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外文翻译--热泵技术的发展现状与其展望.doc

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外文翻译--热泵技术的发展现状与其展望.doc

附录ⅡDEVELOPMENTOFHEATPUMPTECHNOLOGYANDITSPROSPECTS1,thepreambleInrecentyears,Chinahasdevelopedveryrapidlyheatpumps,mainlyinthefollowingaspects.1Accordingtostatistics,in1996Chinasairconditioninghotandcoldwatermeanselectricgeneratingunits,hotandcoldwaterabsorptionunit,roomairconditionerunitsandairconditioningunits,butdoesnotincludeimportedunitsofthetotalcoolingcapacityofabout20millionkW,Oneoftherefrigerationunitofheatpumpcapacityofabout60percent.Inalltheheatpumpunits,electricdrivenheatpumpcapacityofabout1070kW,accountingfor90percentabsorptionheatpumpcapacityofabout1.3millionkW,accountingfor10percent.2Inrecentyears,Chinasabsorptionrefrigerationunitisdevelopingrapidly.Accordingtostatistics,the1996salesoflithiumbromideabsorptionchillersaboutmorethan3,000Taiwan,theTaiwanStraightGasTurbine1115.3heatpumpinindustryhasaninklingoftheapplication,timber,foodteaandfruit,ceramics,paper,printing,petroleumandchemicalindustrialproductionprocesshadbeenusedsteaminjectionheat,absorbingheatpumpHeatpumpandelectricdrive.Forexample,therearecurrentlysome400heatpumpwooddryingmachineisrunning,thehandlingcapacityof1,000cubicmetersisabout200.2,thebackgroundofthedevelopmentofheatpump2.1energypolicyChinastotalprimaryenergyinreservenotincludingbiomassenergyandnewenergysourcesto1.4billiontonsofstandardcoal,ofwhich1.46billiontonsofrawcoal,crudeoil170milliontonsand30billioncubicmetersofnaturalgas,hydropower240billionkWh,250kWhofnuclearpower,46milliontonsofimportedoil,electricpowerinstalledcapacityofthermalpower2.93billionkWaverageannualincreaseofinstalledcapacityof1500kW.Accordingto1997statistics,Chinasthermalpowerplantefficiencyof32.95percent,heatingplantefficiency83.68,thetotalenergyconversionefficiencyof38.07percent.TriplefortheuseofthermoelectriccoolingsystemorthetotalenergysystemTESTotalEnergySystem,GasheatpumpGEHP,passedthefirstlawofthermodynamicsofthethermalefficiencyandeffectivenessofthesecondlawofthermodynamicsrateofnoteAstheuseofwasteheat,GEHPthecomprehensiveutilizationofupto8085ifthermalpowertransmissionthroughtheshaftPumps,useofthelowheat,theintegratedthermalefficiencycanbeachieved150170.TheTES,toachievetripleforthermoelectriccoolingafteritscomprehensiveutilizationmayreach65to80percent.ThePeoplesRepublicofenergyconservationlawArticle39ofthermoelectriccoolingwillbeincludedinthenationalcoproductiontechnologytoencouragethedevelopmentofGMtechnology,topromotethedevelopmentofthecauseoftheheatpump.2.2EnvironmentalPolicyDrivenbythermalheatpump,CO2emissionshavedecreasedsignificantly.Throughtheheatpumptoimproveperformance,reducetheworkingfluidleakageandtheuseofnewrefrigerants,heatpumpinenvironmentalprotectionwillplayagreaterrole.2.3BuildingEnergyConservationLawTheimplementationofBuildingenergysavingdesignstandardstoimprovetheperformanceofbuildinginsulation,reducingenergyconsumptionofheatingthebuilding,resultinginsignificantlyreducingtheheatpumpmodeofheating,runningcosts,increasetheheatpumpheatingandcentralheatingThecompetitivenessoftheway.240citiestochangetheenergystructureFocusonlargeandmediumsizedurbanpopulation,energyconsumption,pollutionproblemsaremostprominent,andmustthereforebetheimplementationofnationalenergypolicy,improvetheenergystructure,promotingtheuseofcleanhighqualityenergyresources,restrictionsontheuseofcoal,whichistheapplicationofheatpumptocreatetheconditions.2.5energypriceadjustment3heatpumptechnologydevelopmentvision3.1heatpumptechnologyinthestatusquoAlltypesofevaporationandcondensationheatpumphastwotemperaturelevels,cuttingexpenditurebyexpansionvalveorcapillary.Onlyincreasethepressureonthedifferentforms,therearemechanicalcompression,thecompressionheat,steaminjectioncompression.Atpresent,ChinasdevelopmentofheatpumpTherearethreetrendsAircooledheatpumphotwaterunitrapiddevelopmentin1996thanin1995anincreaseofnearlytwicethat.Directfiredgeneratingunitsforthedevelopmentoflithiumbromidehotandcoldwaterfaster,thetotalnumberoflithiumbromideabsorptionofhotwaterfor56percentofunits.Thelargestproportionofroomairconditioners.Heatpumptypewindow,separatedand10kWcoolingcapacityundertheairconditionerunitofthetotalcoolingcapacityof45percent.ButtechnicallythefollowingareasAircooledheatpumpunitsexistsizelarger,morenoise,defrosttechnologyisnotyetperfect,andsoon.MainareasofaircooledheatpumpistheYangtzeRiverBasin,theregionsultrysummer,winterHumidicool,Januaryaveragetemperature0℃10℃,therelativehumidityisgreaterthan75.Therefore,theheatpumpmustadapttotherequirementsofthefollowinglowtemperatureandhighhumidity0℃TheclimateandenvironmentLithiumbromideabsorptionrefrigerationunitlowefficiency.Roomairconditionersexistnoisepollution,thermalpollutionalotofheatintoelectricalpowerintotheresidentialandtherefrigerantpollution,especiallySeparatedconditioninginstallationanduseoftheleak.1996Chinasinstalledabout3millionFentiJiand40millionairconditionerunitstoeachinstallationofemissionsfor50gterms,itwasleakingatotalof170t/year.3.2heatpumptechnologydevelopmentvisionGeneraltrendoftechnologicaldevelopmentisthedevelopmentofhighefficiencyheating,coolingandheatpumpheatpumpsystemsuper.3.2.1mechanicalcompressionheatpumpdevelopment1refrigerantsideoftheheatpumpcontrol.2compressorenergycontrol.3compressordesign.4ofthenewtechnology.3.2.2absorbheatandabsorbheatconverter3.2.3Compressionabsorbheatpump3.2.4hightemperatureheatpump4,heatpumpmarketdevelopmentprospects4.1heatpumpfavorablefactorsforthedevelopmentofthemarket4.1.1Chinasenergypolicyandenvironmentalpolicyistopromotetherapiddevelopmentofheatpumptechnologyamajorfactor.4.1.2SinceChinaintroducedthereformandopeningupin1978,energypolicy,theYangtzeRiverBasinistherapideconomicdevelopment,livingstandardsalsohasbeensignificantlyimproved.Theregionsclimateischaracterizedbyhotsummer,nottoocoldinwinterJanuaryaverageoutdoortemperaturerangeof0℃10℃,theaverageoutdoortemperatureisbeloworequalto5℃timefor090days.JulyOutdoorTheaveragetemperaturerangeof25℃30℃,theaveragetemperatureisabove25℃thenumberofdaysfor40110days.Accordingtotheabovereasons,tothelargenumberofimportsofforeignproducts,heatpumpsysteminChinasrapidlygrowingapplications,60percentoftotalhouseholdairconditionersfortheheatpumpeveninthecolderregionsofBeijing,therearemanyuserswanttofocusonheatingBeforeandafterapplicationofheatpumptypeairconditioningunitsforheating,hotwatersupplyinwinterandsummercoldwatersupplytotheelectricaircooledairconditioningunitonacentralizedsystemhasbeenwidelyused,theapplicationofthefuturewillbeevenmorepopular.4.1.3Chinashugeconstructionmarket,19952000,theestimatedannualnationalurbanconstructionofnewresidentialareaofabout240millionsquaremeters,ofwhichthenewShanghaieachyearabout15millionsquaremeters,Beijingabout10millionsquaremeters,about6millionsquaremetersinTianjin,Dalianabout260.20002010Millionsquaremetersineachofthenewresidentialconstructionareaofabout340millionsquaremeters.4.1.4Chinasindustrialwasteheatisveryrichinresources,useofthegreatpotentialforaverywidedistribution,suchasthechemicalindustryaccountedfor8.8percent,thepetrochemicalindustryaccountedfor30.9percent,andtextileindustriesaccountedfor4.0percent.Petrochemicalplants,papermills,pharmaceuticalPlants,metallurgicalplants,foodprocessingandagriculturalsectorsontheapplicationofaheatpumpdevelopmentresearch,suchastimber,drivenbyahighlyefficientheatpumpdryertoachievethepurposeoftheplantenergysaving,ifwidelyusedpetrochemicalplantsteamjetHeatpumprecoveryofwasteheatintheproductionprocessfortheproductionandliving,hasmadesignificanteconomicbenefitsforthefuturedevelopmentofheatpumpmarkethascreatedconditions

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