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外文翻译--航空材料超声辅助车削的仿真与实验研究 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--航空材料超声辅助车削的仿真与实验研究 英文版.pdf

OFG,ISPROCESSULTRASONICTHEULTRASONICKEYWORDSULTRASONICMACHINING;TURNING;FINITEELEMENTMODELLING;MICROSTRUCTURETHE‘EXISTENT,CONVENTIONALTURNINGCTTECHNOLOGYFREQUENCYULTRASONICVIBRATION,SUPERIMPOSEDONTHECONVENTIONALMOVEMENTOFTHECUTTINGTOOLFIG1,HASPROVEDTOBEEffECTIVEINMACHININGINTRACTABLEMETALALLOYSASWELLASBRITTLEMATERIALS,SUCHASCERAMICSANDCUTTINGFORCES7,8TROLSYSTEMTHISSYSTEMSTABILISESTHETURNINGPROCESSWITHULTRASONICVIBRATIONANDMAKESTHISPROCESSHIGHLYCONTROLLABLETHEDETAILEDDESCRIPTIONOFTHISNOVELCONTROLSYSTEMISGIVENIN9,10THEEXPERIMENTALPARTOFTHISPAPERSTUDIESUATWITHAUTORESONANTCONTROLINCOMPARISONTOCONVENTIONALTURNINGANOTHERIMPORTANTISSUECONCERNINGUATISTHECORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL441509227504;FAX441509CONVENTIONALMACHININGOFMODERNNICKELANDTITANIUMBASEDSUPERALLOYS,USEDINAEROSPACEAPPLICATIONS,CAUSESHIGHTOOLTEMPERATURESANDSUBSEQUENTFASTWEAROFCUTTINGEDGESEVENATRELATIVELYLOWCUTTINGSPEEDSAGROWINGDEMANDFORMACHININGTHESEINTRACTABLEMATERIALSREQUIRESNEWADVANCEDTURNINGTECHNOLOGIESSUCHATECHNOLOGYWASINTRODUCEDIN1960SHIGHNEVERTHELESS,UPTOTHEPRESENTDAYUATHASNOTBEENWIDELYINTRODUCEDINTOINDUSTRIALENVIRONMENTTHEMAINREASONFORITISSENSITIVITYOFTHEUATPROCESSTOTHELOADAPPLIEDTOTHECUTTINGTIP,RESULTINGINTHELOSSOFCUTTINGEffiCIENCYWHENTHELOADCHANGESORADIffERENTTIPISUSEDHOWEVER,THISLIMITATIONHASRECENTLYBEENELIMINATEDWITHTHEINVENTIONOFTHEAUTORESONANTCON1INTRODUCTIONTURNINGISAMACHININGPROCESS,WHEREATHINSURFACELAYEROFTHETREATEDMATERIALISREMOVEDFROMAWORKPIECEBYASHARPWEDGESHAPEDCUTTINGTOOLFORMINGACYLINDRICALSURFACETHISTECHNOLOGYHASBEENUSEDFORCENTURIESMAINLYFORCUTTINGVARIOUSTYPESOFMETALLICMATERIALSHOWEVER,INTHERECENTYEARS,ARANGEOFNEWALLOYSANDCOMPOSITEMATERIALSHASBEENDEVELOPEDFORVARIOUSENGINEERINGAPPLICATIONSMANYOFTHESENEWMATERIALSBECOMEMUCHMOREDIffiCULTTOCUTWITHGLASSTHISTECHNOLOGY,CALLEDULTRASONICALLYASSISTEDTURNINGUAT,DEMONSTRATESARANGEOFBENEfiTSINMACHININGHARDMETALALLOYSADECREASEINCUTTINGFORCESOFUPTOSEVERALTIMES1–4,IMPROVEMENTINSURFACEfiNISHBYUPTO50COMPAREDTOCT5ANDNOISEREDUCTION6ASFORMACHININGOFBRITTLEMATERIALS,CERAMICSANDGLASSPRESENTLYREQUIREPROLONGEDANDEXPENSIVEPOSTPROCESSINGTOOBTAINTHESURFACEQUALITYREQUIREDFOROPTICALCOMPONENTS;UATALLOWSOBTAININGMIRRORSURFACEfiNISHINMACHININGTHESEMATERIALSASWELLASCONSIDERABLEREDUCTIONINTOOLWEARANDAVERAGEULTRASONICALLYASSISTEDTURNINGANDEXPERIMENTALVIBABITSKY,AVMITROFANOV,WOLFSONSCHOOLOFMECHANICALANDMANUFACTURINGENGINEERINABSTRACTULTRASONICALLYASSISTEDTURNINGOFMODERNAVIATIONMATERIALSAMPLITUDEAC2515LMSUPERIMPOSEDONTHECUTTINGTOOLMOVEMENTNONLINEARRESONANTMODEOFVIBRATIONTHROUGHOUTTHECUTTINGWORKPIECESMACHINEDCONVENTIONALLYANDWITHTHESUPERIMPOSEDPROCESSANDNANOINDENTATIONANALYSESOFTHEMICROSTRUCTUREOFMODELPROVIDESNUMERICALCOMPARISONBETWEENCONVENTIONALANDCUTTINGFORCESANDCONTACTCONDITIONSATTHEWORKPIECE/TOOLINTERFACEC2112004ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDULTRASONICS422004227502EMAILADDRESSVSILBERSCHMIDTLBOROACUKVVSILBERSCHMIDT0041624X/SEEFRONTMATTERC2112004ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JULTRAS200402001AVIATIONMATERIALSSIMULATIONSSTUDYVVSILBERSCHMIDTLOUGHBOROUGHUNIVERSITY,LEICESTERSHIRELE113TU,UKCONDUCTEDWITHULTRASONICVIBRATIONFREQUENCYFC2520KHZ,ANAUTORESONANTCONTROLSYSTEMISUSEDTOMAINTAINTHESTABLEEXPERIMENTALCOMPARISONOFROUGHNESSANDROUNDNESSFORVIBRATION,RESULTSOFHIGHSPEEDfiLMINGOFTHETURNINGMACHINEDMATERIALAREPRESENTEDTHESUGGESTEDfiNITEELEMENTTURNINGOFINCONEL718INTERMSOFSTRESS/STRAINSTATE,81–86WWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/ULTRASMECHANICSOFTHISPROCESSTHEREAREONLYAFEWSOURCESOFTHEWORKPIECEPARALLELTOTHEXAXIS,FIG1B,ORINTHEFEEDDIRECTION,IEALONGTHEAXISOFTHEWORKPIECEZAXIS,FIG1BASELFSUSTAINEDRESONANTMODEOFVIBRATIONOFTHISCUTTINGSYSTEMISIMPLEMENTEDVIATHEAUTORESONANTCONTROLSYSTEM,WHICHISDESCRIBEDINDETAILIN9,10ARANGEOFTURNINGTESTSHASBEENCONDUCTEDTOCOMPARETHEUSAGEOFUATANDCTFORMACHININGAVIATIONMATERIALSTHEDETAILEDDESCRIPTIONOFTHESETESTSCANBEFOUNDIN5AMONGTHEMATERIALSUSEDFORTHETESTSISINCONEL718–AHIGHGRADEHEATRESISTANTNIBASEDSUPERALLOYWIDELYUSEDINTHEAEROSPACEINDUSTRYTHISMATERIALISVERYABRASIVEANDCAUSESTHETOOLBLUNTINGANDHIGHCUTTINGTEMPERATURESWHENMACHINEDCONVENTIONALLYTHESURFACEQUALITYOBTAINEDBYTURNINGISONEOFTHECRUCIALFACTORSINMETALCUTTINGANDISEXTREMELYSENSITIVETOANYCHANGESINTHEMACHININGPROCESSTHESURFACEfiNISHOFSPECIMENSISCOMPAREDINTERMSOFAVERAGEROUGHNESSMEASUREMENTRAANDMEASUREMENTOFROUNDNESSTHEPEAKTOVALLEYMEASURE,USINGTHETAYS42200481–86FIG1EXPERIMENTALSETUPFORULTRASONICALLYASSISTEDTURNINGA,ANDASCHEMEOFRELATIVEMOTIONOFTHEWORKPIECEANDCUTTINGTOOL82VIBABITSKYETAL/ULTRASONICATTEMPTINGTODESCRIBETHEPROCESSESINTHEWORKPIECE/CUTTINGTOOLINTERACTIONZONEANDTHEIRINflUENCEONTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEMACHINEDMATERIAL3,6,11THESEWORKSSTUDYMOSTLYTHEDYNAMICSOFTHEULTRASONICMACHINEUNITANDNOTTHERESPONSEOFTHETREATEDMATERIALTOTHISTECHNOLOGY,WHILEACLEARUNDERSTANDINGOFMECHANICALPROCESSESINTHEMATERIALDURINGUATWOULDCERTAINLYALLOWAFURTHERDEVELOPMENTOFTHEUATTECHNOLOGYTHEMAINAIMOFTHISPAPERISTOSTUDYEXPERIMENTALLYANDNUMERICALLYTHEMATERIALMECHANICSOFTHEUATPROCESS2EXPERIMENTALSTUDIESTