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外文翻译--远程教育与虚拟实验室.doc

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外文翻译--远程教育与虚拟实验室.doc

DISTANCEEDUCATIONANDVIRTUALLABORATORIESTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFINTERNETTECHNOLOGYANDITSWIDERANGEOFAPPLICATIONS,MAKINGITTHECARRIEROFALLKINDSOFINFORMATIONINTERNETVIRTUALLABORATORYHASBECOMETHENEW21STCENTURYMODELOFDISTANCEEDUCATION,MUCHATTENTIONINTHEREFORMOFTRADITIONALTEACHINGMETHODS,EDUCATION,RESOURCESHARING,TOIMPROVETHESTANDARDOFTEACHINGINTHEAREASOFCONSERVATIONINVESTMENTINEDUCATIONISIMPORTANTKEYWORDSINTERNET,DISTANCEEDUCATIONVIRTUAL,LABORATORYⅠINTRODUCTIONDISTANCEEDUCATIONISTOOVERCOMETHETRADITIONALFACETOFACEMODEOFEDUCATIONFORCERTAINDEFICIENCIESENROLLMENTISLIMITED,INFLEXIBLETEACHINGMETHODS,EDUCATION,WASTEOFMONEY,ETCANEWMODEOFEDUCATIONTHEFIRSTLONGDISTANCEEDUCATIONISDISTANCEEDUCATION;THENARADIOSTATIONFROMBROADCASTINGTHEUNIVERSITYOFTHEDISSEMINATIONOFINFORMATION;WHENTHEPOPULARITYOFTELEVISION,THETVUNIVERSITYCAMEINTOBEINGOFTHETHREEMETHODSOFDISTANCEEDUCATIONTOTHEBESTTEACHINGMETHODSANDTVNOTONLYCANHEARTHEVOICES,ANDIMAGESCANBESEENINRECENTYEARS,ASCOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYANDTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGY,THEREHASBEENEDUCATIONMULTIMEDIASYSTEMSINLESSTHAN20YEARS,THEINTERNETINTHEWORLDHAVEACHIEVEDRAPIDDEVELOPMENTINTHEWORLDTODAYHASBECOMETHELARGESTCOVERAGE,INFORMATIONRESOURCES,THEMOSTABUNDANTCOMPUTERINFORMATIONNETWORKDISTANCEEDUCATIONASTHEKEYTHETEACHINGOFINFORMATIONTRANSMISSION,THEINTERNETNODOUBTHASACLEARADVANTAGEVIRTUALLABORATORYISBASEDONINTERNETBASEDONTHEINFORMATIONCARRIER,ANDITSPEOPLEHAVEDEMONSTRATEDTOTHEINFORMATIONAGE,ANEWWAYOFEDUCATIONANDSCIENTIFICRESEARCHⅡFUTUREDEVELOPMENTOFEDUCATIONINTHEMAINSTREAMCORRESPONDENCE,RADIO,TELEVISIONANDOTHERDISTANCELEARNINGMODES,ALLTHEFEATURESONTHEINTERNETCANBEREALIZEDEASILYASLONGASTHEESTABLISHMENTOFANEDUCATIONALWEBSITE,USERSWILLNOTLONGERBESUBJECTTOTIMERESTRICTIONS,VISITTHEEDUCATIONWEBSITEWILLBEABLETORECEIVELONGDISTANCEEDUCATIONBUTNOTLIMITEDTOGIVEFULLEXPRESSIONTOTHEINTERNETTODISSEMINATETHEMESSAGEOFAPOWERFULFEATUREINTERNETBASEDVIRTUALLABORATORYTHEEMERGENCEOFDISTANCEEDUCATIONWILLBEELEVATEDTOAHIGHERLEVELVIRTUALLABVIRTUALLABORATORYTHECONCEPTOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFVIRGINIABYTHEUNITEDSTATESUNIVERSITYOFVIRGINIAWILLIAMWOLFWILLIAMWOLFPROFESSORIN1989,FIRSTPUTFORWARD,ANDITDESCRIBESACOMPUTERNETWORKBASEDVIRTUALLABORATORYENVIRONMENTTOINDIFFERENTTOOLSTOBUILDANINTEGRATEDINFORMATIONANDTECHNOLOGY,NETWORKBASEDINTEGRATEDENVIRONMENTINTHISENVIRONMENT,USERSCANVERYEFFECTIVELYUSEAVARIETYOFTHEWORLDDISTRIBUTIONOFDATA,INFORMATION,APPARATUS,EQUIPMENTANDHUMANRESOURCESVIRTUALLABORATORYOFTHEORIGINALMADEFORTHEPURPOSEOFFACILITATINGSCIENTIFICRESEARCH,THERESEARCHERSENGAGEDINRESEARCHONTHEREMOTECANWORKTHEUSEOFINSTRUMENTSANDEQUIPMENT,SHAREDDATARESOURCES,SUCHASTHEEXCHANGEOFINFORMATIONVIRTUALLABORATORYINESSENCEISADISTRIBUTEDCOMPUTERSYSTEM,INWHICHTHESYSTEMISEQUIPPEDWITHREMOTECONTROL,REMOTESENSINGSTUDYOFTHECAPACITYOFTHENETWORKEQUIPMENTANDDATAACQUISITIONPLATFORMFORCOLLABORATIVEACTIVITIESSUPPORTAVARIETYOFTOOLS,BUILTTOSUPPORTDATASHARINGDIGITALLIBRARYDIFFERENTPROFESSIONALDISCIPLINESHAVETHEIROWNVIRTUALLABORATORYCHARACTERISTICSBUTWHETHERITISAVIRTUALLABORATORYPROFESSIONALDISCIPLINESAREBYTHEIRRESPECTIVEVIRTUALMACHINESVIRTUALINSTRUMENTATION,COMPOSEDOFVIRTUALINSTRUMENTISTHEPROCESSTHROUGHTHEAPPLICATIONOFCOMPUTERHARDWAREANDFUNCTIONCOMBINEUSERFRIENDLYGRAPHICALINTERFACETOOPERATECOMPUTERS,THEREBYCOMPLETINGTHEOBJECTOFTHETESTDATACOLLECTION,ANALYSISANDJUDGMENTS,SUCHASDISPLAYANDDATASTORAGEVIRTUALINSTRUMENTCOMPAREDWITHTHETRADITIONALINSTRUMENTS,HASITSSIDEOFTHESAME,ANDDIFFERENTSIDETHESAMEPOINTTHEVIRTUALMACHINESWITHTHESAMETHREEMAINFUNCTIONS,NAMELY,DATACOLLECTION,DATAANALYSIS,RESULTSSHOWEDVIRTUALINSTRUMENTSINATRANSPARENTMANNERTOCOMPUTERRESOURCESANDEQUIPMENTMONITORINGANDCONTROLHARDWARECOMBINEDWITHTHEABILITYTOREALIZETHEFUNCTIONOFTHEOPERATIONOFEQUIPMENTWITHTHETRADITIONALINSTRUMENTSISDIFFERENTINAGIVENCOMPUTINGCAPACITYANDTHENECESSARYHARDWAREEQUIPMENT,THESTRUCTUREANDUSEOFVIRTUALINSTRUMENTTECHNOLOGYISTHEKEYTOSOFTWARE,SOFTWARETHATEQUIPMENTTOSUMUP,THEVIRTUALINSTRUMENTISDEFINEDBYTHEUSERSOWN,AFREECOMBINATIONOFCOMPUTINGPLATFORMS,HARDWARE,SOFTWAREANDCOMPLETESYSTEMCOMPOSEDOFTHENECESSARYANNEXESVIRTUALINSTRUMENTISAFUNCTIONOFTHECHARACTERISTICSOFFIXEDSEPARATIONBETWEENTHETRADITIONALINSTRUMENTSARENOTAVAILABLEⅢTHEDEVELOPMENTOFVIRTUALLABORATORIESINTHESTATUSQUOATHOMEANDABROADPUTFORWARDTHECONCEPTOFVIRTUALLABORATORYMORETHANADECADESINCETHEONLYTIME,BUTBECAUSEOFTHEIRATTRACTIVEAPPLICATIONPROSPECTSINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES,SOMEPROGRESSHASBEENMADEATPRESENT,THEVIRTUALLABORATORYHASBEENVERYCOMMONINDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESUNITEDSTATES,ASTODAYSSCIENTIFICANDTECHNOLOGICALPOWER,INORDERTOCONTINUETOMAINTAINITSSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYINTHEFIELDOFLEADERSHIP,WITHPARTICULAREMPHASISONINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYRESEARCHANDHASBEENAVIRTUALLABORATORYFORRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTINTHEIRSTRATEGICPLANNINGATTHEENDOF1991,THEUNITEDSTATESSCIENCEFOUNDATION,THEUNITEDSTATESOWNEDNATIONALCOUNCILFORSCIENTIFICRESEARCHADVISORYBOARDOFTHEDEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERANDTELECOMMUNICATIONSSETUPANATIONALSCIENTIFICTOLABORATORYCOMMITTEEOFSCIENTISTSWHOSEMISSIONISTOSURVEYTHENEEDSOFINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYTOCOORDINATERESEARCHCOOPERATIVERELATIONS,ORGANIZATIONANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFSPECIFICINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTSINCETHENASFIRSTPROPOSEDTHECONCEPTOFVIRTUALLABORATORY,ANDHASSTRONGTECHNOLOGICALSTRENGTHANDSTRONGFINANCIALRESOURCESOFTHEUNITEDSTATES,FROMTHEVERYBEGINNINGATTACHEDGREATIMPORTANCETORESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTOFVIRTUALLABORATORIES,RESEARCHINTHISFIELDHASALEADINGPOSITIONVIRTUALINSTRUMENTSYSTEMANDITSGRAPHICALPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGEHASBECOMEASCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSTUDENTSOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFAREQUIREDCOURSE,ANDITSPOPULARITYISQUITEEXTENSIVESOMEFOREIGNUNIVERSITIESHAVESETUPAREMOTEVIRTUALLABORATORYUNIVERSITYOFHANNOVER,GERMANY,ESTABLISHEDAVIRTUALLABAUTOMATION;SPAINEDEPARTMENTOFTHEUNIVERSITYHASDEVELOPEDAVIRTUALPLATFORMOFELECTRONICEQUIPMENT;ITALYPAWANUMBEROFUNIVERSITIESHAVEESTABLISHEDDISTANCEEDUCATIONVIRTUALLABORATORIES;NATIONALUNIVERSITYOFSINGAPOREHASDEVELOPEDAREMOTEOSCILLOSCOPEEXPERIMENTEXPERIMENTSANDPRESSUREVESSELSⅣ,THEFEATURESOFVIRTUALLABORATORYVIRTUALLABORATORYCANNOTBECOMPAREDWITHTRADITIONALLABORATORYFEATURESTODETERMINEITSSCIENTIFICRESEARCH,EDUCATIONESPECIALLYLONGDISTANCEEDUCATIONINAGOODAPPLICATIONPROSPECTS1TRANSPARENCYVIRTUALLABORATORYFORALLDATABASES,HARDWARE,OREVENINTEGRATEDINTOASYSTEMSTAFF,USINGTHESTANDARDFUNCTIONSOFAUNIFIEDCOMMANDTOACHIEVETHESERVICE,WHICHDETERMINESTHETRANSPARENCYOFTHESTRUCTUREOFTHETRANSPARENTCHARACTERISTICSOFVIRTUALLABORATORY2SHAREDRESOURCESTHEESTABLISHMENTOFAVIRTUALLABORATORYISONEOFTHEPURPOSESOFRESOURCESHARINGINORDERTODOSOTOTHISEND,THENEEDTOESTABLISHAUNIFIEDSTANDARDINQUIRYELIBRARIES,DATABASES,INTELLIGENTRETRIEVALSYSTEM,DATABASEANDOTHERAPPLICATIONSOFTWARE,USERSCANSHAREDATA,SOFTWARE,HARDWAREANDOTHERRELATEDRESOURCESTHISFEATURECANREDUCEDUPLICATIONOFINVESTMENT,ASIGNIFICANTINVESTMENTCOSTSAVINGS3INTERACTIONINTEROPERABILITYONCETHEVIRTUALLABORATORY,OPENINGUP,THATIS,INTERACTIVE,REMOTEUSERSCANOPERATETHESAMELOCALLABORATORYANDATTHESAMETIMETHEEXCHANGEOFINFORMATIONBETWEENUSERSREMOTEUSERSISREQUIREDTOOPENASERIESOFHARDWAREANDSOFTWARESUPPORT,THEYAREANINTEGRALPARTOFTHEVIRTUALLABORATORY4USERAUTONOMYUSERSCANDEVELOPTHEIROWNVIRTUALINSTRUMENTUSEDINAWAYTHATALLOWSUSERSTOTAKETHENECESSARYMEASURESTOPROTECTTHEIRDATA,INFORMATION,THEUSERHASSUFFICIENTAUTONOMY5EXPANSIONINTODAYSINFORMATIONAGE,THEVERYRAPIDRATEOFKNOWLEDGEUPDATE,NEW,BETTERPERFORMANCEOFTHEINSTRUMENTSANDEQUIPMENTUPDATECYCLEBECOMINGSHORTERANDSHORTERTHEREFORE,THEVIRTUALLABORATORYMUSTBEKEPTUPTODATEHARDWAREANDSOFTWARETOUPGRADEATANYTIME,THESERVICEFUNCTIONATANYTIMETOINCREASETHEPERFORMANCEOFVIRTUALLABORATORYMUSTHAVETHEUPGRADE,THESERVICEFUNCTIONSOFTHECHARACTERISTICSOFINCREASED远程教育与虚拟实验室因特网技术的迅速发展及其广泛的应用,使之成为各种信息的载体。因特网虚拟实验室已成为21世纪新型的远程教育模式,备受人们的重视,在改革传统教学方法、教育资源共享、提高教学水平、节约教育投资等方面具有重要意义。关键词虚拟实验室远程教育因特网一、引言远程教育是为克服传统的面对面教育模式的某些不足招生人数有限、教育方法不灵活、教育资金浪费等而产生的一种新型教育模式。最初的远程教育是函授教育;此后出现了由广播电台传播信息的广播大学;当电视普及以后,电视大学应运而生。在上述三种远程教育方法中,以电视大学的教学方式最优。不仅能听到声音,而且可以看到图像。近些年来,随着计算机技术与通信技术的迅速发展,出现了教育多媒体系统,它能够交互地同时处理、传输、管理文本、图形、图像、语言、视频、动画等多种形式的信息。多媒体远程教育系统在一定程度上弥补了电视大学的某些不足,但仍不能实现实验操作。网上虚拟实验室的出现,使远程教育更趋完善,为教育发展史写下了光辉的一页。在不足20年时间里,因特网在全球得到了迅速发展,已成为当今世界上覆盖面最大、信息资源最丰富的计算机信息网络。作为远程教育的关键教学信息的传递,因特网无疑具有明显的优势。虚拟实验室正是建立在以因特网为信息载体的基础上,它的产生向人们展示了信息时代一种全新的教育方式和科学研究方式。二、虚拟实验室是今后高层次远程教育的发展主流函授、广播、电视等远程教育模式的所有功能,在因特网上均能轻易实现。只要建立一个教育网站,用户就不再受时空的限制,访问教育网站就能够接受到远程教育。但仅限于此还不能充分体现出因特网强大的信息传递功能。基于因特网的虚拟实验室的出现,将远程教育提升到更高的层次上。虚拟实验室VIRTUALLABORATORY概念,是由美国弗吉尼亚大学UNIVERSITYOFVIRGINIA的威廉沃尔夫WILLIAMWOLF教授于1989年首先提出的,它描述了一个计算机网络化的虚拟实验室环境,致力于构筑一个综合不同工具和技术的信息化、网络化的集成环境。在这个环境里,用户可以非常有效地利用世界上分布的各种数据、信息、仪器设备及人力等资源。虚拟实验室提出的初衷是为了方便科学研究工作,科研人员在远程即可从事研究工作使用仪器设备、共享数据资源、交流信息等。虚拟实验室实质上是一个分布式计算机系统,在该系统中,配置有遥控、遥测能力的网络化研究设备和数据采集平台,有支持协作活动的各种工具,建有可以支持数据共享的数字式图书馆。加入到因特网的虚拟实验室可视为建立了一个可以演示、操纵、控制实验的特殊网站。用户可以在任何时候,从任何地点访问虚拟实验室网站。它的建立大大提高了实验教学的伸缩性和适应性。不同的学科专业的虚拟实验室有各自的特点。但无论是学科专业的虚拟实验室都是由各自的虚拟仪器VIRTUALINSTRUMENTATION组成的。虚拟仪器是指通过应用程序将计算机与功能化硬件结合起来,用户通过友好的图形界面来操作计算机,从而完成了对被测对象的数据采集、分析、判断、显示和数据存储等。虚拟仪器与传统仪器相比,有其相同的一面,又有不同的一面。相同点是虚拟仪器同样具有三大功能,即数据采集、数据分析处理、结果显示。虚拟仪器以透明的方式把计算机资源和仪器硬件的测控能力结合起来,实现仪器的功能运作。与传统仪器不同的是在给定计算机运算能力和必要的仪器硬件以后,构造和使用虚拟仪器的关键技术在于软件,“软件即仪器”。应用软件程序将可选硬件如GPIB、VXI、RS232、DAQ等和可重复使用源码库函数等软件结合起来实现模块间的通信、定时与触发,源码库函数为用户构造自己的虚拟仪器系统提供了基本的软件模块。当用户的学习目的或测试要求改变时,可以方便地由用户自行增减硬软件模块或重新配置系统以满足测试要求。综上所述,虚拟仪器是由用户自己定义、自由组合的计算机平台、硬件、软件以及完成系统功能的必需附件组成的。虚拟仪器的这个特点是功能固定、彼此分离的传统仪器所不具备的。三、虚拟实验室在国内外发展现状虚拟实验室概念的提出至今仅为十余年的时间,但因其诱人的应用前景,各国

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