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外文翻译一种通过刺激学习者动力来增加学习效率的以网络为基础的电子学习体系.doc

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外文翻译一种通过刺激学习者动力来增加学习效率的以网络为基础的电子学习体系.doc

外文文献原文及翻译AwebbasedelearningsystemforincreasingstudyefficiencybystimulatinglearnersmotivationAbstractDuetotheopportunitiesprovidedbytheInternet,moreandmorepeoplearetakingadvantageofdistancelearningcoursesandduringthelastfewyearsenormousresearcheffortshavebeendedicatedtothedevelopmentofdistancelearningsystems.Sofar,manyelearningsystemsareproposedandusedpractically.However,inthesesystemstheelearningcompletionrateisabout30.Oneofthereasonsisthelowstudydesirewhenthelearnerstudiesthelearningmaterials.Inthisresearch,weproposeaninteractiveWebbasedelearningsystem.Thepurposeofoursystemistoincreasetheelearningcompletionratebystimulatinglearnersmotivation.Theproposedsystemhasthreesubsystemsthelearningsubsystem,learnersupportsubsystem,andteachersupportsubsystem.Thelearningsubsystemimprovesthelearnersstudydesire.Thelearnersupportsubsystemsupportsthelearnerduringthestudy,andtheteachersupportsubsystemsupportstheteachertogetthelearnersstudystate.Toevaluatetheproposedsystem,wedevelopedseveralexperimentsandsurveys.Byusingnewfeaturessuchasdisplayoflearnersstudyhistory,changeofinterfacecolor,encouragefunction,rankingfunction,selfdeterminationofthestudymaterials,andgroupingoflearners,theproposedsystemcanincreasethelearningefficiency.KeywordsWebbasedsystems,Elearning,IncreaseoflearningefficiencyStimulatinglearnersmotivation.Groupingoflearners1IntroductionDuetotheopportunitiesprovidedbytheInternet,moreandmorepeoplearetakingadvantageofdistancelearningcourses.DuringthelastfewyearsenormousresearcheffortshavebeendedicatedtothedevelopmentofdistancelearningsystemsNakabayashietal.,1999KatayamaKambayashi,1999Ohkawaetal.,2000Satoetal.,1999.Consequently,manylargeprojectssuchasCALATCALsurfWebCAITheUniversityoftheAirCaliforniaVirtualUniversityWIDEUniversityOgawaetal.,1999andDAIXWebCollegehavebeenestablised.However,inthesesystemstheelearningcompletionrateisabout30.Oneofthereasonsisthelowstudydesirewhenthelearnerstudieslearningmaterials.Therefore,itisveryimportanttostimulatelearnersmotivationduringthestudy.Recently,severaldistancelearningsystemsthatconsiderthelearnerscapabilityandunderstandinghavebeenproposedMatsumotoetal.,1999Tamakietal.,2000Kuwabaraetal.,2000.InMatsumotoetal.1999,anevaluationsystemofhistoricaldata,basedonlearningenvironmentandsupportedbyeducationalsoftwarerecordisproposed.Inthissystem,reappearanceandanalysisarecarriedoutonlyforhistoricallearningdataandnotforrealeducationsystemwithindividualstudentadvancementcontrolMESIA.ThesystemisabletokeeptheteacheroperatingcostlowandtoofferfineeducationbythecooperationofComputerAssistedInstructionCAIandteacher.Thesystemisabletorecognizethelearnerswhoneedassistance,butitsmainpurposeistosupporttheteacher,notthelearners.InourpreviousworksKoyamaetal.,2001,2002BarolliKoyama,2004,2005,weproposedanagentbaseddistancelearningsystemtodeliverappropriatestudyingmaterialstolearnersandstimulatelearnersmotivationbyusingmentalactionofcolorTatsuno,1995JCRI,1993.Inordertoofferasuitableandefficientstudyforlearners,inthiswork,weproposeaWebbaseddistancelearningsysteminordertoincreaselearnersefficiency.Theproposedsystemhasthreesubsystemslearningsubsystem,learnersupportingsubsystemandteachersupportingsubsystem.Thepurposeofoursystemistoincreasetheelearningcompletionratebystimulatinglearnermotivation.Toevaluatetheproposedsystem,wedevelopedseveralexperimentsandsurveys.Theevaluationshowsthatbyusingnewfeaturessuchasdisplayoflearnersstudyhistory,changeofinterfacecolor,encouragefunction,rankingfunction,selfdeterminationofthestudymaterials,andgroupingoflearners,theproposedsystemcanincreasethelearningefficiency.Thepaperisorganizedasfollows.Thesystemstructureisintroducedinthenextsection.InSection3,wepresenttheevaluationmethodfortheproposedsystem.InSection4,wediscusstheevaluationresults.InSection5,wecomparethefunctionsoftheproposedsystemwithMESIA.Finally,wegivesomeconclusionsandfutureworkinSection6.2ProposedsystemstructureTheproposedsystemisbuiltonWorldWideWebWWW.Inordertohaveawiderangeofapplications,weuseonlystandardfunctions.Therefore,thesystemcanbeeasilyusedwithoutdependingonthecomputerenvironment.TheproposedsysteminterfaceisshowninFig.1andthesystemstructureisshowninFig.2.ThepageoutputisgeneratedbyusingJSP.Forthesystemlogic,weuseJavaandJavaServletandasrelationaldatabasesystemisusedPostgreSQL.JavaProgrammingisusedasthestudymaterial.Theproposedsystemhasthreesubsystemslearningsubsystem,learnersupportingsubsystemandteachersupportingsubsystem.Thelearningsubsystemincludesthestudyingmaterials,examinationexercises,andsomefunctionstostimulatelearnersmotivation.Thelearnersupportingsubsystemsupportsthelearnerswhentheyhaveproblemsduringthestudyinthissubsystemareimplementedsomeinteractionfunctions.Theteachersupportingsubsystemhassomefunctionstogetthestudysituationoflearnersandtogivehintsfromtheteachertoimprovethelearningefficiency.Theproposedsystemworksinthefollowingway.Atthebeginning,thelearnerstartstostudythelearningmaterials.Theteacherchecksthelearningsituationandbasedonthatdecideshowtosupportthelearner.InthelearnersupportsubsystemisimplementedtheWindowsMessengerWM.Usingthemessenger,theteacherandlearnercancommunicatetogether.Ifthelearnerunderstandstheproblemheaskedtheteacher,hegoesbacktothelearningsubsystemandstartsagainlearningprocess.2.1LearningsubsystemTheinterfaceofelearningsystemisshowninFig.3andtheelearningflowisshowninFig.4.Atthebeginning,thelearnerloginstothesystem.Next,ifthelearnerunderstandsthetext,hestartstodotheexercises.Then,theobtainedresultsandrankingareshowninthecomputerdisplay.Afterthat,thelearnerdecidesthenextitemstostudy.Ifthelearnerdoesnotunderstandsomepartsofthetext,thelearnermovestothelearnersupportsubsystem,whenunderstandsallthetextgoesbacktothelearningsubsystem.2.2TeachersupportingsubsystemInthissubsystem,thepersonwhoisregisteredasteachercanenterthesystembyusingtheregisteredloginandpassword.Byusingthissubsystem,theteacherisabletojudgethelearningsituationofthelearners.Theteachercancheckthefollowingitems.Thelearnerswhoareusingthesystem.Theitemswhicharefinished.Thelearnerhasproblemsduringthestudyornotisthelearnerusingthelearnersupportingsystemornot.TheFAQofthelearnersupportsubsystem.TheBulletinBoardBBofthelearnersupportsubsystem.Iftheteacherfindsthatastudentisusingthelearnersupportsubsystem,byusingemail,theteachercancommunicatewiththelearner.ItisalsopossibletocommunicatewiththelearnerbyusingWM.ThemaininterfaceoftheteachersupportingsubsystemisshowninFig.5.Thispageisdividedintwoframes.Theleftframeshowsthelearnerswhoareloggedinthesystem.Theyareshowninatableform.Thetableshowsthefollowinginformation.Thelearnersareonlineornot.Thepresentstudyitem.Thelearnerswhoareusingornotthelearnersupportsubsystem.Itshouldbenotedthatthetableischangedinarealtimeifalearnerentersorleavesthesystem.Also,whentheloginnameofalearnerinsidethetableisclicked,thedetailedinformationofthelearnerisdisplayedinthemainframe.ThisinformationincludesLoginname,ThelearnernameinJapaneseFurigana,Learneremailaddress,Learnerpresentlearningstate,Thestudyhistory.Ifalearnerhasproblemsduringthestudy,theteachercanusetheemailandWMtocommunicatewiththelearner.ByusingWM,itispossibletohavevoicechatorvideochat.Also,becausetheFAQandlearnersupportsubsystemarelinkedinthispage,theycanbereferrediftheyareneeded.TheBBcanbeusedbyteachertoexplainthecontentthatthelearnersdonotunderstand.2.3LearnersupportingsubsystemThelearnersupportingsubsystemisusedtohelpthelearnerswhentheyhaveproblemsduringthestudy.ThissubsystemincludesFAQ,BB,Thelistofpersonswhocancommunicatetogether.ThelearnercaninvestigatebyFAQwhetherthereareanswersofpreviousquestionsrelatedwiththecontentthatthelearnerisstudyingornot.Iftherearenotanswersaboutthepreviousquestions,thelearnerwaitsuntiltheanswerwillbeshownintheBB.IfthelearnerneedstheanswerinarealtimeheentersintheMemberList.Then,thepresentlearnercanselectamemberwhoansweredthequestionsintheprevioustestandcommunicatewithhimusingWM.InFig.6isshownthemainpageofthelearnersupportsubsystem.2.4InteractivefunctionsTheproposedsystemhasthefollowingcommunicationmodes.Communicationbetweenstudents.Communicationbetweenthestudentandteacherquestionmode.Communicationbetweentheteacherandstudentexplanation.Allthesecommunicationsaredoneinthesynchronousmode.However,byusingtheemailthesystemcanofferalsoasynchronousmodecommunication.Thus,theproposedsystemdifferentfromotherimplementedelearningsystemscansupportthelearnersandteacherstocommunicatewitheachotherinsynchronousandasynchronousmodes.3ProposedsystemevaluationmethodInordertoevaluatetheproposedsystem,weusedsomequestionnairesandaskedthelearnershowthesystemperformedandespeciallyhowthesystemstimulatedthelearnersmotivation.Fortheexperiment,tenstudentsandtwoprofessorsofourlaboratoryusedthesystemandthenwepreparedthreequestionnairesasshowninTables1,2and3.

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