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外文翻译--计算机集成制造的定义.doc

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外文翻译--计算机集成制造的定义.doc

附录英文原文IntroductiontoComputerIntegratedManufacturingCIMdefinedComputerintegratedmanufacturingCIMisthetermusedtodescribethemodemapproachtomanufacturing.AlthoughCIMencompassesmanyoftheotheradvancedmanufacturingtechnologiessuchasCNCCAD/CAM,robotics,andjustintimeJITdeliuery,itismorethanewtech.nolomlor.acncept.puterintegratedmanufacturingisanentirelynewapproachtomanufacturing,anewwayofdoingbusiness.TounderstandCIM,itisnecessarytobeginwithacomparisonofmodernandtraditionalmanufacturing.Modemmanufacturingencompassesalloftheactivitiesandprocessesnecessarytoconvertrawmaterialsintofinishedproducts,deliverthemtothemarket,andsupporttheminthefield.Theseactivitiesincludethefollowing1.Identifyinganeedforaproduct.2.Designingaproducttomeettheneeds.3.Obtainingtherawmaterialsneededtoproducetheproduct.4.Applyingappropriateprocessestotransformtherawmaterialsintofinishedproducts,5.Transportingproductstothemarket.6.Maintainingtheproducttoensureproperperformanceinthefield.Thisbroad,modernviewofmanufacturingcanbecomparedwiththemorelimitedtraditionalviewthatfocusedalmostentirelyontheconversionprocesses.Theoldapproachexcludedsuchcriticalpreconversionelementsasmarketanalysisreseach,development,anddesign,aswellassuchafterconversionelementsasproductdeliveryandproductmaintenance.Inotherwords,intheoldapproachtomanufacturing,onlythoseprocessesthattookplaceontheshopfloorwereconsideredmanufacturing.Thistraditionalapproachofseparatingtheoverallconceptintonumerousstandalonespecializedelementswasnotfundamentallychangedwiththeadventofautomation.WithCIM,notonlyarethevariouselementsautomated,buttheislandsofautomationarealllinkedtogetherorintegrated.Integrationmeansthatasystemcanprovidecompleteandinstantaneoussharingofinformation.Inmodernmanufacturing,integrationisaccomplishedbycomputers.CIM,then,isthetotalintegrationofallcomponentsinvolvedinconvertingrawmaterialsintofinishedproductsandgettingtheproductstothemarket.HistoricalDevelopmentofCIMThetermcomputerintegratedmanufacturingwasdevelopedinI974byJosephHarringtonasthetitleofabookhewroteabouttyingislandsofautomationtogetherthroughtheuseofcomputers.IthastakenmanyyearsforCIMtodevelopasaconcept,butintegratedmanufacturingisnotreallynew.Infact,integrationiswheremanufacturingactuallybegan.ManufacturinghasevolvedthroughfourdistictstagesManualmanufacturing.Mechanization/SpecializationAutomation.Integration.ManualManufacturingManualmanufacturingusingsimplehandtoolswasactuallyintegratedmanufacturing.Allinformationneededtodesign,produce,anddeliveraproductwasreadilyavailablebecauseitresidedinthemindoftheonepersonwhoperformedallofthenecessarytasks,Thetoolofintegrationintheearliestyearsof,manufacturingwasthehumanmindofthecraftsmanwhodesigned,produced,anddeliveredtheproduct,Anexampleofintegratedmanualmanufacturingisthevillageblacksmithproducingaspecialtoolforalocalfarmer.Theblacksmithwouldhaveinhismindalloftheinformationneededtodesign,produce,anddeliverthefarmerstools.Inthisexample,allelementsofmanufacturingareintegrated.Mechanization/SpecializationWiththeadventoftheindustrialrevolution,manufacturingprocessesbecamebothspecializedandmechanized.Insteadofonepersondesigning,producing,anddeliveringaproduct,workersand/ormachinesperformedspecializedtaskswithineachofthesebroadareas.Commtmicationamongtheseseparateentitieswasachievedusingdrawings,specifications,joborders,processplans,andavarietyofothercommunicationaids.Toensurethatthefinishedproductmatchedtheplannedproduct,theconceptofualitycontrolwasintroducedThepositivesideofthemechanization/specializationstagewasthatitpermittedmassproduction,interchange,abilityofparts,differentlevelsofaccuracy,anduniformity.Thedisadvantageisthatthelackofintegrationledtoagreatdealofwaste.AutomationAutomationimprovedtheperformanceandenhancedthecapabilitiesofbothpeopleandmachineswithinspecializedmanufacturingcomponents.Forexample,CADenhancedthecapabilityofdesignersanddrafters.CNCenhancedthecapabilitiesofmachinistsandcomputerassistedplanners.Buttheimprovementsbroughtonbyautomationwereisolatedwithinindividualcomponentsorislands.Becauseofthis,automationdidnotalwaysliveuptoitspotential.Tounderstandthelimitationsofautomationwithregardtooverallproductivityimprovement,considerthefollowinganalogy.Supposethatvarioussubsystemsofanautomobilei.e.,theengine,steering,brakeswereautomatedtomakethedriversjobeasier.Automaticacceleration,deceleration,steering,andbrakingwouldcertainlybemoreefficientthanthemanualversions.However,considerwhatwouldhappenifthesevariousautomatedsubsystemswerenottiedtogetherinawaythatallowedthemtocommunicateandshareaccurateuptodateinformationinstantlyandcontinually.Onesystemmightbeattemptingtoacceleratetheautomobilewhileanothersystemwasattemptingtoapplythebrakes.Thesamelimitationsapplyinanautomatedmanufacturingsetting.Theselimitationsarewhatledtothecurrentstageinthedevelopmentofmanufacturing,integration.Integration.Withtheadventofthecomputerage,manufacturinghasdevelopedfullcircle.Itbeganasatotallyintegratedconceptand,withCIM,hasonceagainbecomeone.However,therearemajordifferencesinthemanufacturingintegrationoftodayandthatofDesignhasevolvedfromamanualprocessusingsuchtoolsassliderulesofmanufacturingarelinkedtogetherthroughthemanualeraofthepast.First,theinstrumentofintegrationinthemanualerawasthehumanmind.Theinstrumentofintegrationinmodernmanufacturingisthecomputer.Second,processesinthemodernmanufacturingsettingarestillspecializedandautomated.AnotherwaytoviewthehistoricaldevelopmentofClMisbyexaminingthewaysinwhichsomeoftheindividualcomponentsofCIMhavedevelopedovertheyears.Suchcomponentsasdesign,planning,andproductionhaveevolvedbothasprocessesandinthetoolsandequipmentusedtoaccomplishtheprocesses.pencils,scales,anderasersintoanautomatedprocessknownascomputeraideddesignCAD.Processplanninghasevolvedfromamanualprocessusingplanningtables,diagrams,andchartsintoanautomatedprocessknownascomputeraidedprocessplanningCAPP.ProductionhasevolvedfromamanualprocessinvolvingmanuallycontrolledmachinesintoanautomatedprocessknownascomputeraidedmanufacturingCAM.Theseindividualcomponentsofmanufacturingevolvedovertheyearsintoseparateislandsofautomation.However,communicationamongtheseislandswasstillhandledmanually.Thislimitedthelevelofimprovementinproductivitythatcouldbeaccomplishedintheoverallmanufacturingprocess.Whentheseislandsandotherautomatedcomponentscomputernetworks,theselimitationscanbeovercome.

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