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外文翻译-如何搞好建设项目的工程造价控制.doc

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外文翻译-如何搞好建设项目的工程造价控制.doc

附录1HOWTOIMPROVECONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLACONSTRUCTIONPROJECTTHEIMPORTANCEOFCOSTCONTROLOFCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLOFPROJECTSTHROUGHTHEENTIREPROCESS,THATIS,DECISIONMAKINGPHASEOFTHEPROJECT,THEPROJECTDESIGNSTAGE,PROJECTIMPLEMENTATIONANDCOMPLETIONSTAGESOFPHASERELATEDTOTHECONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLSTATISTICSSHOWTHATTHEDECISIONMAKINGSTAGEINTHEPROJECTANDDESIGNSTAGE,THEIMPACTOFTHEPOSSIBILITYOFPROJECTCOST3075,ANDINTHEIMPLEMENTATIONPHASEOFTHEIMPACTOFTHEPOSSIBILITYOFPROJECTCOSTISONLY525ITISOBVIOUSTHATTHEKEYTOCOSTCONTROLISTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEPROJECTPRIORTODECISIONMAKINGANDTHEDESIGNPHASEOFTHEPROJECT,THEPROJECTISTHEDECIDINGFACTORINDECISIONMAKING,ANDISAKEYFACTORINDESIGNCONTROLPROJECTCOSTNOTONLYTOPREVENTBREAKTHROUGHINVESTMENTLIMIT,MEANINGAMOREACTIVEISTOPROMOTETHECONSTRUCTION,ENGINEERING,ANDDESIGNUNITSTOSTRENGTHENTHEMANAGEMENTOFHUMAN,MATERIALANDFINANCIALRESOURCESWITHLIMITEDRESOURCESCANBEFULLYUTILIZEDTOOBTAINTHEBESTECONOMICANDSOCIALBENEFITSSODOAGOODJOBINPROJECTCOSTCONTROL,TOENSUREANDACCELERATETHEECONOMICDEVELOPMENTTHINKINGHASACERTAINSIGNIFICANCESECOND,CONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLMEASURESFORCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLISEFFECTIVEDECISIONMAKINGINTHEINVESTMENTPHASE,DESIGNPHASE,CONSTRUCTIONPHASECONTRACT,THECONTRACTIMPLEMENTATIONPHASEOFTHECONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLINTHEAMOUNTOFTHEAPPROVEDPROJECTCOSTLIMIT,OCCURATANYTIMETOCORRECTDEVIATIONS,ANDENSURETHEREALIZATIONOFINVESTMENTOBJECTIVESOFTHEPROJECTTOVARIOUSCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSINAREASONABLEMANNERTOTHEUSEOFHUMAN,MATERIALANDFINANCIALRESOURCESTOOBTAINBETTERINVESTMENTRETURNS,ANDULTIMATELYTOENABLETHECOMPLETIONOFAUDITEDACCOUNTSTOCONTROLTHEAMOUNTOFTHEBUDGETTOAVOIDTHETHREESUPERPHENOMENON,INORDERTOEFFECTIVELYCONTROLTHEPROJECTCOSTSHOULDBEDOINGTHEWORKOFTHEFOLLOWINGASPECTSADECISIONMAKINGPHASEOFTHEPROJECTCOSTTODETERMINETHECOSTOFCONTROLENGINEERINGANDCONTROLPROJECTSTHROUGHTHEENTIREPROCESS,BUTTHETECHNICALANDECONOMICDECISIONMAKINGSTAGESOFPOLICYMAKING,PROJECTCOSTOFTHEPROJECTVERYMUCHAFFECTEDBYSOMETHING,ESPECIALLYTODETERMINETHELEVELOFCONSTRUCTIONSTANDARDS,BUILDINGSITESELECTION,TECHNOLOGYSELECTION,EQUIPMENTSELECTION,ETC,ISDIRECTLYRELATEDTOTHELEVELOFPROJECTCOSTACCORDINGTOTHEDATAINVARIOUSSTAGESOFCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTS,INVESTMENTDECISIONMAKINGPHASEOFTHEIMPACTOFTHEHIGHESTDEGREEOFPROJECTCOST,FORATOTALOF8090THEREFORE,THEDECISIONMAKINGPHASEOFTHEPROJECTISTODETERMINETHECONTENTOFTHEDECISIONMAKINGPROJECTCOSTBASIS,ADIRECTIMPACTONDECISIONMAKINGPHASEOFTHEVARIOUSCONSTRUCTIONPHASESOFTHEPROJECTCOSTTODETERMINEANDCONTROLWHETHERORNOTSCIENTIFIC,REASONABLEQUESTIONFIRST,THEPREPARATIONOFESTIMATESOFTHENEEDFORINVESTMENTPRELIMINARYESTIMATESOFCAPITALINVESTMENTISANIMPORTANTPARTINTHEWORKOFONEDECISIONMAKINGDOCUMENT,ITISRESEARCH,ANALYSISOFTHECONSTRUCTIONPROJECTANIMPORTANTBASISFORECONOMICEFFECTSWORKINTHEECONOMYSHOULDBEREFLECTEDINTHEDESIGNOFPRACTICALCONTENT,REFLECTINGTHEBUILDINGOFTHEREGIONSECONOMICSITUATION,STARTEDFROMTHEESTIMATESREFLECTEDTHEACCURACYANDCOMPLETENESSOFTHECONSTRUCTIONINVESTMENTPROJECTSECOND,THEINVESTMENTMUSTBEDESIGNEDTOESTIMATEATRUEREFLECTIONOFTHEINVESTMENTESTIMATESSHOULDBEREALISTICANDREFLECTTHEDESIGNOFCONTENT,WHICHREQUIRESDESIGNERSANDPROJECTFROMTHEENGINEERINGCONTENTOFTHESIZEOFATRUEREFLECTIONOFDESIGNINTENTTHEMAINTECHNOLOGYTOBERELATIVELYMOREPROGRAMS,PROGRAMSTOOPTIMIZETHEDESIGNOFTHEPROGRAMISNOTONLYTECHNICALLYFEASIBLEBUTALSOECONOMICALLYMOREREASONABLETHEREFORE,THEPROJECTECONOMYBUILDINGPROGRAMSFROMTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEOPTIMIZATION,ITSHOULDPENETRATEINTOTHEWHOLEPROCESSDESIGNEDTO,INACCORDANCEWITHTHEPRINCIPLESOFPROJECTCOSTMANAGEMENT,AREASONABLEESTIMATEOFPROJECTEDCHANGESINAVARIETYOFDYNAMICFACTORS,ASFARASPOSSIBLE,DONOTPLAYENOUGHTOSTAYINVESTMENTGAPTHISISTHEPREPARATIONOFESTIMATESOFKEYINVESTMENTISALSOANIMPORTANTBASISFORTHENEXTSTAGEBTHEDESIGNPHASEOFPROJECTCOSTCONTROLPROJECTENGINEERINGDESIGNWASTOCONDUCTACOMPREHENSIVEPLANNINGANDSPECIFICINTENTTODESCRIBETHEPROCESSOFIMPLEMENTATIONISTHESOULOFTHECONSTRUCTION,DEALINGWITHTECHNOLOGYANDTHECRITICALLINKINECONOMICRELATIONS,ISTODETERMINEANDCONTROLTHEFOCUSOFPROJECTCOSTSTAGEFIRST,OPTIMIZEDDESIGN,THEDESIGNOFEFFECTIVECONTROLOFPROJECTCOSTIFTHEQUALITYANDTRYTOMEETTHENATIONALREQUIREMENTS,FUNCTIONSAREUSEDTOMEETREQUIREMENTSRELATEDTOCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSONLYAONETIMEINVESTMENTTOMEETTHEAPPLICATIONREQUIREMENTS,NOTONLYCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSRELATEDTOTHENUMBEROFONETIMEINVESTMENT,BUTALSOINTHECOMPLETIONAFTERDELIVERYOFTHEIMPACTOFTHEECONOMICBENEFITSOFTHEPROJECTFOREIGNEXPERTSPOINTEDOUTTHATALTHOUGHTHEDESIGNOFTHEPROJECTCOSTSREPRESENTASMALLPROPORTIONOFTOTALINVESTMENT,LESSTHAN1,BUTTHEIMPACTOFITSPROJECTCOSTTOACHIEVETHELEVELOF75ITISCLEARTHATTHEPROJECTDESIGNSTAGETODOAGOODJOBOFCOSTCONTROLISCOSTEFFECTIVECONTROLOFTHEKEY,RECONSTRUCTION,LIGHTDESIGNCONCEPTMUSTBEOVERCOMETOCONTROLTHECOSTOFTHEPROJECTDESIGNSHOULDSTARTTHEREFORE,THECONSTRUCTIONUNITSANDDESIGNUNITSINTHEREVIEWOFTHEDESIGN,ATTENTIONSHOULDBEPAIDTODESIGNOPTIMIZATION,THEUSEOFVARIOUSINDICATORSOFTHEOVERALLPLANOFTHEFACTORY,INDUSTRIALBUILDINGDESIGNANALYSISOFSPACECOMPAREDTOTHEDESIGNOFTHESETWOASPECTSOFTHEPROJECTCOST,NOTONLYHAVEASIGNIFICANTIMPACT,ANDAFTERTHECONSTRUCTIONANDOPERATIONOFTHEPRODUCTION,MANAGEMENTHASASIGNIFICANTIMPACTSECOND,THEIMPLEMENTATIONOFPROJECTSDESIGNEDTOCONTROLPROJECTCOSTLIMIT,INTHEDESIGNPROCESSUSEDINTHEDESIGNLIMITTHESOCALLEDLIMITISINACCORDANCEWITHTHEAPPROVEDDESIGNOFTHEINVESTMENTFEASIBILITYSTUDYTOESTIMATETHEPRELIMINARYDESIGNOFTHECONTROL,INACCORDANCEWITHTHEAPPROVEDBUDGETFORTHEPRELIMINARYDESIGNOFTHETOTALCONTROLOFTHETECHNICALDESIGNANDCONSTRUCTIONDESIGN,ATTHESAMETIMEENSURETHATTHEGOALSOFTHEPROFESSIONUNDERTHEPREMISEOFTHEUSEOFFUNCTION,ACCORDINGTOTHEALLOCATIONOFINVESTMENTLIMITCONTROLDESIGN,ANDSTRICTLYCONTROLUNREASONABLECHANGETOENSURETHATTHETOTALAMOUNTOFINVESTMENTWILLNOTBEABREAKTHROUGHTHEPRELIMINARYDESIGNSTAGESHOULDBEINACCORDANCEWITHTHEAPPROVEDFEASIBILITYSTUDYSTAGEOFTHEINVESTMENTESTIMATEFORTHELIMITDESIGN,CONTROLOFBUDGETESTIMATESDONOTEXCEEDTHEINVESTMENT,MAINLYINENGINEERINGANDEQUIPMENTIS,THECONTROLMATERIALTOTHISEND,THEPRELIMINARYDESIGNPHASEOFTHELIMITAMOUNTOFDESIGNENGINEERINGPHASEOFTHEFEASIBILITYSTUDYSHOULDBEVALIDATEDANDEQUIPMENTDESIGNENGINEERING,MATERIALSTANDARDSASTHEBASIS,THEFEASIBILITYSTUDYSTAGEOFCERTAINTYPESOFPROJECTSISNOTEASYTODETERMINETHEAMOUNTOFLIGHTDESIGNANDUNIVERSALDESIGNORSIMILARPROJECTSHAVEBEENBUILTTODETERMINETHEAMOUNTOFPHYSICALWORKSQUOTAATTHEPRELIMINARYDESIGN,THEDESIGNOFTHEPROFESSIONALSTAFFTOENHANCEAWARENESSOFPROJECTCOST,INSTRICTACCORDANCEWITHTHEDECOMPOSITIONOFTHELIMITDESIGNANDCONTROLOFINVESTMENTPROJECTS,ASWELLASTOENSURETHATUNDERTHECONDITIONSOFTHEUSEOFFUNCTIONALDESIGN,SOUGHTTOPROJECTCOSTCONTROLANDENGINEERINGINTHELIMITCTHEIMPLEMENTATIONPHASEOFPROJECTCOSTCONTROLPROJECTISTHEIMPLEMENTATIONPHASEOFTHEFORMATIVESTAGESOFBUILDINGPHYSICAL,HUMAN,MATERIALANDFINANCIALRESOURCESOFTHEMAINSTAGEOFCONSUMPTIONLARGEPROJECTSINVOLVINGAWIDERANGEOFINFLUENCINGFACTORS,ANDCONSTRUCTIONCYCLES,POLICYCHANGES,MATERIALSANDEQUIPMENTPRICES,LARGEFLUCTUATIONSINMARKETSUPPLYANDDEMANDANDSOONTOIMPROVETHEQUALITYOFTHECONSTRUCTION,CONTROLPROJECTCOST,INVESTMENTRETURNSTOPLAY,ITISNECESSARYTOTHEIMPLEMENTATIONPHASEOFTHEPROJECTTOSTRENGTHENPROJECTMANAGEMENTANDOVERSIGHTFUNCTIONSINORDERTOENHANCETHEFULLRANGEOFCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTS,THEWHOLEPROCESSOFCOSTCONTROLDUETOTHECOMPLEXITYOFCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTS,THEIMPACTOFFACTORSOFVARIABILITYOFTHECHARACTERISTICSOFTHEIMPLEMENTATIONPHASEOFPROJECTSOFTENHAVESOMEUNEXPECTEDCOSTSFIRST,THEEFFECTIVECONTROLOFENGINEERINGCHANGEANDECONOMICACCESSATTHEPROJECTSITECONSTRUCTIONPROJECTS,ENGINEERINGANDONSITEVISACHANGEISINEVITABLE,BUTTHEREISCAPACITYTOCONTROLDURINGTHECONSTRUCTIONPLANSINORDERTOPREVENTLOOPHOLESINTHEDESIGN,WITHTHEEXCEPTIONOFTHEAUDITCHECKSSHOULDPARTYBINAJOINTHEARINGOFTHEDRAWINGS,THETECHNICALADVICEANDDESIGNTOELIMINATE,INAWORD,SHOULDBESTARTEDPRIORTOTHEERADICATIONOFTHEDESIGNCHANGESSHOULDBEADVANCEDASFARASPOSSIBLE,CHANGEOCCURREDEARLIER,THESMALLERTHELOSS,THEGREATERTHECONTRASTTOTHISEND,THEDESIGNOFCHANGEMANAGEMENTMUSTBESTRENGTHENEDASMUCHASPOSSIBLETHEDESIGNCHANGECONTROLEARLYINTHEDESIGNPHASE,INPARTICULARTHEIMPACTOFTHEPROJECTCOSTFORMAJORDESIGNCHANGES,BUTALSOTOUSEACCOUNTSAFTERTHEFIRSTSOLUTIONTOCHANGE,SOTHATTHEEFFECTIVECONTROLOFPROJECTCOSTSECOND,ARIGOROUSEXAMINATIONOFTHEBUDGETINACCORDANCEWITHCONSTRUCTIONPLANTHEPROGRESSOFTHECONSTRUCTIONDESIGNPLANSANDTHEACTUALPROGRESSOFTHECONSTRUCTIONSITE,CONSTRUCTIONPLANSAPPROVEDBUDGETINTIMETHIRD,INDEPTHATTHESCENETOCOLLECTTHERELEVANTINFORMATIONANDMASTERTHECONSTRUCTIONOFTHEPROJECTCONSTRUCTIONPROCESS,PRETRIALANDTHECOSTOFPRICECONTROLOFFICERSOFTENGOTOTHECONSTRUCTIONSITE,SEECONSTRUCTIONOFTHECONTROLDRAWINGS,SOMETIMESWITHTHESUPERVISION,THEGENERALCONTRACTORANDCONSTRUCTIONPERSONNELINANINFORMALDISCUSSION,UNDERSTANDING,THECOLLECTIONOFPROJECTINFORMATION,TIMELYINFORMATIONONDEVELOPMENTSONSITE;TOASSISTOWNERSINATIMELYMANNERDUETODESIGNCHANGESTOAUDIT,ONSITECOSTOFVISAS,ETC,ANDADJUSTTHECONTROLOBJECTIVES,ANDFORTHEEVENTUALSETTLEMENTOFTHEPROJECTTOPROVIDEABASISANDMAKETHENECESSARYPREPARATIONSTHIRD,ATTHEENDOFTHECONSTRUCTIONPROJECTCOSTCONTROLANDINVESTMENTINTHEDETERMINATIONOFTHESUBSTANCEOFTHEPRINCIPLEISTHEUSEOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYANDECONOMICANDLEGALMEANSTOADDRESSTHECONSTRUCTIONACTIVITIESOFTECHNICALANDECONOMIC,BUSINESSANDMANAGEMENTOFPRACTICALPROBLEMS,ONLYINTHEVARIOUSPHASESOFPROJECTCONSTRUCTION,THEUSEOFSCIENTIFICMETHODSANDREALISTICVALUATIONOFTHEVALUATIONBASIS,AREASONABLEESTIMATEOFINVESTMENT,THEPRELIMINARYDESIGNOFTHEBUDGETESTIMATESANDWORKINGDRAWINGSINORDERTOIMPROVEINVESTMENTRETURNSREFERENCESJOELDEANCAPITALBUDGET;FAMAMILLERFINANCIALMANAGEMENT;HARRYMARKOWITZMODERNPORTFOLIOTHEORY附录2如何搞好建设项目的工程造价控制一、建设项目工程造价控制的重要意义建设项目的造价控制贯穿于项目的全过程,即项目决策阶段、项目设计阶段、项目实施阶段和竣工阶段都关系到建设项目的造价控制。统计资料显示,在项目决策阶段及设计阶段,影响建设项目造价的可能性为3075,而在实施阶段影响建设项目造价的可能性仅为525。显而易见,控制工程造价的关键就在于项目实施之前的项目决策和设计阶段,项目决策是决定因素,而设计则是关键因素。控制工程造价不仅仅是防止投资突破限额,更积极的意义是要促进建设、工、设计单位加强管理,使人力、物力、财力有限的资源得到充分的利用,取得最佳的经济效益和社会效益。因此做好工程造价的控制工作,对保证和加速思经济发展具有一定意义。二、控制建设项目工程造价的措施建设工程造价的有效控制就是在投资决策阶段、设计阶段、工程发包阶段、合同实施阶段把建设工程造价的发生额控制在批准的工程造价限额以内,随时纠正发生的偏差,保证项目投资目标的实现,以求在各个建设项目中能够合理地使用人力、物力、财力取得较好的投资效益,最终实现使竣工决算控制在审定的概算额内,避免“三超”现象的发生,为了有效控制工程造价,应做好以下几方面工作(一)决策阶段工程造价的控制工程造价的确定与控制贯穿于项目建设全过程,但决策阶段各项技术经济决策,对该项目的工程造价有得大影响,特别是建设标准水平的确定、建设地点的选择、工艺的评选、设备选用等,直接关系到工程造价的高低。据有关资料统计,在项目建设各大阶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