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外文翻译--液压管路和管接头.doc

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外文翻译--液压管路和管接头.doc

附录英语原文HYDRAULICCONDUCTORSANDFITTINGSERICSANDGREN,TMCAMERONTOACCOUNTFORUNCERTAINTYAMECHANICALENGINEERING,VIRGINIACOMMONWEALTHUNIVERSITY,601WESTMAINSTREET,POBOX843015,RICHMOND,VA232843015,USARECEIVED19OCTOBER2001;ACCEPTED5JUNE200211INTRODUCTIONINAHYDRAULICSYSTEM,THEFLUIDFLOWSTHROUGHADISTRIBUTIONSYSTEMCONSISTINGOFCONDUCTORSANDFITTINGS,WHICHCARRYTHEFLUIDFROMTHERESERVOIRTHROUGHOPERATINGCOMPONENTSANDBACKTOTHERESERVOIRSINCEPOWERISTRANSMITTEDTHROUGHOUTTHESYSTEMBYMEANSOFTHESECONDUCTINGLINESCONDUCTORSANDFITTINGSUSEDTOCONNECTSYSTEMCOMPONENTS,ITFOLLOWSTHATTHEYMUSTBEPROPERLYDESIGNEDINORDERFORTHETOTALSYSTEMTOFUNCTIONPROPERLYHYDRAULICSYSTEMSUSEPRIMARILYFOURTYPESOFCONDUCTORS1STEELPIPES2STEELTUBING3PLASTICTUBING4FLEXIBLEHOSESTHECHOICEOFWHICHTYPEOFCONDUCTORTOUSEDEPENDSPRIMARILYONTHESYSTEM’SOPERATINGPRESSURESANDFLOWRATESINADDITION,THESELECTIONDEPENDSONENVIRONMENTALCONDITIONSSUCHASTHETYPEOFFLUID,OPERATINGTEMPERATURES,VIBRATION,ANDWHETHERORNOTTHEREISRELATIVEMOTIONBETWEENCONNECTEDCOMPONENTSCONDUCTINGLINESAREAVAILABLEFORHANDLINGWORKPRESSURESUPTO10,000PAORGREATERINGENERAL,STEELTUBINGPROVIDESGREATERPLUMBINGFLEXIBILITYANDNEATERAPPEARANCEANDREQUIRESFEWERFITTINGSTHANPIPINGHOWEVER,PIPINGISLESSEXPENSIVETHANSTEELTUBINGPLASTICTUBINGISFINDINGINCREASEDINDUSTRIALUSAGEBECAUSEITISNOTCOSTLYANDCIRCUITSCANBEVERYEASILYHOOKEDUPDUETOITSFLEXIBILITYFLEXIBLEHOSESAREUSEDPRIMARILYTOCONNECTCOMPONENTSTHATEXPERIENCERELATIVEMOTIONTHEYAREMADEFROMALARGENUMBEROFELASTOMERICRUBBERLIKECOMPOUNDSANDARECAPABLEOFHANDLINGPRESSURESEXCEEDING10,000PASTAINLESSSTEELCONDUCTORSANDFITTINGSAREUSEDIFEXTREMELYCORROSIVEENVIRONMENTSAREEXPECTEDHOWEVER,THEYAREVERYEXPENSIVEANDSHOULDBEUSEDONLYIFNECESSARYCOPPERCONDUCTORSSHOULDNOTBEUSEDINHYDRAULICSYSTEMSBECAUSETHECOPPERPROMOTESTHEOXIDATIONOFPETROLEUMOILSZINC,MAGNESIUM,ANDCADMIUMCONDUCTORSSHOULDNOTBEUSEDEITHERBECAUSETHEYARERAPIDLYCORRODEDBYWATERGLYCOLFLUIDSGALVANIZEDCONDUCTORSSHOULDALSOBEAVOIDEDBECAUSETHEGALVANIZEDSURFACEHASATENDENCYTOFLAKEOFFINTOTHEHYDRAULICFLUIDWHENUSINGSTEELPIPEORSTEELTUBING,HYDRAULICFITTINGSSHOULDBEMADEOFSTEELEXCEPTFORINLET,RETURN,ANDDRAINLINES,WHEREMALLEABLEIRONMAYBEUSEDCONDUCTORSANDFITTINGSMUSTBEDESIGNEDWITHHUMANSAFETYINMINDTHEYMUSTBESTRONGENOUGHNOTONLYTOWITHSTANDTHESTEADYSTATESYSTEMPRESSURESBUTALSOTHEINSTANTANEOUSPRESSURESPIKESRESULTINGFROMHYDRAULICSHOCKWHENEVERCONTROLVALVESARECLOSEDSUDDENLY,THISSTOPSTHEFLUID,WHICHPOSSESSESLARGEAMOUNTSOFKINETICENERGYTHISPRODUCESSHOCKWAVESWHOSEPRESSURELEVELSCANBETWOORFOURTIMESTHESTEADYSTATESYSTEMDESIGNVALUESPRESSURESPIKESCANALSOBECAUSEDBYSUDDENSTOPPINGORSTARTINGOFHEAVYLOADSTHESEHIGHPRESSUREPULSESARETAKENINTOACCOUNTBYTHEAPPLICATIONOFANAPPROPRIATEFACTOROFSAFETY12CONDUCTORSIZINGFORFLOWRATEREQUIREMENTSACONDUCTORMUSTHAVEALARGEENOUGHCROSSSECTIONALAREATOHANDLETHEFLOWRATEREQUIREMENTSWITHOUTPRODUCINGEXCESSIVEFLUIDVELOCITYWHENEVERWESPEAKOFFLUIDVELOCITYINACONDUCTORSUCHASAPIPE,WEAREREFERRINGTOTHEAVERAGEVELOCITYTHECONCEPTOFAVERAGEVELOCITYISIMPORTANTSINCEWEKNOWTHATTHEVELOCITYPROFILEISNOTCONSTANTASSHOWNINCHAPTER5THEVELOCITYISZEROATTHEPIPEWALLANDREACHESAMAXIMUMVALUEATTHECENTERLINEOFTHEPIPETHEAVERAGEVELOCITYISDEFINEDASTHEVOLUMEFLOWRATEDIVIDEDBYTHEPIPECROSSSECTIONALAREAINOTHERWORDS,THEAVERAGEVELOCITYISTHATVELOCITYWHICHWHENMULTIPLIEDBYTHEPIPEAREAEQUALSTHEVOLUMEFLOWRATEITISALSOUNDERSTOODTHATTHETERMDIAMETERBYITSELFALWAYSMEANSINSIDEDIAMETERANDTHATTHEPIPEAREAISTHATAREATHATCORRESPONDSTOTHEPIPEINSIDEDIAMETERTHEMAXIMUMRECOMMENDEDVELOCITYFORPUMPSUCTIONLINESIS4FT/S12M/SINORDERTOPREVENTEXCESSIVELYLOWSUCTIONPRESSURESANDRESULTINGPUMPCAVITATIONTHEMAXIMUMRECOMMENDEDVELOCITYFORPRESSURELINESIS20FT/S61M/SINORDERTOPREVENTTURBULENTFLOWANDTHECORRESPONDINGEXCESSIVEHEADLOSSESANDELEVATEDFLUIDTEMPERATURESNOTETHATTHESEMAXIMUMRECOMMENDEDVALUESAREAVERAGEVELOCITIESEXAMPLE11APIPEHANDLESAFLOWRATEOF30GPRNFINDTHEMINIMUMINSIDEDIAMETERTHATWILLPROVIDEANAVERAGEFLUIDVELOCITYNOTTOEXCEED20FT/SSOLUTIONREWRITEEQ326,SOLVINGFORDEXAMPLE12APIPEHANDLESAFLOWRATEOF0002FINDTHEMINIMUMINSIDEDIAMETERTHATWILLPROVIDEANAVERAGEFLUIDVELOCITYNOTTOEXCEED61M/SSOLUTIONPEREQ335WESOLVEFORTHEMINIMUMREQUIREDPIPEFLOWAREATHEMINIMUMINSIDEDIAMETERCANNOWBEFOUND,BECAUSESOLVINGFORDWEHAVE13PRESSURERATINGOFCONDUCTORSTENSILESTRESSACONDUCTORMUSTBESTRONGENOUGHTOPREVENTBURSTINGDUETOEXCESSIVETENSILESTRESSCALLEDHOOPSTRESSINTHEWALLOFTHECONDUCTORUNDEROPERATINGFLUIDPRESSURETHEMAGNITUDEOFTHISTENSILESTRESS,WHICHMUSTBESUSTAINEDBYTHECONDUCTORMATERIAL,CANBEDETERMINEDBYREFERRINGTOFIGURE41INFIG41A,WESEETHEFLUIDPRESSUREPACTINGNORMALTOTHEINSIDESURFACEOFACIRCULARPIPEHAVINGALENGTHLTHEPIPEHASOUTSIDEDIAMETERD0,INSIDEDIAMETERDI,ANDWALLTHICKNESSTBECAUSETHEFLUIDPRESSUREACTSNORMALTOTHEPIPE’SINSIDESURFACE,APRESSUREFORCEISCREATEDTHATATTEMPTSTOSEPARATEONEHALFOFTHEPIPEFROMTHEOTHERHALFFIGURE41BSHOWSTHISPRESSUREFORCEPUSHINGDOWNWARDONTHEBOTTOMHALFOFTHEPIPETOPREVENTTHEBOTTOMHALFOFTHEPIPEFROMSEPARATINGFROMTHEUPPERHALF,THEUPPERHALFPULLSUPWARDWITHATOTALTENSILEFORCEFONEHALFOFTHISFORCEORF/2ACTSONTHECROSSSECTIONALAREATLOFEACHWALL,ASSHOWNSINCETHEPRESSUREFORCEANDTHETOTALTENSILEFORCEMUSTBEEQUALINMAGNITUDE,WEHAVEWHEREAISTHEPROJECTEDAREAOFTHELOWERHALFPIPECURVEDWALLSURFACEONTOAHORIZONTALPLANETHUS,AEQUALSTHEAREAOFARECTANGLEOFWIDTHDIANDLENGTHL,ASSHOWNINFIGURE41BHENCE,THETENSILESTRESSINTHEPIPEMATERIALEQUALSTHETENSILEFORCEDIVIDEDBYTHEWALLCROSSSECTIONALAREAWITHSTANDINGTHETENSILEFORCETHISSTRESSISCALLEDATENSILESTRESSBECAUSETHEFORCEFISATENSILEFORCEPULLSONTHEAREAOVERWHICHITACTSSUBSTITUTINGVARIABLESWEHAVEWHEREGREEKSYMBOLSIGMATENSILESTRESSASCANBESEENFROMEQ42,THETENSILESTRESSINCREASESASTHEFLUIDPRESSUREINCREASESANDALSOASTHEPIPEINSIDEDIAMETERINCREASESINADDITION,ASEXPECTED,THETENSILESTRESSINCREASESASTHEWALLTHICKNESSDECREASES,ANDTHELENGTHOFTHEPIPEDOESNOTHAVEANYEFFECTONTHETENSILESTRESSBURSTPRESSUREANDWORKINGPRESSURETHEBURSTPRESSUREBPISTHEFLUIDPRESSURETHATWILLCAUSETHEPIPETOBURSTTHISHAPPENSWHENTHETENSILESTRESSEQUALSTHETENSILESTRENGTHSOFTHEPIPEMATERIALTHETENSILESTRENGTHOFAMATERIALEQUALSTHETENSILESTRESSATWHICHTHEMATERIALRUPTURESNOTICETHATANAXIALSCRIBELINEISSHOWNONTHEPIPEOUTERWALLSURFACEINFIG41ATHISSCRIBELINESHOWSWHERETHEPIPEWOULDSTARTTOCRACKANDTHUSRUPTUREIFTHETENSILESTRESSREACHEDTHETENSILESTRENGTHOFTHEPIPE

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