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外文翻译--道路照明将率先使用低能耗的发光二极管照明技术.doc

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外文翻译--道路照明将率先使用低能耗的发光二极管照明技术.doc

LowEnergyLEDLightingIsStreetsAheadBERwaystoexploittheadvantagesofLEDlightemittingdiodetechnologyinstreetlightingaTTEreexpectedtoemergefromcollaborationbetweenuniversityresearchersandanLEDlightingspecialistcompany,bothintheUK.LEDsfirstappearedindigitalwatchesandcalculatorsinthe1970s.Today,thetechnologyhasprogressedtothepointwhereitcanbeusedtocreatedurableandcommunityfriendly,lowenergystreetlighting.Thebenefitsincludelonglifeexpectancyupto100,000hourstogetherwithincreasinglyhighlightoutputinrelationtotheirsizeandenergyconsumption,makingLEDsarealisticalternativetoconventionalsodiumvapourunitsforgeneralanddirectionallighting.AndbecauseLEDsaresosmall,thepossibilitiesformanufacturerstocreatesleeker,smaller,lightweightluminariesaregreatlyextended.Importantly,LEDsarealsoenvironmentallyfriendlyandsafe.Theycontainnoglass,filamentsormercuryandsocanexperiencenoneoftheexplodingfailuresassociatedwithhalogenandHIDhighintensitydischargelamps.Andtheyarefreefromthecostandrestrictionsofmercurydisposalthatisinvolvedwithsodiumvapourunits.Operatingatlowvoltagedirectcurrentensurescompleteconsumersafety.ColouredLEDmodulesareveryvividandevenmoreenergyefficientthanwhitelightunits.InthelatestjointprojectbetweentheUniversityofManchester,northernEngland,andLEDlightingspecialistDialightLumidrivesacompanyfoundedbyasuccessfulformerstudentoftheuniversityresearchersintheSchoolofElectricalElectronicEngineeringareusingtheirexpertisetoinvestigatehowtightlypackedgroupsofLEDscanbemadetoworksafelyandreliably.LightingsolutionsthatuseLEDsinthiswayhavethepotentialtoreduceenergyconsumptionby2550percent,dependingontheapplication.Butthermalandelectricalissuesatlightinglevelsof12,000lumensandaboveatypical60whouseholdlightbulbproduces800lumensarebarrierstothewideradoptionofLEDtechnology.TheuniversityengineerswillbeworkingwiththeYorkbasedDialightLumidrivestotackletoughissuessuchastheamountofheatgeneratedbyLEDspackedcloselytogether.BecausetheLEDmoduleswillbeusedoutside,theywillneedtoconsiderpracticalenvironmentalfactors,suchasthepossibilityofbirdsnestingoveravitalheatsink.AnotherhurdleispresentedbytheregulationsthatgovernaspectssuchasglareandlightpollutiondirectingtheLEDlightsourcesspecificallyontotherequiredareawillformaseriouschallenge.Theoneyearprojecthasbeenfundedbyagrantof175,000poundsfromtheUKgovernment,matchedbyasimilaramountcontributedbyDialight.Akeyaimoftheprojectistodevelopasolutionthatisveryreliablebutnotprohibitivelyexpensive.DrRogerShuttleworth,fromthePowerConversionGroupatManchesterUniversity,saidLEDtechnologyfirstcametoprominenceininstrumentdisplaysinthe1970s,butweareincreasinglyseeingitusedinthingsliketrafficsignalsandcarlights.Towardstheendofthe20thcentury,theoldfashionedsodiumstreetlightsthatmadeeverythinglookorangeweregraduallyreplacedbyhighpressuresodiumlamps.Whilethesearebrighterandmoreaestheticallypleasing,andcanhelptacklestreetcrimeandantisocialbehaviour,theyarealsolessenergyefficient.Withtheenvironmentatthetopofthepublicandpoliticalagenda,energysavinghasbecomeaveryimportantissue.WhenyouconsiderhowmanystreetlightsthereareintheUKalone,itiscleartherearesomebigopportunitiesforenergyandcostsavings,headded.DialightLumidrivesmanagingdirectorGordonRoutledgestudiedelectricalandelectronicengineeringattheUniversityofManchesterInstituteofScienceTechnologyUMIST,graduatingin1996.HeexplainedLEDsareontracktobecomeamajorsourceoflightingoverthenextdecade.AlthoughsignificantinvestmentisongoinginthecoredevelopmentoftheLEDs,thesurroundingtechnologydevelopmentisbeinglefttomanufacturerswhohavelittleknowledgeofelectronicsorLEDs.WeareproudtobeworkingwiththeUniversityofManchestertodeveloptechnologywhichwilldrivetheadoptionofthisrevolutionarylightingsourceineverydayapplications,headded.AlthoughhighpressuresodiumvapourstreetlightingcommonacrossmuchofEuropegivesanefficiencyofabout85lumensperwatt,heclaimedthatLEDtechnologywasalreadyontracktoexceed150lumensperwattandpredictedthisfigurewouldrisefurtherasnewsemiconductordevelopmentsoccur.Aswellascuttingenergyconsumptionandoverallrunningcosts,researcherssaythatLEDstreetlightinghelpsreducelightpollutiontheskyglowthatradiatesfrombigcitiescouldbecomeathingofthepast.ItisalsoproposedthatLEDstreetlightingcouldbecontrolledanddimmedwhennecessary.TheirlongerlifespanmeansthatLEDstreetlightsneedtobereplacedlessoften,reducingpotentialtrafficdisruptionandcouncilrepairbills.ThelifetimeoftheLEDmodulethatthecollaboratorsareworkingonisinexcessof10yearsinaroadlightingapplication,somefourtimeslongerthanaconventionalstreetlight.AlthoughLEDsdoexperienceagradualandpermanentreductioninlightoutputduringtheirnormaloperatinglifecausedeitherbyareductioninthelightgeneratingefficiencyoftheLEDdie,orareductionoftheopticalpathwithintheLEDpackagetheDialightstreetLEDsareexpectedtoprovideabout70percentoftheiroriginallightoutputafter50,000hoursor10years,providedthattheyarenotoverdriven.Thisisnotassignificantasitsoundsbecausethehumaneyeisrelativelyinsensitivetochangesinlightoutput,andareductiontoabout50percentisnecessarytocreateanoticeablechange.Itis,saysthecompany,easytoconvertexistingstreetlightingtoanLEDsourcebecausenoelectronicsskillsarerequired.IthasbeendevelopingandexploitingLEDtechnologyforlightingapplicationsforalmostfiveyears,withasuccessfulproducerangesuppliedtomanyoftheworldsleadingequipmentmanufacturers.道路照明将率先使用低能耗的发光二极管照明技术英国的一所大学的研究人员和一个发光二极管(LED)专门企业合作,期望能够开发出将LED技术优势利用在道路照明中的最佳方法。LED最先于上世纪70年代出现在数字手表和计算机中。今天,这项技术取得了进步,可以用来制造耐用、低能耗且对社区友好型的道路照明设备。其好处有预期寿命长(可达100,000小时),根据型号大小以及能量消耗率逐渐增加高亮度输出,对于普通照明和指示灯来说,可以用LED来实际替代传统的钠蒸汽单元。而且,由于LED体积是如此之小,所以制造商用它来制造更加圆滑、体积更小、轻量级的发光体的可能性就大大增加了。重要的是,LED对环境友好,而且还安全。它不含玻璃、灯丝或汞,所以不会发生由于卤素或高强度电流(HID)而导致灯具爆炸的情况。同时,它成本低,也不会受到由于钠蒸汽单元而带来的汞处理限制。低压直电流操作可以完全保证消费者的安全。彩色的LED模块可以使颜色非常逼真,而且比白炽灯单元更具能源有效性。LED照明专门公司DialightLumidrives的创立者是曼彻斯特大学校友,该公司最近和这所英格兰北部的大学开展了合作计划。来自大学电气与电子工程学院的研究人员正在利用他们的专业知识,研究如何使紧密压缩在一起的一组LED能够安全、可靠地工作。用LED来提供照明解决方案的方式如果得到应用的话,可以使能源消耗量减少25-50%。但是当需要12,000流明(一只典型的60瓦家用照明是800流明)或以上的照明时,发热和其它与电相关的问题将成为采用LED技术的障碍。曼彻斯特大学的工程师们将会和位于约克郡的DialightLumidrives公司一道,解决一些比较难攻克的问题,如紧密压缩在一起的一组LED所产生的热量。由于LED模块会被用在户外,所以需要考虑实际的环境因素,如关键的散热片上被鸟筑巢的可能性。还有一项需要克服的困难就是规章问题。规章中规定了灯的刺眼程度和光污染限制明确规定了LED光源可以安装的区域。这些都造成了严重的挑战。这项为期一年的计划得到了来自英国政府175,000英镑的资助,Dialigh公司也提供了同等数量的资金。计划的一个主要目标就是,开发出一种十分可靠而低廉的解决方案。曼彻斯特大学电能转换部(Power

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