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外文翻译—基于PLC的感应电动机监控系统设计与实现 原版.pdf

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外文翻译—基于PLC的感应电动机监控系统设计与实现 原版.pdf

IEEETRANSACTIONSONENERGYCONVERSION,VOL.19,NO.3,SEPTEMBER2004469DesignandImplementationofPLCBasedMonitoringControlSystemforInductionMotorMariaG.Ioannides,SeniorMember,IEEEAbstractTheimplementationofamonitoringandcontrolsystemfortheinductionmotorbasedonprogrammablelogiccontrollerPLCtechnologyisdescribed.Also,theimplementationofthehardwareandsoftwareforspeedcontrolandprotectionwiththeresultsobtainedfromtestsoninductionmotorperformanceisprovided.ThePLCcorrelatestheoperationalparameterstothespeedrequestedbytheuserandmonitorsthesystemduringnormaloperationandundertripconditions.TestsoftheinductionmotorsystemdrivenbyinverterandcontrolledbyPLCproveahigheraccuracyinspeedregulationascomparedtoaconventional86102controlsystem.TheefficiencyofPLCcontrolisincreasedathighspeedsupto95ofthesynchronousspeed.Thus,PLCprovesthemselvesasaveryversatileandeffectivetoolinindustrialcontrolofelectricdrives.IndexTermsComputercontrolledsystems,computerizedmonitoring,electricdrives,inductionmotors,motioncontrol,programmablelogiccontrollersPLCs,variablefrequencydrives,voltagecontrol.I.INTRODUCTIONSINCEtechnologyformotioncontrolofelectricdrivesbecameavailable,theuseofprogrammablelogiccontrollersPLCswithpowerelectronicsinelectricmachinesapplicationshasbeenintroducedinthemanufacturingautomation1,2.Thisuseoffersadvantagessuchaslowervoltagedropwhenturnedonandtheabilitytocontrolmotorsandotherequipmentwithavirtuallyunitypowerfactor3.ManyfactoriesusePLCsinautomationprocessestodiminishproductioncostandtoincreasequalityandreliability4–9.OtherapplicationsincludemachinetoolswithimprovedprecisioncomputerizednumericalcontrolCNCduetotheuseofPLCs10.Toobtainaccurateindustrialelectricdrivesystems,itisnecessarytousePLCsinterfacedwithpowerconverters,personalcomputers,andotherelectricequipment11–13.Nevertheless,thismakestheequipmentmoresophisticated,complex,andexpensive14,15.FewpaperswerepublishedconcerningdcmachinescontrolledbyPLCs.Theyreportboththeimplementationofthefuzzymethodforspeedcontrolofadcmotor/generatorsetusingaPLCtochangethearmaturevoltage16,andtheincorporationofanadaptivecontrollerbasedontheselftuningregulatortechnologyintoanexistingindustrialPLC17.Also,othertypesofmachineswereinterfacedwithPLCs.Thereby,anindustrialPLCwasusedforcontrollingsteppermotorsManuscriptreceivedDecember2,2002.Paperno.TEC000042002.ThisworkwassupportedbytheNationalTechnicalUniversityofAthens.TheauthoriswiththeFacultyofElectricalandComputerEngineeringoftheNationalTechnicalUniversityofAthens,Athens15773,Greeceemailmioannidece.ntua.gr.DigitalObjectIdentifier10.1109/TEC.2003.822303inafiveaxisrotorposition,directionandspeed,reducingthenumberofcircuitcomponents,loweringthecost,andenhancingreliability18.Forswitchedreluctancemotorsasapossiblealternativetoadjustablespeedacanddcdrives,asinglechiplogiccontrollerforcontrollingtorqueandspeedusesaPLCtoimplementthedigitallogiccoupledwithapowercontroller19.OtherreportedapplicationconcernsalinearinductionmotorforpassengerelevatorswithaPLCachievingthecontrolofthedrivesystemandthedataacquisition20.Tomonitorpowerqualityandidentifythedisturbancesthatdisruptproductionofanelectricplant,twoPLCswereusedtodeterminethesensitivityoftheequipment21.OnlyfewpaperswerepublishedinthefieldofinductionmotorswithPLCs.ApowerfactorcontrollerforathreephaseinductionmotorutilizesPLCtoimprovethepowerfactorandtokeepitsvoltagetofrequencyratioconstantunderthewholecontrolconditions3.ThevectorcontrolintegratedcircuitusesacomplexprogrammablelogicdeviceCPLDandintegerarithmeticforthevoltageorcurrentregulationofthreephasepulsewidthmodulationPWMinverters22.Manyapplicationsofinductionmotorsrequirebesidesthemotorcontrolfunctionality,thehandlingofseveralspecificanaloganddigitalI/Osignals,homesignals,tripsignals,on/off/reversecommands.Insuchcases,acontrolunitinvolvingaPLCmustbeaddedtothesystemstructure.ThispaperpresentsaPLCbasedmonitoringandcontrolsystemforathreephaseinductionmotor.Itdescribesthedesignandimplementationoftheconfiguredhardwareandsoftware.Thetestresultsobtainedoninductionmotorperformanceshowimprovedefficiencyandincreasedaccuracyinvariableloadconstantspeedcontrolledoperation.Thus,thePLCcorrelatesandcontrolstheoperationalparameterstothespeedsetpointrequestedbytheuserandmonitorstheinductionmotorsystemduringnormaloperationandundertripconditions.II.PLCASSYSTEMCONTROLLERAPLCisamicroprocessorbasedcontrolsystem,designedforautomationprocessesinindustrialenvironments.Itusesaprogrammablememoryfortheinternalstorageofuserorientatedinstructionsforimplementingspecificfunctionssuchasarithmetic,counting,logic,sequencing,andtiming23,24.APLCcanbeprogrammedtosense,activate,andcontrolindustrialequipmentand,therefore,incorporatesanumberofI/Opoints,whichallowelectricalsignalstobeinterfaced.InputdevicesandoutputdevicesoftheprocessareconnectedtothePLCandthecontrolprogramisenteredintothePLCmemoryFig.1.08858969/0420.00©2004IEEE470IEEETRANSACTIONSONENERGYCONVERSION,VOL.19,NO.3,SEPTEMBER2004Fig.1.ControlactionofaPLC.Inourapplication,itcontrolsthroughanaloganddigitalinputsandoutputsthevaryingloadconstantspeedoperationofaninductionmotor.Also,thePLCcontinuouslymonitorstheinputsandactivatestheoutputsaccordingtothecontrolprogram.ThisPLCsystemisofmodulartypecomposedofspecifichardwarebuildingblocksmodules,whichplugdirectlyintoaproprietarybusacentralprocessorunitCPU,apowersupplyunit,inputoutputmodulesI/O,andaprogramterminal.Suchamodularapproachhastheadvantagethattheinitialconfigurationcanbeexpandedforotherfutureapplicationssuchasmultimachinesystemsorcomputerlinking.III.CONTROLSYSTEMOFINDUCTIONMOTORInFig.2,theblockdiagramoftheexperimentalsystemisillustrated.Thefollowingconfigurationscanbeobtainedfromthissetup.aAclosedloopcontrolsystemforconstantspeedoperation,configuredwithspeedfeedbackandloadcurrentfeedback.Theinductionmotordrivesavariableload,isfedbyaninverter,andthePLCcontrolstheinverteroutput.bAnopenloopcontrolsystemforvariablespeedoperation.Theinductionmotordrivesavariableloadandisfedbyaninverterinconstantcontrolmode.ThePLCisinactivated.cThestandardvariablespeedoperation.Theinductionmotordrivesavariableloadandisfedbyaconstantvoltageconstantfrequencystandardthreephasesupply.Theopenloopconfigurationbcanbeobtainedfromtheclosedloopconfigurationabyremovingthespeedandloadfeedback.Ontheotherhand,operationcresultsiftheentirecontrolsystemisbypassed.IV.HARDWAREDESCRIPTIONThecontrolsystemisimplementedandtestedforawoundrotorinductionmotor,havingthetechnicalspecificationsgiveninTableI.Theinductionmotordrivesadcgenerator,whichsuppliesavariableload.Thethreephasepowersupplyisconnectedtoathreephasemainswitchandthentoathreephasethermaloverloadrelay,whichprovidesprotectionagainstcurrentoverloads.Therelayoutputisconnectedtotherectifier,whichrectifiesthethreephasevoltageandgivesadcinputtotheinsulatedgatebipolartransistorIGBTinverter.Itstechnicalspecifications25aresummarizedinTableII.TheIGBTFig.2.Electricaldiagramofexperimentalsystem.TABLEIINDUCTIONMOTORTECHNICALSPECIFICATIONSIOANNIDESDESIGNANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFPLCBASEDMONITORINGCONTROLSYSTEMFORINDUCTIONMOTOR471TABLEIIINVERTERTECHNICALSPECIFICATIONSinverterconvertsthedcvoltageinputtothreephasevoltageoutput,whichissuppliedtothestatoroftheinductionmotor.Ontheotherhand,theinverterisinterfacedtothePLCbasedcontroller.ThiscontrollerisimplementedonaPLCmodularsystem5,26–28.ThePLCarchitecturereferstoitsinternalhardwareandsoftware.Asamicroprocessorbasedsystem,thePLCsystemhardwareisdesignedandbuiltupwiththefollowingmodules29–37centralprocessorunitCPUdiscreteoutputmoduleDOMdiscreteinputmoduleDIManalogoutputsmoduleAOManaloginputsmoduleAIMpowersupply.OtherdetailsofthePLCconfigurationareshowninTablesIIIandIV.Aspeedsensorisusedforthespeedfeedback,acurrentsensorisusedfortheloadcurrentfeedback,andasecondcurrentsensorisconnectedtothestatorcircuits32.Thus,thetwofeedbackloopsoftheclosedloopsystemaresetupbyusingtheloadcurrentsensor,thespeedsensor,andtheAIM.Atachogeneratorpermanentmagnetdcmotorisusedforspeedsensing.Theinductionmachinedrivesitsshaftmechanicallyandanoutputvoltageisproduced,themagnitudeofwhichisproportionaltothespeedofrotation.Polaritydependsonthedirectionofrotation.ThevoltagesignalfromthetachogeneratormustmatchthespecifiedvoltagerangeoftheAIM0–5Vdcand200kinternalresistance.OtherPLCexternalcontrolcircuitsaredesignedusingalowvoltagesupplyof24Vdc.Forthemanualcontrol,theschemeisequippedwithstart,stop,andtrippushbuttons,aswellaswithaforwardandbackwarddirectionselectorswitch.AsshowninFig.2,allofthedescribedcomponentsamainswitch,anautomaticthreephaseswitch,anautomaticsinglephaseswitch,athreephasethermaloverloadrelay,aloadautomaticswitch,signallampsforward,backward,start,stop,trip,pushbuttonsstart,stop,trip,aselectorswitchfortheforward/backwarddirectionofrotation,aspeedselector,againselector,aswellasthePLCmodulesandtherectifierinverterareinstalledinacontrolpanel.TheprogramisdownloadedintothePLCfromapersonalcomputerPCandanRS232serialinterface.V.SOFTWAREDESCRIPTIONPLCsprogrammingisbasedonthelogicdemandsofinputdevicesandtheprogramsimplementedarepredominantlylogFig.3.Flowchartofthemainprogram.TABLEIIIPLCCONFIGURATIONicalratherthannumericalcomputationalalgorithms.Mostoftheprogrammedoperationsworkonastraightforwardtwostateonoroffbasisandthesealternatepossibilitiescorrespondtotrueorfalselogicalformand1or0binaryform,respectively.Thus,PLCsofferaflexibleprogrammablealternativetoelectricalcircuitrelaybasedcontrolsystemsbuiltusinganalogdevices.Theprogrammingmethodusedistheladderdiagrammethod.ThePLCsystemprovidesadesignenvironmentintheformofsoftwaretoolsrunningonahostcomputerterminalwhichallowsladderdiagramstobedeveloped