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外文翻译--采煤工作面无线传感器网络物理层设计UWB技术.doc

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外文翻译--采煤工作面无线传感器网络物理层设计UWB技术.doc

翻译部分英文原文CoalFaceWirelessSensorNetworkPhysicalLayerDesignBasedOnUWBTechnologyAbstractInordertoguaranteethesafetyofcoalfaceproduction,itisnecessarytomonitorandsurveillancefaceShearer,scrapertransportplanes,hydraulicsupport,transportmachines,brokenmachinesetc.Atpresent,itisdifficultforthecabletransmissionmodetoadapttochangesintheworksiteofthecoalface.Transmissionlinesareoftendamagedandsnappedforvariousfactors,weusewirelesssensornetworkWSN,whichisflexibletobeplacedandextensible,toresolvethisproblem.ThispaperdiscussthedesignoftheWSNtransceiverforcoalfacewithUWBtechnology.Thiskindoftransceiverhassomeusefuladvantagesuchaslowcost,lowpowerconsumption,simplestructure,easytoimplementthedesignofthehardware,noneedtoestimatethecoalfaceChannelcharacteristics.However,detectionefficiencyisslightlylower,buttheerrorratecanmeettherequirement.1.IntroductionCoalfacemustfacethecomplicatedgeologicalconditionsandpoorworkingconditions.Inordertoensurethesafetyofproductioninthecoalface,itisnecessarytomonitorrealtimethefaceShearer,scrapertransportmachine,hydraulicsupport,reprintmachine,brokenmachinesandotherlargeequipments.Inaddition,wemustmonitorthegroundpressure,gas,carbonmonoxide,dustandotherenvironmentalparameters.Atthesametime,mobilevoiceandimagecommunicationsisrequired.Atpresent,thesignalmonitoredandderivedfromthecoalfaceistransmittedbycable.Asthefaceismovingconstantlyandthegoingofthecoalminingprocess,allkindsoflargescaleironandsteelequipmentsinthecoalfaceneedtobeboostedcircularlyandcontinually.Theshapeofthespaceisconstantlychangingwiththechangeoftherelativepositionoftheequipments.Correspondingly,communicationincableisdifficulttobeapplicablewiththeworkingscenechanging,sotransmissionlinesisdamagedorsnappedfrequently,andthecoalfacemobilevoiceandimagecommunicationisimpossible.AlltheseissuescausemanylatenttroubletotheSafetyoftheproduction.WethinkwirelesssensornetworkWSNisfeasibletoimplementmonitoringandsurveillancetothecoalface,forithassomeusefulcharactersofplacingflexibly,expandingsimply,movingeasilyandselforganization.2.WSNarchitectureinthecoalfaceThesensornetworksystemstructureoftheminingCoalfaceisshowninFigure1.InthisFigure,thesensornodessendtheinformationofacquistionthroughoneormorejumpstotheclusternode,thebasestationsinknodeisresponsibleforthecollectionofdata,andtransmitthemtotaskmanagementnodethroughupslotnetwork,taskmanagementNodeisresponsiblefortheintegratedprocessthedataandalsoissuedinstructiontosensornetworks.Thetunnelofcoalfaceisalimitedspace.Bracket,shearer,transportandotherlargemetalequipmentsarelayoutandcoal,rocksandothermediaisanonuniformrestrictedspace,whichallmakethetransmissionchannelmorecomplex,fadingandmultipathphenomenamoreseriousinthetransmissionofwirelesssensornodessignal.Thesearedifferentfromsensornetworksontheground.Therefore,thedesignoftransceivernodeofitisparticularlyimportant.Atpresent,therearethreemaintechnologiesofthephysicallayerinwirelesssensornetworksnarrowbandmodulationtechnology,spreadspectrumtechnologyandultrawidebandUWBtechnology.WhileUWBtechnologypossessessomeattractiveadvantagessuchaslowpowerspectrumdensity,lowcomplexitysystem,Lowsensitivitytothechannelfading,bettersecurityandsoon.Consideringtheadvantagesandthecharacteristicsofcoalfacenaturally,wehaveadoptedImpulseradioultrawidebandIRUWBtechnology,andthereasonsarefollowed1UWBtechnologyconsumeslowerpowerandhaslowerpowerspectrum.Lowpowerconsumption,lowcostandsmallsizearethemostimportantfeatureofwirelesssensornetworknodes.Narrowbandmodulationtechnology,spreadspectrummodulationtechnologygenerallyusesinecarrier,IFandRFcircuitsexistinthesystems