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外文翻译--锅炉燃烧系统的模糊控制.DOC

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外文翻译--锅炉燃烧系统的模糊控制.DOC

1FAINTNESSCONTROLLEROFBURNINGBOILERTHETEXTWHICHSTUDYSERIESCOALPOWDERBURNINGBOILERSCONTROLASCHEME,PRESENTEDHEATLOADSYSTEMLEVELMODULESCONTROL,ANDENTERTHECIRCUITVAGUECOURTINGSUPERIORCONTROL,SIMULATIONRESULTSCONFIRMTHEFEASIBILITYOFTHESCHEMECURRENTLY,MANYLARGEDOMESTICPLANTSHAVEADOPTEDCOMPUTERFIRECONTROL,ANDTHEEFFECTISVERYGOODHOWEVER,BECAUSEOFOURELECTRICENERGYISVERYTENSE,THEREWEREMANYSMALLPLANTSINTHEPOTGUARDINGTHEPLANT,ESPECIALLYTHEAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMCOALPOWDERBOILERS,ANDHAVENOTBEENPROPERLYADDRESSEDTHEREASONISCOALPOWDERBOILERSFACTORSTOBECHARGEDMORE,STRONGINTERNALLINK,EXTERNALDISTURBANCESAREFREQUENTANDHASDISTINCTCHARACTERISTICSANDNONLINEARCHARACTERISTICSPURELYLAGFORAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMFORHIGHSECURITYTHUSTHESYSTEMISACATEGORYDIFFICULTTOCONTROLALTHOUGHMANYSMALLPOWERPLANTBOILERSDESIGNEDCONVENTIONALINSTRUMENTATIONSYSTEM,BUTDIDNOTACHIEVETHEDESIREDPURPOSE,ANDMOSTSTILLUSEMANUALCONTROLTHISISBECAUSECONVENTIONALINSTRUMENTSCANONLYACHIEVEASALTSINKSCONTROL,NOTCONTROLLEDPROCESSCHANGES,NOTTHEENTIREBOILERSYSTEMCOORDINATIONANDCONTROLDEVELOPMENTOFTHEMID1970STOOBSCURECONTROLTHEORY,COALPOWDERBOILERCOMBUSTIONCONTROLSYSTEMHASGOODPERFORMANCEANDACHIEVEGIANTBURNINGBOILERSAMBIGUOUSCONTROLSYSTEMBOILERSOPERATINGSYSTEMISANIMPORTANTWAYTOACHIEVEAUTOMATIONMODELSTEAMBOILERSTEAMDRUMBOILERCOMBUSTIONSYSTEMSBURNINGPRESSUREISTHEMAINTARGETWASTHETRANSFEROFCONTROL,CAUSINGSTEAMPRESSURECHANGESANUMBEROFFACTORS,SUCHASFUELVOLUME,ENTERVOLUME,TOWATER,STEAMFLOWANDTHEVARIOUSCHANGESINTHENATUREBURNITISTHEMAINDISTURBANCEFUELVOLUMECHANGEKNOWNASTHETHREE,ANDSTEAMFLOWCHANGESKNOWNASTHETHREECHANGESINTHEVOLUMEOFFUEL,IGNORINGSOMEMINORFACTORS,THEPRESSURESTEAMBOILERSSIMILARTOTHEDYNAMICSOFTHETARGETBONUSPOINTFORINERTIALLINKSWITHTHECHAINLINKFROMTHEACTUALPROCESSGASPRESSUREFORTHETRANSMISSIONOFACERTAINLAG,THETIMELAGINNETWECANBURNBETWEENABOUT1S2S;MATHEMATICALMODELSFORTHESYSTEMGSPS/MSKE/TSTZS11TYPEOFP,TPRESSURESTEAM,ANDONETIMECONSTANTS;ADELAYOFONETOPOWDERONETIME,KRATIOFACTORTHISMATHEMATICALMODEL,ITISONLYASIMILARTIMECONSTANTSDIFFICULTTOIDENTIFYTHEPRECISEMEASUREMENTS,CHANGESINOPERATINGCONDITIONSANDTHEPRESENCEOFSYSTEMEQUIPMENTERRORANDOTHERFACTORSWILLCAUSETHEPARAMETERS,CONSTANTCHANGES,SUCH2CHANGESRESULTINGMATHEMATICALMODELANDTHEACTUALSYSTEMOFTENDONOTMATCHTOENSUREBETTERCONTROLOVERPERFORMANCE,THEUSEOFVAGUECONTROLISOFGREATSIGNIFICANCECONTROLSCHEME,BOILERCOMBUSTIONSYSTEMISACOMPLEXOFTHREEEXPORTTARGETS,ASSEENINFIGURE1,BUTEXISTSBETWEENTHEVOLUMEOFFIGURE1TARGETSEXPRESSEDBYTHEACTUALINDEPTHSTUDY,ITFOUNDTHATTHEMAINCHAMBERPRESSUREFROMTHEWINDANDENTERTHEFILM,ANDTHEVOLUMEOFITSOTHEREFFECTSARESMALLITCANBEFUELVOLUME,STEAMCHAMBERPRESSUREASTHEPRESSUREBROUGHTFANSOFTHEFORMERFEDSINGLECIRCUITCONTROLUNIFICATIONINADDITION,THEPLANISTOENSUREACCESSTOTHETRADITIONALECONOMICPRACTICESCOMBUSTIONBOILERSTHATFALLTHROUGHASYNTHESIZINGCALIBRATIONOFGASBLASTWINDOFSYNTHESIZINGDEPARTMENTCITEDVARIOUSCONSTRAINTSSMETHODSASARESULTOFTHEEFFECTISNOTIDEALC27,FIRSTASAMEANSOFECONOMICCONTROLOFTHEMAINTEMPLEBURNEDZR0MUTILATEDSYNTHESIZINGCHECKINGDEVICEISEXPENSIVE,LIFESHORT;SECONDLY,THELONGERTHETIMELAGSYNTHESIZINGSIGNALSWHENTHELOADCHANGES,THEVOLUMEOFCOALMUTATIONS,SYNTHESIZINGNOTTIMELYRESPONSE,MAINTAINEDTHEORIGINALAIRBLOWVOLUMEWILLINEVITABLYCAUSEGIANTROASTINADEQUATETHEREFORE,WEDONOTADOPTSUCHANAPPROACH,BUTTOUSETHERMALEFFICIENCYTHANCOALANDWINDBETWEENPEAKSIDENTITYTOCHAMBERTEMPERATUREACCUSEDOFUSINGCOURTINGSUPERIORCONTROL,AUTOMATICSEARCHOFTHEBESTWINDTHANCOALSOTHATTHEFUELCANDESIGNFORTWOINCHESASMUTUALLYINDEPENDENTANDAFFILIATEDCONTROLSYSTEMSTHATHEATLOADCONTROLSYSTEMSTOMAINTAINSTEAMPRESSUREROASTECONOMICCONTROLSYSTEMPOWITHTHEBESTWIND/COALTHANTHEDIAGRAMSHOWEDINFIGURE1USEDTOCONTROLSTEAMPRESSUREONTHECHAMBERTEMPERATURECONTROLPARAMETERSFORDEPUTYTOVAPOURPRESSUREFORCONTROLPARAMETERSSTRINGLEVELCONTROLINTERMSOFTIMING,BECAUSECHAMBERTEMPERATUREMUCHMORETHANVAPOURPRESSUREADVANCE,ANDINERTIATIMECONSTANTSARESMALLERADVANCETOTHEVOLUMEOFCOALTOOVERCOMESYSTEMTRANSITIONTIME,THEVOLUMEOFSUPERLARGE,THESLOWRECOVERYOFTHEPARAMETERS,SUCHASPOORQUALITYCONTROLSHORTCOMINGS,BUTALSOFORPEOPLEDEPUTYCIRCUITINTODISTURBANCESSUCHASGREENHOUSES,CITEDWIND,CHAMBERPRESSURE,THEVOLUMEOFCOAL,COAL,ETCHASAFAIRLYSTRONGANTIINTERFERENCECAPABILITYPLANSFORCHINAHADTOPOWDERMACHINEROTATIONALSPEED,FANSOFTHEIRPROPORTIONALTOTHEROTATIONALSPEEDWITHPOWDERMACHINETOACHIEVERATECONTROL,ASFANSOFTENROUGHANDWILLADJUSTTOTHEOPTIMALWORKINGPOINTFORTHEWORKPOINTSNEARWHENCHANGESTOTHEVOLUMEOFCOAL,FANSCORRESPONDINGLYCHANGED,CHAMBERTEMPERATURECHANGESATTHISTIMESINCEANEXCELLENTSTART3AMBIGUOUSSIGNALCONTROLLERS,AUTOMATICSEARCHOFTHEBESTWINDTHANCOALCONTROLALGORITHMSVAGUECONTROLALGORITHMS,AMBIGUOUSSIGNALCONTROLLERSKANSAIDONEREASONSINGLETWOPART,THEACQUISITIONOFCONTROLISPARTOFTHESEPARATIONLINEALGORITHMSTABLE,PARTLYBYTHECONTROLTABLEONLINEALGORITHMSEPARATIONLINEALGORITHMISBASEDONTHEEXPERIENCEOFOPERATORS,BASEDONFUZYMATHSYNTHETICREASONINGPROCESS,WITHTHEULTIMATEAIMOFPRODUCINGABLUREDCONTROLLERFORTHEONLINEAPPLICATIONCONTROLENQUIRIESTABLETHATIS,VAGUECONTROLTABLEONLINEALGORITHMISACTUALLYTABLEEXPORTCONTROLPROCESSTHELESSONSLEARNEDFROMARTIFICIALVAGUECONTROLTABLEISVERYCRUDE,CAUSINGCRUDEEASONS,ISVAGUEINDEFININGSUBSETFULLYRELYONTHESUBJECTIVEANDWILLNOTNECESSARILYREALISTICTHENEEDTOCONTROLONLINEVAGUECONTROLTABLEONLINEAMENDEDWETHEREFOREADOPTEDAVAGUESIGNALCONTROLLERTOIMPROVECOMPAREDWITHTHEBASICAMBIGUITYCONTROLLER,WHICHADDEDAVAGUECONTROLLERPARAMETERSWILLBEONLINEFROMTHEAGENCYTHEAGENCYREVISEDALGORITHMISBASEDONFAKEINTELLIGENCEPEOPLECONTROLLEDTHINKING,ANALYSISANDIDENTIFICATIONSYSTEMEXPORTSTATUS,DYNAMICALLYINDEPENDENTLYCONDUCTEDONLINEAMENDEDTOADJUSTTHECONTROLOFTHEENTIREPROCESSSIMULATIONTESTSACCORDINGTOCONTROLASCHEME,ANDTHEUSEOF1AMATHEMATICALMODELPARAMETERSELECTEDT1120S,T260S,T20SLAGTIME,SAMPLINGCYCLECIRCUITASIS,OUTSIDECIRCUITFOR2SOP3ANUMBEROFGASPRESSURECIRCUITEMULATION,FIGURESPIRITVAPOURPRESSUREVAGUESTRINGCLASSCONTROLSYSTEMDIAGRAMFIGURE5GIVESTHESTRINGCLASSVAGUECONTROLSIMULATIONCURVE,ANDINBANDSTOURINGINTERFERENCETHERESULTSCANBESEENBYTHESIMULATIONOPERATION,THESTRINGCLASSVAGUECONTROLHASSTRONGANTINTERFERENCECAPABILITY,THEUSEOFIMPROVEDAMBIGUOUSSIGNALCONTROLLERSFORBOILERCOMBUSTIONCONTROLSYSTEMHASAVERYGOODPERFORMANCESO,THEWINDCOALTHANCOURTINGDISTINCTIONSBLURREDCONTROLALGORITHMSINTHETRIALOPERATIONOFABOILERPLANTCOALPOWDER,IFTESTINGELEMENTSTEMPERATUREHEAT,PUPPETKITSINSTALLEDSUITABLELOCATION,THEOPERATINGRESULTSWEREVERYGOODASTHISISANEXCELLENTCONTROLOFTHEEXPORTOFAFIFTEENVOLUMEAMENDMENT,THUS,ISPARTICULARLYAPPLICABLETOCOALVOLATILEOCCASIONS4锅炉燃烧系统的模糊控制本文研究了煤粉锅炉燃烧系统的控制方案,提出了热负荷系统的串级模糊控制,及送风回路的模糊自寻优控制,仿真结果证实了该方案的可行性。目前,国内的许多大型火电厂已采用了微机控制,收效甚好。但是,由于我国的电力能源十分紧张,还存在许多小型的火力发电厂,对于这些电厂的锅护,特别是煤粉锅炉系统的自动控制问题,并没有得到很好的解决。究其原因是煤粉锅炉的待控因素比较多,内部关联强,外部扰动十分频繁,且具有明显的纯滞后特性和非线性特性,对自动控制系统的安全性要求较高等。因此是一类难以控制的系统。许多小型电厂的锅炉虽然设计了常规仪表系统,但都没有达到预期的目的,大多数仍然采用手工控制。这是因为常规仪表只能实现带冲量的控制,不能适应受控过程的变化,不能实现整个锅炉系统的协调控制。70年代中期发展起来的模糊控制理论,对煤粉锅炉燃烧系统有着良好的控制性能,实现锅炉燃烧系统的模糊控制是锅炉操作实现自动化的重要途径。锅炉燃烧系统模型锅炉汽包蒸汽压力是燃烧控制对象的主要被调量,引起蒸汽压力变化的因素很多,如燃料量、送风量、给水量、蒸汽流量以及各种使然烧情况变化的原因。它的主要扰动是燃料量的改变称为内扰,和蒸汽流量的变化称为外扰。在燃料量改变时,忽略一些次要因素的影响,锅炉的蒸汽压力对象的动态特性可近似为惯性环节与积分环节的串联。因实际过程中,汽压对象具有一定的传递滞后,纯滞后时间约为1S2S;我们可得到燃烧系统的数学模型为GSPS/MSKE/TSTZS11式中P蒸汽压力;T,TZ时间常数;X11给粉量;T延迟时间;K比例系数。对于这个数学模型,它只是一种近似,时间常数的测辨率难于精确,运行条件的变化以及系统设备存在误差等因素都会引起各参数、常数的变化,这种变化造成数学模型与实际系统往往不相匹配,难于保证较优的控制性能,所以采用模糊控制具有重要的意义。控制方案,锅炉燃烧系统是一个复杂的三输入三输出对象,而且各量之间存在着一定的关系,把实际对象进行深入研究后,不难发现炉膛负压主要受引风和送风的影,而其它各量对它的影响都很小,因此可以燃料量、蒸汽压力把炉膛负压作为带送风前馈的单回路控制系统处理。另外,图中的通道是保证锅炉燃烧经济性的传统做法,即通过送风氧量来维持最佳风煤比,实践证明这种方法由于受多种条件限制效果不够理想,首先作为经济性燃烧主要控制手段的ZR0残氧量检测仪价格昂贵,使用寿命短;其次,氧量信号的滞后时间较长,当负荷突变时,煤量突变,氧量反应不及时,仍保持原来的鼓风量,势必造成燃烧不充分。因此,我们不采用这种方法,而是利用热效率与风煤比之间的峰值特性,以炉膛温度为

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