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPUSEDTOSTUDYUATISSHOWNINFIG1THEWORKPIECEISCLAMPEDINTHECHUCKOFTHEUNIVERSALLATHEANDROTATESWITHACONSTANTSPEEDHIGHFREQUENCYELECTRICIMPULSES,FEDTOTHEINPUTOFTHEULTRASONICTRANSDUCER,EXCITEVIBRATIONINPIEZOCERAMICRINGSDUETOTHEPIEZOELECTRICEffECTTHEVIBRATIONAMPLITUDEISINTENSIfiEDINTHECONCENTRATORANDTRANSMITTEDTOTHETOOLHOLDERATTHETHINENDOFTHECONCENTRATORRESULTANTVIBRATIONOFTHECUTTINGTIPfiXEDINTHETOOLHOLDERREACHES15LMIE30LMPEAKTOPEAKATAFREQUENCYOFABOUT20KHZTHEVIBRATIONCANBEAPPLIEDEITHERINTHEDIRECTIONTANGENTIALTOTHESURFACEINORTHOGONALUATWITHTANGENTIALVIBRATIONBLORHOBSON–TALYSURF4SURFACEMEASUREMENTINSTRUMENTTHEFOLLOWINGCUTTINGPARAMETERSAREUSEDTOMACHINETESTEDSPECIMENSDEPTHOFCUTD08MM,FEEDRATES005MM/REV,ANDCUTTINGSPEEDV17M/MINTHESAMEPARAMETERSAREUSEDFORBOTHUATANDCT,WITHSUPERIMPOSEDULTRASONICVIBRATIONINTHEFEEDDIRECTIONAPPLIEDFORUATFIG2ASHOWSREPRESENTATIVEAXIALPROfiLESOFTHEMACHINEDSURFACEOFTHEINCONEL718ITISOBVIOUSTHATMAGNITUDESOFRAAREREDUCEDBYNEARLY50FORSPECIMENSMACHINEDWITHUATFURTHERMORE,THEREGULARITYOFTHESURFACEPROfiLEISGREATLYIMPROVED,ASTHESURFACEFIG2SURFACEQUALITYOFINCONEL718SPECIMENSMACHINEDWITHUATANDCTAXIALSURFACEPROfiLESA,ROUNDNESSPROfiLESBCUTTINGPARAMETERSD08MM,S005MM/REV,V17M/MINDIRECTIONAPPARENTLY,THEREASONFORTHESEIMPROVEMENTSISTHES42200481–8683CHANGEOFTHENATUREOFTHECUTTINGPROCESS,WHICHISTRANSFORMEDINTOTHEONEWITHMULTIPLEIMPACTHIGHFREQUENCYINTERACTIONBETWEENTHECUTTINGTOOLANDCHIPDUETOAPPLIEDULTRASONICVIBRATIONTHISLEADSTOCHANGESINMATERIALDEFORMATIONPROCESSESANDFRICTIONFORCES,ANDINCREASEINTHEDYNAMICSTIffNESSOFTHELATHETOOLWORKPIECESYSTEM6,11DUETOTHEVIBRATIONFREQUENCYLEVELSCONSIDERABLYEXCEEDINGITSNATURALFREQUENCYINADDITIONTOMEASUREMENTSOFTHESURFACEQUALITY,THEMICROSTRUCTUREOFTHEMACHINEDSURFACEHASBEENINVESTIGATEDINCONEL718WORKPIECESAREMACHINEDUNDERTHESAMECUTTINGCONDITIONSV36M/MIN,D01MM,S003MM/REVWITHAPPLICATIONOFULTRASONICVIBRATIONINTANGENTIALDIRECTIONANDWITHOUTITTHEN,NANOINDENTATIONANALYSESOFTHESURFACELAYERSAREPERFORMEDWITHTHENANOTESTPLATFORMMADEBYMICROMATERIALSLTDACCORDINGTOTHERESULTSOFTHESETESTS,THEWIDTHOFTHEHARDENEDSURFACELAYER,WHICHRESULTSFROMTHEEXTENSIVEDEFORMATIONANDHIGHTEMPERATUREPROCESSESDURINGTHETURNINGPROCEDURES,FORTHEULTRASONICALLYMACHINEDSPECIMENISHALFTHESIZETHATOFTHECONVENTIONALLYMACHINEDONE40AND80LM,RESPECTIVELYFURTHERMORE,THEAVERAGEHARDNESSOFTHISLAYERFORUATABOUT15GPAISAHALFOFTHATFORCTANDCONSIDERABLYCLOSERTOTHEHARDNESSOFTHEUNTREATEDMATERIALABOUT7GPATHEHARDNESSOFTHEMATERIALNONLINEARLYINCREASESWITHARISEINTHELEVELOFTHERESIDUALPLASTICSTRAINSHENCE,NANOINDENTATIONTESTSINDICATELOWERRESIDUALSTRAINSINTHESURFACELAYERFORWORKPIECESMACHINEDWITHUATANDACONCLUSIONCANBEDRAWNTHATTHEUATPROCEDUREISCONSIDERABLYMOREDELICATETOTHEWORKPIECEMATERIAL3NUMERICALANALYSISOFUATFINITEELEMENTFESIMULATIONSAREAMAJORTOOLFORMODELLINGOFMACHININGPROCESSESITHASBEENUSEDFORMODELLINGOFTURNINGFORSOME30YEARSTHEOVERVIEWOFTHESTATEOFTHEARTINMETALCUTTINGSIMULATIONSCANBEFOUNDIN13,14HOWEVER,UPTOTHEAUTHORS’KNOWLEDGE,NOMODELSFORUATHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDUNTILNOWTHETWODIMENSIONALFEMODELOFBOTHCTANDUATDEBECOMESSMOOTHERINTHEAXIALDIRECTIONACONSIDERABLEIMPROVEMENTISALSOOBTAINEDFORROUNDNESSOFMACHINEDWORKPIECESFIG2BAPEAKTOVALLEYVALUEOFROUNDNESSMEASURES420LMFORCT,WHEREASITATTAINSONLY189LMFORUATHENCE,THEROUNDNESSISIMPROVEDBY40WHENULTRASONICVIBRATIONISSUPERIMPOSEDUPONTHEMOVEMENTOFTHECUTTINGTOOLITISWORTHNOTICINGTHATSIMILARRESULTSHAVEBEENOBTAINEDBYOTHERRESEARCHERS7,12UTILISINGVIBRATIONINTHETANGENTIALVIBABITSKYETAL/ULTRASONICSCRIBEDINTHISPAPERISBASEDONTHECOMMERCIALFECODEMSCMARC15ANORTHOGONALTURNINGPROCESS,IETHECUTTINGPROCESSWHERETHETOOLEDGEISNORMALTOBOTHCUTTINGANDFEEDDIRECTIONS,WITHTANGENTIALVIBRATIONISCONSIDEREDFIG1BSHOWSASCHEMEOFTHEMODELLEDRELATIVEMOTIONOFTHEWORKPIECEANDCUTTINGTOOL;THEROTATIONAXISOFTHECYLINDRICALWORKPIECEISORTHOGONALTOTHEPLANEOFTHEfiGURETHEWORKPIECEMOVESWITHACONSTANTVELOCITY,WHEREASTHETOOLVIBRATESHARMONICALLYAROUNDITSEQUILIBRIUMPOSITIONWITHFREQUENCYF20KHZANDAMPLITUDEA15LM,CORRESPONDINGTOTHEVALUESUSEDINEXPERIMENTALSTUDIESOTHERPARAMETERSOFSIMULATIONSAREUNCUTCHIPTHICKNESST101MMWHICHCORRESPONDSTOTHEDEPTHOFCUT,RAKEANGLEOFTHETOOLC10C176,CUTTINGSPEEDV9M/MINSUCHPARAMETERSOFVIBRATIONANDOFTHECUTTINGPROCESSPROVIDESEPARATIONOFTHECUTTERFROMTHECHIPWITHINEACHCYCLEOFULTRASONICVIBRATIONTHEMATERIALCONSTANTSFORAGEDINCONEL718ARETAKENFROM16KINEMATICALBOUNDARYCONDITIONSFORTHEWORKPIECEAREAPPLIEDTOITSLEFT,RIGHTANDBOTTOMSIDESFIG1B,WHEREASITSTOPSURFACEISFREEVXJAHV;VXJFGV;VXJHGV;VYJHG0THERMALBOUNDARYCONDITIONSINCLUDECONVECTIVEHEATTRANSFERFROMTHEWORKPIECE,CHIPANDTOOLFREESURFACESTOTHEENVIRONMENTC0KOTONHTC0T1,WHEREKISTHECONDUCTIVITY,HISACONVECTIVEHEATTRANSFERCOEffiCIENT,T1ISTHEAMBIENTTEMPERATURETHETHERMALflUXPASSINGFROMTHECHIPTOTHECUTTERALONGTHECONTACTLENGTHLCFIG1BISDESCRIBEDASFOLLOWSQHTCHIPC0TTOOL,WHEREHISACONTACTHEATTRANSFERCOEffiCIENT,TCHIPANDTTOOLARECHIPANDTOOLSURFACETEMPERATURES,RESPECTIVELYTHEMODELTAKESINTOCONSIDERATIONTHEFOLLOWINGFACTORS,IMPORTANTFORMETALTURNINGSIMULATIONSANDAffECTINGSTRESSANDSTRAINGENERATION1CONTACTINTERACTIONANDFRICTIONATTHETOOLCHIPINTERFACE;2NONLINEARMATERIALBEHAVIOUR,INCLUDINGSTRAINRATEEffECTS,NAMELYTHEDEPENDENCEOFTHEMATERIAL’SYIELDSTRESSONSTRAINRATES;3THERMOMECH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