,soconsumingmorepowerthantheUWBtechnologywithnocarrier.Transmissionmediuminthecoalfaceisnonuniform,whichleadingtomoretransmissionlossthanwirelesscommunicationssystemsontheground.Thereforelowpowerconsumptionbecomesparticularlyimportant.Inthecoalface,asWSNnodepresentszonaldistribution,nodesjustneedtocommunicatewithneighbornodes.TheWSNsystembasedonUWB,consuminglowertransmissionpower,canmeettherequirementsandavoidtheinterferencewitheachotherinthenarrowbandcommunicationsnode.Inaddition,thelowpowerconsumptionandhighpenetratingpowerhelptodesignsafeequipmentandtransmitdisasterreliefsignal.2Strongantiinterferenceability.Inthecoalface,electricalandmechanicalequipmenthasnarrowdistribution.Whenequipmentstartsorstop,electricalsparklemaycausealotofelectromagneticinterference.Sogoodantiinterferencecapabilityisstronglyrequiredinthewirelesscommunication.3GoodAntiinterferencetomultipathability.Coalfacehassomeinherentcharacters,suchasnarrowspace,moretypesofmedia,amultipathintensivechannel,whileIRUWBcanbeappliedtothiscomplicatedenvironmentwithitsadvantagesnarrowPulsewidth,smallpulsedurationratio,highmultipathresolution,strongantimultipathandfadingCapacity.4Simplestructure.ThecharactersofIRUWB,suchasnomodulationandup/downconversingfrequency,simpletransmitterstructure,lowerpowerconsumption,makeitmoreacceptable.Accordingtothecomplexityofthenodeandpowerconsumptionintoconsiderations,IRUWBtechnologyisveryapplicabletothedesignofthewirelesssensornetworkphysicallayer.Therefore,comparedtonarrowbandmodulationtechnology,spreadspectrumtechnology,thewirelesscommunicationsystembasedontheUWBtechnologypresentagoodperformanceontheenergyconsumption,robustness,antimultipathandantinoise,andsoon.ThemodulationofIRUWBaremainlyPAMOOK,PPMandBPMBiPhaseModulation,butthepresenceoflinesspectruminPAMandPPMnotonlymakeultrawidebandpulsesignaldifficulttomeetacertainspectrumRequirements,butalsoreducethepowerutilization,therebyitincreasesenergyconsumption.SeveralIRUWBsignalsinthefrequencyspectrumareshowninFigure2andFigure3.AsWSNsystemrequireslowpowerconsumption,PAMmodulationoftenuseOOKmethod,whichhassimplestructure.ButOOKhaspoorperformanceontheBERBitErrorRate,antinoiseperformanceofBPMmodulationsuchasantiJitternoiseisbetter.ISIwouldbeintensifiedifweadoptedPPMundertheconditionsofintensivemultipathenvironmentinthecoalface.Therefore,weuseBPMformsinthetransceiversystemofthecoalface.A.ThedesignoftransmittingsystemThetransmitterwhichadoptsBPMformsisshowninFigure4.Thesignaldistortion,interferenceandnoisebroughtbythespecialenvironmentincoalfaceneedencodedprotectionthroughchannelcodinginterweavemodule.Datarateoftheoriginalinformationislower,whichmakeitdifficulttomeettherequirementsofFCCintheabsenceofmodulation.Weneedtousespreadspectrumcodetransformtheoriginalinformationwhichhasalargerdurationratiointoasmallerdurationrationanosecond.ThenwecangenerateBPMpulsesignalthroughthepulseformationcircuit,whichcanmeettherequirementofFCC.FinallyusefilterstooptimizeBPMsignalfurthertoenlargethespectrumandsenditoutfromtheantenna.ThesystemusesGaussianpulsetobetheformofUWBsignal.IfawavetransmittedisthefirstorderderivativeRayleighpulse,thesignalaftersendingoutthroughtheantennaistransformedtobethesecondorderderivativeoftheGaussianpulseinidealcircumstances.Inaddition,thelowertheorderoftheGaussianpulseis,thefartherthesignalcanbesentunderthesamedatarate.HereweselecttheGaussiandoublet,whosehardwarecircuitisrelativelyeasytoimplementandconsumelowerenergy.Althoughinterferenceofnarrowbandcommunicationsystemisexistinthegroundwirelesscommunications,thehigherorderoftheGaussianis,thebetterGaussiannarrowpulseshape.Butwedonotneedtoconsiderinterferencetotheothernarrowbandcommunicationsinthecoalface,forsofar,wireless

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