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外文翻译--计算机与工业机器人.doc

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外文翻译--计算机与工业机器人.doc

COMPUTERANDINDUSTRIALROBOTSTHEREAREAVARIETYOFDEFINITIONSOFTHETERMROBOT.DEPENDINGONTHEDEFINITIONUSED,THENUMBEROFROBOTINSTALLATIONSWORLDWIDEVARIESWIDELY.NUMEROUSSINGLEPURPOSEMACHINESAREUSEDINMANUFACTURINGPLANTSTHATMIGHTAPPEARTOBEROBOTS.THESEMACHINESAREHARDWIREDTOPERFORMASINGLEFUNCTIONANDCANNOTBEREPOGRAMMEDTOPERFORMADIFFERENTFUNCTION.SUCHSINGLEPURPOSEMACHINESDONOTFITTHEDEFINITIONFORINDUSTRIALROBOTSTHATISBECOMINGWIDELYACCEPTED.THISDEFINITIONWASDEVELOPERBYTHEROBOTINSTITUTEOFAMERICAAROBOTISAREPROGRAMMABLEMULTIFUNCTIONALMANIPULATORDESIGNEDTOMOVEMATERIAL,PARTS,TOOLS,ORSPECIALIZEDDEVICESTHROUGHVARIABLEPROGRAMMEDMOTIONSFORTHEPERFORMANCEOFAVARIETYOFTASKS.NOTETHATTHISDEFINITIONCONTAINSTHEWORDSREPMUAMMABLEISTHESETWOCHARACTERISTICSTHATSEPARATETHETRUEINDUSTRIALROBOTFROMTHEVARIOUSSINGLEPURPOSEMACHINESUSEDINMODERNMANUFACTURINGFIRMS.THETERMREPROGRAMMABLEIMPLIESTWOTHINGSTHEROBOTOPERATESACCORDINGTOAWRITTENPROGRAM,ANDTHISPROGRAMCANBEREWRITTENTOACCOMMODATEAVARIETYOFMANUFACTURINGTASKS.THETERM“MULTIFUNCTIONAL”MEANSTHATTHEROBOTCAN,THROUGHREPROGRAMMINGANDTHEUSEOFDIFFERENTENDEFFECTORS,PERFORMANUMBEROFDIFFERENTMANUFACTURINGTASKS.DEFINITIONSWRITTENAROUNDTHESETWOCRITICALCHARACTERISTICSBECOMINGTHEACCEPTEDDEFINITIONSAMONGMANUFACTURINGPROFESSIONALS.THEFIRSTARTICULATEDARMCAMEABOUTIN1951ANDWASUSEDBYTHEU.SATOMICENERGYCOMMISSION.IN1954,THEFIRSTPROGRAMMABLEROBOTWASDESIGNEDBYGEORGEDEVOLITWASBASEDONTWOIMPORTANTTECHNOLOGIES(1)NUMERICALCONTROL(NCTECHNOLOGY.(2REMOTEMANIPULATORTECHNOLOGY.NUMERICALCONTROLTECHNOLOGYPROVIDEDAFORMOFMACHINECONTROLIDEALLYSUITEDTOROBOTS.ITALLOWEDFORTHECONTROLOFMOTIONBYSTOREDPROGRAMSTHESEPROGRAMSCONTAINDATAPOINTSTOWHICHTHEROBOTSEQUENTIALLYMOVES,TIMINGSIGNALSTOINITIATEACTIONANDTOSTOPMOVEMENT,ANDLOGICSTATEMENTSTOALLOWFORDECISIONMAKING.REMOTEMANIPULATORTECHNOLOGYALLOWEDAMACHINETOBEMORETHANJUSTANOTHERNCMACHINE.ITALLOWEDSUCHMACHINESTOBECOMEROBOTSTHATCANPERFORMAVARIETYOFMANUFACTURINGTASKSINBOTHINACCESSIBLEANDUNSAFEENVIRONMENTS.BYMERGINGTHESETWOTECHNOLOGIES,DEVOLDEVELOPEDTHEFIRSTINDUSTRIALROBOT,ANUNSOPHISTICATEDPROGRAMMABLEMATERIALSHANDLINGMACHINE.THEFIRSTCOMMERCIALLYPRODUCEDROBOTWASDEVELOPEDIN1959IN1962,THEFIRSTINDUSTRIALROBOTTOBEUSEDONAPRODUCTIONLINEWASINSTALLEDBYGEIERALMOTORSCORPORATION,THISROBOTWASPRODUCEDBYUNIMATIONAMAJORSTEPFORWARDINROBOTCONTROLOCCURREDIN1973WITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHET3INDUSTRIALROBOTBYCINCINNATIMILACRON.THET3ROBOTWASTHEFIRSTCOMMERCIALLYPRODUCEDINDUSTRIALROBOTCONTROLLEDBYAMINICOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLANDREMOTEMANIPULATORTECHNOLOGYPROMPTEDTHEWIDESCALEDEVELOPMENTANDUSEOFINDUSTRIALROBOTS.BUTMAJORTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTSDONOTTAKEPLACESIMPLYBECAUSEOFSUCHNEWCAPABILITIESSOMETHINGMUSTPROVIDETHEIMPETUSFORTAKINGADVANTAGEOFTHESECAPABILITIES.INTHECASEOFINDUSTRIALROBOTS,THEIMPETUSWASECONOMICSTHERAPIDINFLATIONOFWAGESEXPERIENCEDINTHE1970STREMENDOUSLYINCREASEDTHEPERSONNELCOSTSOFMANUFACTURINGFIRMS.ATTHESAMETIME,FOREIGNCOMPETITIONBECAMEASERIOUSPROBLEMFORU.S.MANUFACTURERS.FOREIGNMANUFACTURER;WHOHADUNDERTAKENAUTOMATIONONAWIDESCALEBASIS,SUCHASTHOSEINJAPAN,BEGANTOGAINANINCREASINGLYLARGESHAREOFTHEU.S.ANDWORLDMARKETFORMANUFACTUREDGOODS,PARTICULARLYAUTOMOBILESZHRUUGHAVARIETYOFAUTOMATIONTECHNIQUES,INCLUDINGROBOTS,JAPANESEMANUFACTURERS,BEGINNINGINTHE1970S,WEREABLETOPRODUCEBETTERAUTOMOBILESMORECHEAPLYTHANNONATOMATEDU.S.MANUFACTURERS.CONSEQUENTLY,INORDERTOSURVIVE,U.S.MANUFACTURERSWEREFORCEDTOCONSIDERANYTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTSTHATCOULDHELPIMPROVEPRODUCTIVITY.ITBECAMEIMPERATIVETOPRODUCEBETTERPRODUCTSATLOWERCOSTSINORDERTOBECOMPETITIVEWITHFOREIGNMANUFACTURERS.OTHERFACTORSSUCHASTHENEEDTOFINDBETTERWAYSOFPERFORMINGDANGEROUSMANUFACTURINGTASKSCONTRIBUTEDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFINDUSTRIALROBOTS.HOWEVER,THEPRINCIPALRATIONALEHASALWAYSBEEN,ANDISSTILL,IMPROVEDPRODUCTIVITYONEOFTHEPRINCIPALADVANTAGESOFROBOTSISTHATTHEYCANBEUSEDINSETTINGSTHATAREDANGEROUSTOHUMANS.WELDINGANDPARTINGAREEXAMPLESOFAPPLICATIONSWHEREROBOTSCANBEUSEDMORESAFELYTHANHUMANS.EVENTHOUGHROBOTSARECLOSELYASSOCIATEDWITHSAFETYINTHEWORKPLACE,THEYCAN,INTHEMSELVES,BEDANGEROUS.ROBOTSANDROBOTCELLSMUSTBECAREFULLYDESIGNEDANDCONFIGUREDSOTHATTHEYDONOTENDANGERHUMANWORKERSANDOTHERMACHINES.ROBOTWORKENVELOPESSHOULDBEACCURATELYCALCULATEDANDADANGERZONESURROUNDINGTHEENVELOPECLEARLYMARKEDOFFREDFLOORINGSTRIPSANDBARRIERSCANBEUSEDTOKEEPHUMANWORKERSOUTOFAROBOTSWORKENVELOPE.EVENWITHSUCHPRECAUTIONSITISSTILLAGOODIDEATOHAVEANAUTOMATICSHUTDOWNSYSTEMINSITUATIONSWHEREROBOTSAREUSED.SUCHASYSTEMSHOULDHAVETHECAPACITYTOSENSETHENEEDFORANAUTOMATICSHUTDOWNOFOPERATIONS.FAULTTOLERANTCOMPUTERSANDREDUNDANTSYSTEMSCANBEINSTALLEDTOENSUREPROPERSHUTDOWNOFROBOTICSSYSTEMSTOENSUREASAFEENVIRONMENT.MANUFACTURINGINTOTHECOMPUTERISTHEINFORMATIONAGETHECOMPUTERHASLONGBEENINTHEBUSINESSANDMANAGEMENTHAVETOAWIDERANGEOFAPPLICATIONS,ITISASANEWTOOLINTOTHEFACTORIES,BUTASTHESTEAMENGINEINITMORETHAN200YEARSAGOTOMAKECHANGESINTHEMANUFACTURINGSECTOR,ASARECHANGESTAKINGPLACEINMANUFACTURINGALTHOUGHTHEBASICMETALCUTTINGPROCESSISUNLIKELYTOCHANGEFUNDAMENTALLY,BUTTHEIRFORMOFORGANIZATIONANDTHECONTROLISBOUNDTOCHANGEINONERESPECTCANBESAIDTHATTHEMANUFACTURINGSECTORINTHEPROCESSOFCOMPLETINGACYCLEFIRSTHANDTHEMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYISTHEFAMILYINDUSTRYTHEDESIGNERSARETHEMSELVESPRODUCERS,PRODUCTIDEASANDTHECOMPLETIONOFPROCESSINGBYTHESAMEPERSONSUBSEQUENTLY,THEFORMATIONOFTHEPARTSOVERVIEWOFTHEINTERCHANGEABILITYOFTHISBLOG,PRODUCTIONHASBEENDIVIDEDINACCORDANCEWITHPROFESSIONALFEATURESANDTEXTCANBEPRODUCEDINBATCHESOFTHOUSANDSOFTHESAMEPARTSTODAY,DESPITETHEDESIGNERANDTHEMANUFACTURERISNOLONGERTHESAMEPERSON,BUTFORWARDTOTHEINTEGRATEDMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMWAY,THESETWOFUNCTIONSHAVEBECOMEINCREASINGLYCLOSERMAYHAVE,IRONICALLY,AHIGHDEGREEOFDIVERSIFICATIONINTHEMARKETDEMANDFORTHEPRODUCTS,MANUFACTURINGMUSTBEINCREASEPRODUCTIVITYANDREDUCECOSTSDEMANDEDBYCONSUMERSWITHLESSMONEYTOBUYHIGHQUALITYANDDIVERSIFIEDPRODUCTSCOMPUTERISREQUIREDTOMEETTHESEKEYFACTORSITISABLETOPROVIDERAPIDRESPONSECAPABILITY,FLEXIBILITYANDTOMEETTHEONLYTOOLFORTHEDIVERSIFICATIONOFTHEMARKETMOREOVER,ITISTHEREALIZATIONOFINTEGRATEDMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMNEEDTOCARRYOUTDETAILEDANALYSISANDTHEUSEOFACCURATEDATA,THEONLYTOOLCOMPUTERMAYBEINTHEFUTUREISABASICCONDITIONFORBUSINESSSURVIVAL,MANYOFTODAYSENTERPRISESWILLBEHEALTHHIGHERPRODUCTIONCAPACITYTOREPLACETHECORPORATEPORTFOLIOHIGHERPRODUCTIONCAPACITYOFTHESEENTERPRISESAREOFGREATCOMBINATIONSHIGHQUALITY,VERYHIGHPRODUCTIVITYOFTHEPLANTOBJECTIVEISTODESIGNANDOPERATIONOFAHIGHPRODUCTIVITYOFTHESIDE100OFQUALIFIEDPRODUCTIONPLANTPRODUCTSAUSEOFADVANCEDTECHNOLOGY,COMPETITIVEWORLDISTOPROMOTETHEMANUFACTURINGSECTORBEGANTODOMORETOTHEIRUSEOFADVANCEDTECHNOLOGYINORDERTOADAPTTOCOMPETITION,ACOMPANYWILLMEETEACHOTHERTOSOMEEXTENT,SPEARSHIELDSREQUEST,SUCHASPRODUCTDIVERSIFICATION,IMPROVEDQUALITY,INCREASEDPRODUCTIVITY,LOWERPRICESINTHEIREFFORTSTOMEETTHESETHECOURSEREQUIREMENTS,THECOMPANYNEEDEDATOOLFORTHEUSEOFADVANCEDTECHNOLOGY,ACUSTOMERNEEDSTOMAKERAPIDRESPONSE,ANDRESOURCESFROMTHEMANUFACTURINGOFTOOLSTOMAXIMIZEREVENUECOMPUTERISTHETOOLBECOMEAVERYHIGHQUALITY,VERYHIGHPRODUCTIVITY,THEFACTORIES,THENEEDFORAVERYCOMPLEXMISCELLANEOUSINTEGRATEDSYSTEMITISONLYTHROUGHTHEUSEOFTHECOMPUTERONALLTHECOMPONENTSOFTHEMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYDESIGN,FABRICATION,ASSEMBLY,QUALITYASSURANCE,MANAGEMENTANDMATERIALHANDLINGANDTRANSPORTATIONTOCOMPLETEINTEGRATION计算机与工业机器人有许多关于机器人这个术语的定义。采用不同的定义,全世界各地机器人的数量就会发生很大的变化。在制造工厂中使用的许多单用途机器可能会看起来像机器人。这些机器是硬连线的,用来完成单一的工作。这种单用途的机器不能满足被人们日益广泛接受的关于工业机器人的定义。这个定义是由美国机器人协会提出的机器人是一个可以改编程序的多功能操作器,被设计用来按照预先编制的、能够完成多种作业的运动程序运送材料、零件、工具或者专用设备。注意在这个定义中包含有“可以改编程序”和“多功能”这两个词。正是这两个词将真正的机器人与现代制造工厂中使用的单一用途的机器区分开来。“可以改编程序”这个术语意味着两件事机器人根据编写的程序工作,以及可以通过重新编写程序来适应不同种类的制造工作的需要。“多功能”这个词愈味着机器人能通过编程和使用不同的末端执行机构,来完成不同的制造工作。围绕着这两个关键特征所撰写的定义正在变成为制造业的专业人员所接受的定义。第一个带有活动关节的手臂于1951年被研制出来,由美国原子能委员会使用。在1954年,第一个可以编程的机器人由乔治狄弗设计出来。它基于下面两项重要技术(1)数字控制NC技术。(2)远程操作器技术。数字控制技术提供了一种非常适合于机器人的机器控制技术。它可以通过存储的程序对运动进行控制。这些程序包含机器人进行顺序运动的数据,开始运动和停止运动的时间控制信号,以及做出决定所需要的逻辑语句。远程操作器技术使得一台机器的性能超出一台数控机器。它可以使这种机器能够在不容易进人和不安全的环境中完成各种制造任务。通过融合了上述两项技术,狄弗研制出第一个机器人,它是一个不复杂的,可以编程的物料运送机器人。第一台商业化生产的机器人在1959年研制成功。通用汽车公司在1962年安装了第一台用于生产线上的工业机器人,它是尤尼梅森公司生产的。在1973年,辛辛那提米兰克朗公司研制出T3工业机器人,在机器人的控制方面取得了较大的进展。T3机器人是第一台商业化生产的采用计算机控制的机器人。数字控制技术和远程操作器技术推动了大范围的机器人研制和应用。但是主要的技术进步并不仅仅是由于这些新的应用能力而产生的,而是必须由利用这些能力所得到的效益来提供动力。就工业机器人而言,这个动力是经济性。

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