,verified,tested,anddiagnosed.First,thehighlevelprogramiswritteninladderdiagrams,33,34.Then,theladderdiagramisconvertedintobinaryinstructioncodessothattheycanbestoredinrandomaccessmemoryRAMorerasableprogrammablereadonlymemoryEPROM.EachsuccessiveinstructionisdecodedandexecutedbytheCPU.ThefunctionoftheCPUistocontroltheoperationofmemoryandI/Odevicesandtoprocessdataaccordingtotheprogram.EachinputandoutputconnectionpointonaPLChasanaddressusedtoidentifytheI/Obit.Themethodforthedirectrepresentationofdataassociatedwiththeinputs,outputs,andmemoryisbasedonthefactthatthePLCmemoryisorganizedintothreeregionsinput472IEEETRANSACTIONSONENERGYCONVERSION,VOL.19,NO.3,SEPTEMBER2004TABLEIVPLCMODULESANDI/ODESIGNATIONimagememoryI,outputimagememoryQ,andinternalmemoryM.AnymemorylocationisreferenceddirectlyusingI,Q,andMTableIII.ThePLCprogramusesacyclicscaninthemainprogramloopsuchthatperiodicchecksaremadetotheinputvariablesFig.3.TheprogramloopstartsbyscanningtheinputstothesystemandstoringtheirstatesinfixedmemorylocationsinputimagememoryI.Theladderprogramisthenexecutedrungbyrung.Scanningtheprogramandsolvingthelogicofthevariousladderrungsdeterminetheoutputstates.TheupdatedoutputstatesarestoredinfixedmemorylocationsoutputimagememoryQ.TheoutputvaluesheldinmemoryarethenusedtosetandresetthephysicaloutputsofthePLCsimultaneouslyattheendoftheprogramscan.ForthegivenPLC,thetimetakentocompleteonecycleorthescantimeis0,18ms/Kfor1000stepsandwithamaximumprogramcapacityof1000steps.ThedevelopmentsystemcomprisesahostcomputerPCconnectedviaanRS232porttothetargetPLC.Thehostcomputerprovidesthesoftwareenvironmenttoperformfileediting,storage,printing,andprogramoperationmonitoring.TheprocessofdevelopingtheprogramtorunonthePLCconsistsofusinganeditortodrawthesourceladderprogram,convertingthesourceprogramtobinaryobjectcodewhichwillrunonthePLCsmicroprocessoranddownloadingtheobjectcodefromthePCtothePLCsystemviatheserialcommunicationport.ThePLCsystemisonlinewhenitisinactivecontrolofthemachineandmonitorsanydatatocheckforcorrectoperation.A.PLCSpeedControlSoftwareInFig.4,theflowchartofthespeedcontrolsoftwareisillustrated.Thesoftwareregulatesthespeedandmonitorstheconstantspeedcontrolregardlessoftorquevariation.Theinverterbeingthepowersupplyforthemotorexecutesthiswhile,atthesametime,itiscontrolledbyPLCssoftware.TheinverteralonecannotkeepthespeedconstantwithoutthecontrolloopwithfeedbackandPLC.Fromthecontrolpanel,theoperatorselectsthespeedsetpointandtheforward/backwarddirectionofrotation.Then,byFig.4.Flowchartofspeedcontrolsoftware.pushingthemanualstartpushbutton,themotorbeginstherotation.Ifthestopbuttonispushed,thentherotationstops.ThecorrespondinginputsignalsareinterfacedtotheDIMandtheoutputsignalstotheDOMasshowninTableIV.TheAIMreceivesthetripsignalfromthestatorcurrentsensor,thespeedfeedbacksignalfromthetachogenerator,andthesignalfromthecontrolpanel.Inthisway,thePLCreadstherequestedspeedandtheactualspeedofthemotor.Thedifferencebetweentherequestedspeedbytheoperatorandtheactualspeedofthemotorgivestheerrorsignal.Iftheerrorsignalisnotzero,butpositiveornegative,thenthePLCaccordingtothecomputationscarriedoutbytheCPUdecreasesorincreasestheoftheinverterand,asaresult,thespeedofthemotoriscorrected.

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