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外文翻译--激光焊:Ag-Pd-Au-Cu合金显微结构和腐蚀状态的研究在牙科领域的应用 英文版.doc

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外文翻译--激光焊:Ag-Pd-Au-Cu合金显微结构和腐蚀状态的研究在牙科领域的应用 英文版.doc

LASERWELDMICROSTRUCTUREANDCORROSIONSTUDYOFAG–PD–AU–CUALLOYOFTHEDENTALAPPLICATIONMLSANTOS,HAACCIARI,LCOVERCIK,ACGUASTALDIINSTITUTODEQUIMICADEARARAQUARAUNESP,CP355,14800900ARARAQUARA,SA˜OPAULO,BRAZILRECEIVED10JUNE2002;ACCEPTED20JUNE2002ABSTRACTTHELASERWELDINGPROCESSWASINTRODUCEDINTODENTISTRYBYTHEENDOFTHE1980S,RESULTINGONAGREATIMPULSETOTHATAREAWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCHEAPERANDSMALLEREQUIPMENT,USINGSIMPLERTECHNIQUETHISALLOWEDGREATERUSEOFTHATPROCESSONTHECONFECTIONOFPROSTHESESCOMPAREDTOTHEBRAZINGPROCESSSINCETHEHEATSOURCEFORTHATPROCESSISACONCENTRATEDLIGHTBEAMOFHIGHPOWER,WHICHMINIMIZESDISTORTIONPROBLEMSONTHEPROSTHETICPIECESAG–PD–AU–CUALLOYUSEDONTHECONFECTIONOFDENTALIMPLANTPROSTHESESWASOBSERVEDBEFOREANDAFTERSUBJECTIONTOTHELASERWELDINGPROCESSTHEMICROSTRUCTUREWASANALYZEDWITHTHEUSEOFOPTICMICROSCOPYANDTHECORROSIONRESISTANCEWASSTUDIEDBYTHETRADITIONALELECTROCHEMICALTECHNIQUESANDBYELECTROCHEMICALIMPEDANCE,UNDERENVIRONMENTALCONDITIONSSIMULATINGTHEAGGRESSIVENESSFOUNDINTHEMOUTHCAVITYASTRUCTURALCHANGEWASDETECTEDONTHEWELDAREA,WHICHPRESENTEDAREFINEDMICROSTRUCTUREDERIVINGFROMTHEHIGHSPEEDCOOLINGTHEBASEMETALOUTOFTHEWELDAREAPRESENTEDAFUSIONCOARSEMICROSTRUCTURETHEELECTROCHEMICALESSAYSSHOWEDDIFFERENCESONTHEPOTENTIODYNAMICPOLARIZATIONBEHAVIORINBOTHWELDANDMETALBASEAREAS,INDICATINGSUPERIORCORROSIONRESISTANCEINTHEWELDAREATHEIMPEDANCESPECTRAWERECHARACTERIZEDBYCAPACITIVEDISTORTEDCOMPONENTS,PRESENTINGLINEARIMPEDANCEINTHELOWFREQUENCIESAREAD2002ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSAG–PD–AU–CU;LASER;CORROSION;DENTALALLOYS1INTRODUCTIONINSEARCHFORALTERNATIVEMETALALLOYSFORODONTOLOGICALPURPOSES,SOMERESEARCHERSHAVEAPPLIEDTHEAGPDALLOYTOSUBSTITUTETHEGOLDALLOYS,TRYINGTOREDUCECOSTSANDTOIMPROVEMECHANICALPROPERTIESANDCORROSIONRESISTANCE1–4DUETOSOMEDIFFICULTYINOBTAININGADAPTATIONINPROSTHETICPIECES,MAINLYTHELARGERONESSUCHASMETALLICSTRUCTURESMOLTENINTOONEPIECE,CALLEDCASTMONOBLOCKS,THEUSEOFWELDINGISNECESSARYSINCETHISTECHNIQUEACCEPTSTHEWORKWITHSEGMENTSOFTHEPROSTHESIS,WHICHMAKESPOSSIBLEABALANCEDFORCEDISTRIBUTIONANDTHEBESTSUITABLEADAPTATION,OCCURRINGINANACCURATEPASSIVEWAY4,5THEPROCESSOFLASERWELDINGPRODUCESACOHERENT,MONOCHROMATIC,CONCENTRATEDLIGHTBEAMOFHIGHPOWER,ANDITHASBEENAPPLIEDTOSUBSTITUTETHEBRAZINGINODONTOLOGICALPROSTHESESWELDINGTHELASERWELDINGPROCESSWASINTRODUCEDINTODENTISTRYBYTHEENDOFTHE1980S,RESULTINGONAGREATIMPULSETOTHEAREAWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCHEAPERANDSMALLEREQUIPMENTDUETOITSADVANTAGESANDWIDEAPPLICATION,WHICHMADEPOSSIBLETOUSEWELDINGINAWIDEVARIETYOFMETALSANDPROSTHETICPIECES6THEUSEOFELECTROCHEMICALTECHNIQUESINTHECORROSIONSTUDYISIMPORTANTFORTHEUNDERSTANDINGOFITSPERFORMANCE,BIOCOMPATIBILITYANDBIOFUNCTIONALITY,WHENCLINICALLYAPPLIED,FORTHESEARECONSTANTLYEXPOSEDTOAGGRESSIVEENVIRONMENTSTHISRESEARCHOBSERVESAG–PD–AU–CUALLOYMICROSTRUCTUREBEHAVIORANDTHEMATERIAL’SRESISTANCETOCORROSIONUNDERENVIRONMENTALCONDITIONSSIMULATINGTHEAGGRESSIVENESSFOUNDINTHEMOUTHCAVITY,WHENUSEDONDENTALIMPLANTPROSTHESESBEFOREANDAFTERSUBJECTEDTOTHELASERWELDINGPROCESS2EXPERIMENTALTABLE1PRESENTSTHEMINERALCOMPOSITIONOFTHESTUDIEDMATERIAL,USINGWAVEDISPERSIVESPECTROSCOPYWDSTHECYLINDRICALTESTSPECIMENS,WITH027CMDIAMETERAND10CMLENGTH,HAVEBEENSUBJECTEDTOTHEWELDINGPROCESSONBUTTJOINTS7THEWELDINGMACHINE,DENTAURUMDL20002S,USEDFORTHELASERWELDING,USESACRYSTALNDYAGASSOURCEOFLASER,ANDTHEBEAMPOWERWASAPPROXIMATELY608KWIN14MS,ORIGINATINGAWELDINGENERGYOFAPPROXIMATELY8512JTHETESTSPECIMENSWEREMANUALLYPLACEDINTHECHAMBER,WITHSHIELDATMOSPHEREOFARGON,ANDSPOTSOFLAPWELDING,INAPPROXIMATELY2/3OFTHESURFACES,WEREAPPLIEDINTHEWHOLESECTIONOFTHEJOINT,WITH60OFBEAMPENETRATIONAPRECISEDISCMODEL15HCDIAMONDWASUSEDTOOBTAINTHETESTSPECIMENSOFAG–PD–AU–CUALLOYWITHAREACOMPREHENDINGONLYTHEWELDINGAREA,ANDANISOMET1000BUEHLERMACHINEWASUSEDTOSEPARATETHEBASEMETALFROMTHEWELDINGAREAAFTERTHELASERPROCESSTHEEXPOSEDGEOMETRICAREASOFTHEWELDINGCORDANDOFTHEBASEMETALWERE0057CM2THEMETALLOGRAPHICANALYSISOFTHEEXPOSEDSURFACEOFTHEBASEMETALANDTHEWELDINGAREAWASDONEWITHOPTICMICROSCOPY,AFTERPOLISHWITHEMERYCLOTHFROM180TO1000MESH,ALUMINAWITHGRANULATION1AND03AMANDNITROMURIATICACIDAPPLICATION8THEWORKELECTRODESWEREPREPAREDFROMTHETESTSPECIMENSUSEDONTHEMETALLOGRAPHICANALYSISMEASURESOFOPENCIRCUITPOTENTIALVERSUSTIMEWEREUSEDINTHEELECTROCHEMICALESSAYS,ASWELLASPOTENTIODYNAMICPOLARIZATIONANDELECTROCHEMICALIMPEDANCEANELECTROCHEMICALCELLCONTAININGNACL015MOLL_109AIRYSOLUTIONWITHTHREEELECTRODESWASALSOUSED,WITHTHESATURATEDCALOMELELECTRODESCEASREFERENCESYSTEMANDAGRAFFITICYLINDERASAUXILIARYELECTRODEELECTROCHEMICALMEASURESOFCORROSIONWEREDONEWITHAPOTENTIOMETERSOLARTRONSI1287POTENTIODYNAMICPOLARIZATIONCURVESWEREOBSERVEDAT0001VS_1IMMEDIATELYIMPEDANCEMEASURESWEREDONEWITHTHEANALYZEROFFREQUENCYRESPONSE,SOLARTRON1255,CONNECTEDTOANELECTROCHEMICALINTERFACE,SOLARTRON1287,ANDANAMPLITUDEOF10MVWASAPPLIEDTOAFREQUENCYCHANNELTHATVARIEDFROM100KHZTO6MHZ,OBTAININGFIVEPOINTSFOREACHFREQUENCYDECADE,CONTROLLEDBYTHESOFTWAREZPLOT9THESOFTWAREZVEIW10WASRESPONSIBLEFORTHEADJUSTMENTS3RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONFIG1PRESENTSACOARSEBIPHASICFUSIONMICROSTRUCTUREINTHEBASEMETALAREAFIG2ILLUSTRATESAREFINEDDENDRITICALMICROSTRUCTUREINTHELASERWELDAREA,DERIVINGFROMTHEHIGHSPEEDYCOOLINGIMPOSEDBYTHELASERWELDBECAUSEOFALOCATEDFUSIONPROCESS,FOLLOWEDBYAQUICKCOOLINGDURINGTHEWELDING,WHICHDOESNOTALLOWTHEMICROSTRUCTURETORETURNTOITSINITIALBIPHASICSTRUCTUREFIG3SHOWSTHEOPENCIRCUITPOTENTIALVERSUSTIMECURVESFORTHEBASEMETALANDLASERWELDAREASOFTHEAG–PD–AU–CUALLOYTHESTABILIZATIONOFTHEPOTENTIALWASOBSERVED3HAFTERIMMERSIONFORBOTHAREAS,ANDTHELASERWELDPRESENTEDASTABILIZATIONPOTENTIAL50MVHIGHERSOMEAGPDALLOYRESEARCHERSHAVEOBSERVEDTHAT,USUALLY,ANALLOYOPENCIRCUITPOTENTIAL

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