrategyhasbeentunedbasedonthe09670661/seefrontmatterr2005ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.conengprac.2005.01.006josko.deurfsb.hrJ.Deur,mjanszford.comM.Jansz,nedjeljko.pericfer.hrN.Peric´.throttleplateisrealizedbymeansofaDCservomotor.Inthisway,theenginecontrolunitcancorrectthethrottlepositionreferencevalueforspecificengineoperatingmodes,thusimprovingdrivability,fueleconomy,andemissions,andalsoprovidingtheimplementationofenginebasedvehicledynamicscontrolsystemsincludingtractioncontrolHuber,LiebenrothLeden,Maisch,Reppich,1991.Theelectronicthrottleconsistsofanelectronicthrottlebody,areturnsthethrottleinthesocalledlimphomeLHpositioninthecaseofpowersupplyfailure.IthasbeendemonstratedinDeur,Pavkovic´,Peric´,Jansz,Hrovat,2004thatDCdrivetransmissionfrictionandthedualreturnspringnonlinearityattheLHpositionsignificantlyaffecttheperformanceoftheelectronicthrottlecontrolsystem.AnonlinearcontrolstrategyisproposedinthesamereferenceinordertocompensateforfrictionandLHnonlineareffects,thuscontrolstrategyparametersduringvehicleassembly,orusesspecificdrivemodesduringnormalusee.g.eachtimetheengineisturnedoff.Theselftuningalgorithmsarebasedonthepermanent,onlineestimationofthoseprocessparameterswhichcanvarywithinasingleenginerune.g.theDCmotorarmatureresistance.Thepresentedadaptivecontrolstrategyhasbeenverifiedexperimentally.r2005ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsServomotorsAutomotivecontrolElectricthrottlecontrolFrictionNonlinearcontrolAutotunerSelftuningcontrol1.IntroductionInconventionalvehiclesthedrivergaspedalismechanicallylinkedtothethrottleplate.Thissystemchopper,andapositioncontrolstrategy.AphotographofanelectronicthrottlebodyisshowninFig.1a,anditsinternalstructureisdepictedinthelowerrightpartofFig.1b.Theelectronicthrottleservosystemdoesnotaging.Theadaptivestrategyconsistsofautotuningandselftuningalgorithms.TheautotunerprovidesautomatictuningoftheAdaptivecontrolofautomotiveDanijelPavkovic´a,C3,JosˇkoDeuraFacultyofMechanicalEngineeringandNavalArchitecture,bFordMotorCompanyLtd.,ProductDevelopmentEurope,DuntoncFacultyofElectricalEngineeringandComputing,UniversitReceived16June2003AvailableonlineAbstractAnelectronicthrottleisaDCservodrivewhichpositionstheThispaperpresentsanelectronicthrottlecontrolstrategyconsisting2006121–136electronicthrottleJanszb,NedjeljkoPeric´cofZagreb,I.Lucˇic´a5,HR10000Zagreb,CroatiaTechnicalCentre,Laindon,Basildon,EssexSS156EE,UKyofZagreb,Unska3,HR10000,Zagreb,Croatia19January2005March2005plate,thusprovidingdrivebywirecontrolofenginetorque.ofaPIDcontroller,andnonlinearfrictionandlimphomewww.elsevier.com/locate/conengpracARTICLEINPRESSnicthrottleprocessmodelseePavkovic´,Deur,Jansz,Peric´,2003.Itcanbeexpectedthattheperformanceofanelectronicthrottlewithconstantcontrollerparameterswilldeteriorateinthepresenceofprocessparametervariations.TherearethreesourcesofprocessparametervariationsseePavkovic´Deur,2002Hashimoto,Ishiguro,Yasui,Akazaki,2003aProductiondeviations.DifferentETBsfromthesameresulbcIntwocontroltsofofflineexperimentalidentificationofelectroFig.1.Photographofelectronicthrottlebodya,andprincipalD.Pavkovic´etal./ControlEngineering122productionseriescanhavedifferentparameters.StaticcurvesuðyÞinFig.2aillustratethatthefrictionlevelcharacterizedbythewidthofthestaticcurvehysteresis,andtheLHvoltagestepcanbequitedifferentfordifferentETBs.Aging.Fig.2bindicatesthatthefrictionandLHvoltagesincreasewithagingofETB.TheLHpositionhasbeenfoundtovarywithagingaswell.AgingmayalsodecreasetheDCmotorvoltageandtorqueconstantsduetotheweakeningofthemotorpermanentmagnets.Variationsofexternaltemperatureandbatteryvoltage.TheDCmotorarmatureresistancecanvaryintherange12astheconsequenceoftemperaturevariationsHashimotoetal.,2003.ThishasdirectimplicationsonthefrictionandLHvoltageparameters,asillustratedbythestaticcurvesinFig.3.Thebatteryvoltagevariationshavesimilarinfluenceontheprocessstaticcurveparameters.ordertodealwithprocessparametervariations,controlconceptscangenerallybeappliedirobustandiiadaptivecontrol.Theformerconceptassumesthattheprocessmodeluncertaintiescanbecapturedbymeansofaspecificcontrolstructure.Aslidingmodeelectronicthrottlecontrolstructureisoftenproposedeitherinitsstandardformseee.g.Hashimotoetal.,2003Rossi,Tilli,Tonielli,2000Yokoyama,Shimizu,Okamoto,1998orinamoreadvancedneuralnetworkbasedformseee.g.Baric´,Petrovic´,Peric´,2002,2004.Theeffectivenessofsuchanapproachcanbelimitedbyhighlevelofnoiseinthecontrolleroutputsignalchattering,and/ortherequirementsonverylowsamplingtimeandpowerfulschematicofadaptiveelectronicthrottlecontrolsystemb.Practice142006121–136processor.Thelatterconceptofadaptivecontrolassumesonlinetuningofcontrollerparametersbasedontheresultsofonlineprocessidentification.Suchaconcepthasnotbeenwellinvestigatedintheavailableliterature,withanexceptionofHashimotoetal.2003,andGagnerandBondesson2000,whereadaptiveLHcompensatorsarepresented.ThispaperproposesamorecomprehensiveadaptiveelectronicthrottlecontrolstrategycomparedtothosegiveninHashimotoetal.2003,andGagnerandBondesson2000,andpresentstheresultsofthoroughexperimentaltests.TheadaptationmechanismtunesthecontrolstrategyfromDeuretal.2004withrespecttowiderangevariationsofallprocessparameters.Theoveralladaptivecontrolstrategycanbeimplementedonalowcostautomotivemicrocontrollersystemwithintegerarithmeticonlyandtypicalelectronicthrottlesamplingtimeintherangefrom2to5ms.TheadaptationstrategyconsistsofautotuningandselftuningalgorithmsFig.1b.TheautotunertunesthecontrollerparametersforeachsingleETBinthestageofvehicleproduction.ItcanalsobeexecutedduringspecificvehicledrivemodesARTICLEINPRESSD.Pavkovic´etal./ControlEngineeringe.g.duringmaintenanceintervals,oreachtimetheengineisturnedoff,thusadaptingthecontrolstrategywithrespecttoslowvariationsofprocessparameterse.g.frictionandLHvariations.Theselftuningalgorithmperformsrealtimeestimationofthoseprocessparameterswhichcanvarywithinasingleenginerune.g.armatureresistance,andupdatestherelevantcontrolstrategyparameters.Thepaperisorganizedinsevensections.Section2describestheprocessmodel.Section3presentsthenonlinearcontrolstrategy,andgivessomeillustrativeexperimentalresults.AsimulationanalysisoftheinfluenceofprocessparametervariationsontheelectronicthrottleperformanceispresentedinSection4.TheautotunerisdescribedinSection5.Section6variantsofarmatureresistanceestimatorareproposed,Fig.2.VariationsofprocessstaticcurvesfordifferentETBsa,andvariationsofprocessstaticcurveparametersduetoagingb.dependingontheavailabilityofarmaturecurrentmeasurementandautotuningprocedure.Bothautotuningandselftuningalgorithmsareverifiedexperimentally.ConcludingremarksaregiveninSection7.2.ProcessmodelTheprocessmodelisshowninFig.4seee.g.presentsselftuningalgorithmswhichadaptthecontrolstrategywithrespecttovariationsofarmatureresistance,batteryvoltage,andLHposition.DifferentFig3.Influenceofarmatureresistanceonprocessstaticcurvesimulation.Practice142006121–136123Scattolinietal.,1997.ThehighbandwidthdynamicsofthechopperisapproximatedbytheproportionaltermwiththegainKch.TheelectronicthrottlebodyisdescribedbythewellknownDCmotorlinearmodelwhichisextendedwithnonlinearmodelsoffrictionanddualreturnspring.Adynamicfrictionmodelisusedinsimulations.ItrepresentsanextensionoftheDahlfrictionmodel,andisdescribedindetailinDeuretal.2004.TheloadtorquemLduetothethrottleairmassflowhasnotbeenfoundtohavesignificantinfluenceontheelectronicthrottlebehavior,anditistreatedasanunknowndisturbance.Fig.5showstheprocessstaticcurvecf.Fig.2.ThevoltageparametersoftheprocessstaticcurvearerelatedtothecorrespondingLHandfrictiontorquesasfollowscf.Figs.4and52ULH¼KlDMLHKchKaKt,1USC¼MSCKchKaKt.2followingconditionissatisfiedKdbKlffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2KsJp,6thelinearprocessdynamicscanberepresentedbyasimpleintegrallagmodelIT1modelseeDeuretal.,2004GpðsÞ¼yðsÞuðsÞ¼Kpsð1þTemsÞ,7wheretheprocessgainKpandtheelectromechanicaltimeconstantTemaregivenbyKp¼KchKlKv,Tem¼JKd.ð8ÞAccordingtoidentificationresultsinPavkovic´etal.2003,thecondition6issatisfiedintheregionabovethelimphomepositiony4yLHcf.slopesoftheprocessstaticcurveinFig.2foryoyLHandy4yLH.ARTICLEINPRESSPractice142006121–136Fig.4.Blockdiagramofelectronicthrottleprocess.uuauemfcommandedsignal,armaturevoltage,andbackelectromotiveforceiaarmaturecurrentmmmsmfmLmotor,returnspring,friction,andloadtorqueymymotorandthrottlepositionommotorspeedKchchoppergainKaKtKvarmature,torque,andvoltagegainJtotalmomentofinertia1/KlgearratioyLHlimphomepositionMCMSCoulombandbreakawayfriction.D.Pavkovic´etal./ControlEngineering124Ingeneral,thevaluesofLHvoltagesULH7andtheslopesofprocessstaticcurveDuDyC6aboveandbelowC0theLHpositionyLHarenotequal.AccordingtoPavkovic´etal.2003,thearmaturetimeconstantisverysmallTaC2505ms,anditdoesnotaffectthelinearprocessdynamics.Thus,thelinearprocessmodelFig.4withmf¼0andms¼KsKlycanbedescribedbythesecondorderlagmodelGpðsÞ¼yðsÞuðsÞ¼Kp21þap1sþap2s2,3withKp2¼KchKaKtKsKlap1¼KdKsK2lap2¼JKsK2l,4whereKdisthedampingcoefficientduetothebackelectromotiveforceuemfKd¼KaKtKv.5IfthereturnspringstiffnessKsissmallenoughi.e.iftheslopeoftheprocessstaticcurveissmall,sothatthe3.NonlinearcontrolstrategyFig.5.Processstaticcurve.Fig.6showstheblockdiagramoftheproposedelectronicthrottlecontrolstrategy.ThecontrolstrategyconsistsofaPIDfeedbackcontroller,afirstorderleadlagfeedforwardcontrollerFFC,andnonlinearfrictionandLHcompensators.Briefdescriptionofthecontrolstrategystructure,tuning,andexperimentalverificationisgiveninthenextsubsections.MoredetailedelaborationcanbefoundinDeuretal.2004.Fig.6.Electronicthrottlecontrolstrategy.

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