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外文翻译--确定性的管道完整性评价 英文版.PDF

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外文翻译--确定性的管道完整性评价 英文版.PDF

DETERMINISTICPIPELINEINTEGRITYASSESSMENTTOOPTIMIZECORROSIONCONTROLANDREDUCECOSTM.J.J.SimonThomas,L.H.PragerandC.V.M.VoermansShellGlobalSolutionsInternationalB.V.Badhuisweg31031CMAmsterdamTheNetherlandsB.P.MiglinandB.F.M.PotsShellGlobalSolutionsUS3333Highway6SouthHouston,Texas77082l.J.Rippon,ShellGlobalSolutionsInternationalB.V.Volmerlaan82288GDRijswijkTheNetherlandsABSTRACTAmethodologywasdevelopedtoimprovetheintegritymanagementofpipelines,takingaccountofinternalcorrosion,externalcorrosionandthirdpartydamage.Thesystemcanbeusedtodefinethecorrosioncontrolandmonitoringneedsofnewandexistinglines.Italsoservestodeterminetheintegrity,optimizeinspectionandmanagerepairandrehabilitationofexistinglines.Theapproachtotheevaluationofthedegradationrateandfitnessforpurposeofthepipelineisdeterministic.Themethodologyconsiderstherelativecontributionofallrelevantfactors,suchasCO2,H2S,02,organicacidsandbacteriaoninternalcorrosion,soilcorrosivity,coatingconditionandcathodicprotectiononexternalcorrosionandoperatingenvironmentonthirdpartydamage.Theinspectionplanningfollowsariskbasedapproach.Thesystemhasbeenappliedtoalargenumberofpipelinesallovertheworldandshowntoaddvaluetothebusinessofoperators.1INTRODUCTIONPipelineintegritymanagementhistoricallyhasbeenbasedprimarilyonthecompositionoftheproducedfluidsinternalprotectionandthesoilconditionsexternalprotection.Thisapproachhasresultedinexcellentdesignsfromthepointofviewofthepipelineprojectengineer.Forexample,CO2corrosionisusuallyaccountedforinmuchdetailandtheuseofalternativematerialsorcorrosioninhibitionisselectedonthebasisofaccuratemodelstocopewithinternalcorrosion.Inasimilarmanner,suitablecoatingsandcathodicprotectionsystemsaredesignedtopreventexternalcorrosion.Oncethepipelineisinservice,itoftenturnsoutthatotherfactors,usuallyofanoperationalnature,poseaseriousthreattotheintegrity.Inmanycasesoxygeningressandthepresenceofbacteria,orthereliabilityoftheinhibitorpumparedeterminingtheinternalcorrosionrateandhencetherelatedoperatingexpenditures.Thecorrectoperationofcathodicprotectionsystemsandtimelycoatingrepairstendtodeterminethecostsofexternalcorrosion.Anothermajorclassofthreatsisthatofthirdpartydamage,whichcanvaryfromaccidentaldamageduetodiggingortrawlerboards,tosabotageandtheftofproduct.Historicaldataonpipelinefailuresareusedtodeterminethemainexposurestopipelineintegrity,henceenablingmeasurestobetakenonfailureprevention.Itshouldberealizedthatthefailurefrequenciesarehighlydependentonthelocalcircumstances.E.g.,Table1showsthatthemaincausesoffailureinEuropeandtheUSareexternaldamage,mechanicaldamagemanufacturingandconstructiondefectsandcorrosion1.Itisobviousthataneffectiveintegritymanagementprogramhastotakeallpotentialthreatsintoaccount.Monitoringandinspectionprogramsshouldbedesignedsuchthattheydetectandpreferablynegatethesethreatsinatimelymanner.Theprogramshouldbeusedtoredirectpipelinemaintenanceonthebasisofthemonitoringandinspectionresults.Itshouldalsoproviderelevantinformationtodirectrepairandrehabilitationofthepipeline.Aprocesswasdeveloped,whichformsthebasisforasoftwarepackagenamedPIPERBA1.IthasbeenadoptedbymostmajorShellpipelineoperatorsaswellasbysomethirdparties.Thewholepackagehasbeendescribedelsewhere2.Thispaperconcentratesondescribingtheintegrityassessmentpartofthisprogram.DETERMINISTICINTEGRITYASSESSMENTThebasicintegritymanagementprocessisdepictedinFigure1.Themostimportantinputsandsupporttoolsareshownaswell.Themainstepsoftheintegritymanagementprocesswillbediscussedfortheprincipalthreatsconsideredinthecurrentversionoftheprogram,internalcorrosion,externalcorrosionandthirdpartydamage.oProprietarycomputerprogramPIPERBAPipelineRiskBasedAssessment2InternalcorrosionThemostcommoninternalcorrosionmechanismsinpipelinestransportingproducedfluidsareCO2corrosion,H2Scorrosion,organicacidcorrosion,oxygencorrosionandbacterialcorrosion.Inhousemodelsexisttocalculatetheexpectedcorrosionratesifnoprotectivemeasuresaretaken.TheearlierCO2corrosionmodelhasbeendiscussedelsewhereindetail3,4.ThelatestversionoftheresultingcomputerprogramHYDROCOR¢2alsoestimatesthecorrosionduetothepresenceoforganicacids,oxygen,bacteriaandhydrogensulfide5.Aspecialversionwasdevelopedtosupportthepipelineintegritymanagementprogramdescribedinthispaper.Figure2showstheinputandoutputscreen.Forconvenience,theinputfieldsarepreselectedonthebasisofthetypeofservicethelineisoperatingin.Thiswaytheuseronlyhastogatherandenterrelevantdata.Figure2showsthattheprogramalsotakeskeyoperationalexperienceintoaccounttoadjusttheestimatesofthecontributingcorrosionrates.Thisincludessuchfactorsasthepigginghistorytomoderatethechancesofunderdepositcorrosionandtheavailabilityofnutrientsforbacterialgrowth.Finally,itconsidersthechemicalsavailability,i.e.thecomplianceofchemicalsinjectionprogramswiththeagreedstrategy.Thisavailabilityofcorrosioncontrolisdeemedtobeextremelyimportantandcanbeexpressedasfollows,inthiscaseforinhibitionCRFinhXCRinhlFinhXCRuninh1whereFinhstandsfortheinhibitoravailability,CRinhistheinhibitedcorrosionrateandCRuninhtheuninhibitedrate.Ifthesystemreliesonbiocideinjectiontocontrolbacterialcorrosion,thesubscriptsinhibitedanduninhibitedshouldbereplacedaccordingly.Asimilarapproachisappliedtocalculatetheconsequenceoftheavailabilityofotheroperationalsystems,e.g.dewpointcontrol.Thelaststepistocombinethecalculatedcorrosionratewithcorrosionmonitoringdata,inspectiondataandoperationalexperience.Thisaspectwillbediscussedinmoredetailbelow.ThusthestepsthatwereshowninageneralformatinFigure1,canbeshownforinternalcorrosionasinFigure3.Itisnotedthatinthisterminologycorrosionmonitoringincludescorrosionratemeasurements,residuals,trackingofoperationalparameterssuchascomplianceofthechemicalinjectionsystemwiththeagreedgoals,etc.ExternalcorrosiononshorelinesburiedorexposedTheexternalcorrosionthreatsthataretakenintoconsiderationareatmosphericcorrosion,corrosionofburiedsteel,corrosionduetointerferenceofcathodicallyprotectedsystemsandfailuresofisolationjoints.Protectionagainstexternalcorrosionisalwaysbasedonanexternalcoatingandcathodicprotectiontopreventcorrosionatdamagedareasofthecoating.Thepipelineisanalysedtodeterminethechancesthatthesethreatsresultincorrosion.Thefirststepistodeterminetheunprotectedcorrosionratebasedonthesoilcorrosivityalongthepipelinefrommeasuredresistivitydataandsoiltype.Thisdeterminestheprincipalexternalcorrosion2ProprietarycomputerprogramtocalculateCO2corrosion,estimatecorrosionduetobacteria,oxygenandorganicacids.3threatandformsthebasisforthedesignofthecorrosioncontrolsystemsinplace.TypicalcorrosionratesofburiedsteelaregiveninTable2.Nextthequalityofthecathodicprotectionisassessed,basedontestpostandcloseintervalpotentialsurveydata.Thelatterarealsousedtoassessprotectionagainstinterferencerisksandtheoccurrenceofisolationjointfailures.CRextemal,CPFxCRprotectedIlFxCRunprotected2whereCRarethecorrosionratesandFistheavailabilityofthecathodicprotectionsystem.ThefactorsareshowninTable3.Thisresultsinanestimatedcorrosionrateofexposedsteeltakingintoconsiderationtheperformanceofthecathodicprotectionsystemforacertaintimeperiod.Thetypesofinterferencethataretakenintoaccountarecathodicprotectionofotherlines,eithercrossingorparalleltothelineunderconsideration,isolationjointsandflanges,DCandACtraction,andpowerlines.Thecoatingeffectivenessisassessedfromcurrentdensitymonitoringdataandoverthelinepotentialsurveysasdiscussedbelow.TheexternalcorrosionassessmentprocessisshowninFigure4.ExternalCorrosionoffshoresubsealinesForsubsealinestheexternalcorrosionthreatsthataretakenintoconsiderationarecorrosioninseawater,corrosionduetointerferenceofcathodicallyprotectedsystemsandfailuresofisolationjoints.Thelattertwoaremuchlessimportantthanforonshorelinesbecausealmostalltheoffshorecathodicprotectionsystemsusesacrificialanodes.Protectionagainstexternalcorrosionisalwaysbasedonanexternalcoatingandcathodicprotectiontopreventcorrosionatdamagedareasofthecoating.Thepipelineisanalysedtodeterminethechancesthatthesethreatsresultincorrosion.Forimpressedcurrentcathodicprotectionsystems,asimilarapproachtodeterminingtheextemalcorrosionrateisappliedasfortheonshorecase.Forsacrificalcathodicprotectionsystems,theexternalcorrosionratewillbezeroaslongasthesacrificialsystemisoperatingtodesign.Theassessmentthenlooksattheriskoffailureofthecathodicprotectionsystemduetoageorextensivecoatingdamage.Thequalityofthecathodicprotectionisassessed,basedonsurveyscarriedoutusingremoteoperatedvehiclesordivers,incorporatingdatafrompipelinerisercathodicprotectionsurveys.Ifthepipelineorstructuresitisconnectedtouseimpressedcurrentsystems,thentheinterferencerisksandtheoccurrenceofisolationjointfailuresareassessed.Thecoatingeffectivenessisassessedfromcurrentdensitymonitoringdata.ThirdpartyrisksonshorelinesTwotypesofthirdpartydamageareconsideredaccidentaldamageandsabotage.Variousavailablestatisticalinformationsourceswereusedtoconstructanalyticalmodels,inparticulardata63reportedbyCONCAWE.Basedonthis,apointsystemwasagreedtoevaluatethevariousthreats.Thecontributingfactorsareoutlinedbelow.3OilcompaniesEuropeanorganizationforenvironment,healthandsafety.4

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