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外文翻译使用 LEGO Mindstorms 机器人讲授机器人技术.doc

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外文翻译使用 LEGO Mindstorms 机器人讲授机器人技术.doc

英文资料TEACHINGROBOTICSUSINGLEGOMINDSTORMSANTHONYHIRST,JEFFREYJOHNSON,MARIANPETRE,BLAINEAPRICE,MIKERICHARDSDEPARTMENTSOFTELEMATICS,DESIGNANDINNOVATION,ANDCOMPUTINGTHEOPENUNIVERSITY,WALTONHALL,MILTONKEYNES,MK76AA,UKROBOFESTAOPENACUKABSTRACTWEAIMTOPRODUCEARANGEOFEDUCATIONALMATERIALSTOTEACHROBOTICSTOAVARIETYOFAUDIENCESUSINGTHELEGOMINDSTORMSROBOTICSINVENTIONSYSTEMTMWEBRIEFLYREVIEWTHEPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTSCURRENTLYAVAILABLEANDCONSIDERTHEIRAPPROPRIATENESSFOROURCANDIDATEAUDIENCESTHEREISTHEUSUALTRADEOFFBETWEENEASEOFUSEANDPOWERITISSUGGESTEDTHATNOSINGLEPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTISSUITABLEFORALLAUDIENCESINSTEAD,APROGRESSIONOFENVIRONMENTSFROMMICROWORLDS,THROUGHGRAPHICALPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTS,TOTEXTUALLANGUAGESSEEMSTOPROVIDETHEBESTWAYTODEVELOPOURTEACHINGINTHISPAPERWESYNTHESISEOURTHOUGHTS,ANDPRESENTTHEMFORCONSTRUCTIVECRITICISMBYTHEROBOTICSCOMMUNITY1INTRODUCTIONROBOTICSHASBEENSHOWNBYANUMBEROFRESEARCHERSTOBEMOTIVATINGANDBENEFICIALINTEACHINGSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYBEERETAL,1999WEBELIEVETHATROBOTSAREAPOWERFULWAYTOMOTIVATELEARNINGTHECONSTRUCTIONANDPROGRAMMINGOFROBOTSUSESAWIDERANGEOFSCIENTIFICANDENGINEERINGPRINCIPLES–KEYSKILLSINTHEMODERNTECHNOLOGICALECONOMYWASSERMAN,2002THISRANGEOFSKILLSNECESSITATESTEAMWORK,PLANNINGANDRECORDKEEPINGWHATARETHEBESTENVIRONMENTANDLANGUAGEFORTEACHINGROBOTICSUSINGLEGOMINDSTORMSGIVENTHEDEPTHANDBREADTHOFTHINGSTHATWEINTENDTOTEACHUSINGMINDSTORMS,FROMSIMPLEPROGRAMMINGTOENGINEERINGPRINCIPLESANDSIMULATION;ANDGIVENTHERANGEOFAUDIENCESWEINTENDTOSERVE,FROMYOUNGCHILDRENTOMATUREUNIVERSITYSTUDENTS,THELANGUAGEISSUEISBOTHCOMPLEXANDCRUCIALBECAUSETHELARGESCALEPRODUCTIONOFGOODQUALITYTEACHINGMATERIALSISEXPENSIVE,THEISSUEHASECONOMICASWELLASPEDAGOGICRAMIFICATIONSINTHISPAPER,WEARENOTCONCERNEDWITHTHEDIVISIONBETWEENENVIRONMENTANDLANGUAGE,ANDWEGIVEBOTHTHETERMSLANGUAGEANDENVIRONMENTAWIDEINTERPRETATIONFOREXAMPLE,WETREATADROPANDDRAGENVIRONMENTFORCREATINGCODEASA‘LANGUAGE’INTHESAMEWAYACONVENTIONALTEXTUALLANGUAGEWITHINANEDITINGENVIRONMENTTHISPAPERISASYNTHESISOFOURRESEARCHANDANALYSISTODATEWEDONOTATTEMPTTOGIVEADEFINITIVEANSWERTOTHEQUESTIONATTHISSTAGE,ANDWEINVITEREADERSTOCONTRIBUTETOTHEDISCOURSE2WHATAREWETEACHINGTOWHOMANDWHYTHEREISCURRENTLYAWIDESPREADAPPEALOFROBOTICSTOADULTSANDCHILDRENOFBOTHSEXESTHISISEVIDENTINTHESUCCESSOFTELEVISIONPROGRAMMESFEATURINGROBOTS,ANDTHEGROWINGNUMBEROFROBOTCOMPETITIONSWEHAVEBROADEDUCATIONALASPIRATIONS,ANDWOULDLIKETOHARNESSTHEINTERESTANDENTHUSIASMOFALLGROUPSINTHISAUDIENCEFORWIDEREDUCATIONALPURPOSESTHEPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTLANGUAGECHOICEMUSTACCOMMODATETHOSEWEARETEACHING,WHATWEARETRYINGTOTEACHTHEM,ANDOURDEEPEREDUCATIONALAIMSTHEBREADTHOFTHISLISTCOMPLICATESTHECHOICEOFENVIRONMENTANDLANGUAGEALTHOUGH,WEASSUMETHATSOMESTUDENTSWILLCOMMENCEOURCOURSESASNOVICESTOROBOTICS,THEASSUMPTIONSWECANMAKEABOUTEXISTINGSKILLS,SPEEDOFLEARNING,ANDAPPROPRIATECONCEPTUALLEVELWILLDIFFERAMONGGROUPSTHENEEDSOFNEWLYLITERATECHILDRENAREDIFFERENTFROMTHOSEOFHIGHLYLITERATEUNIVERSITYSTUDENTS,WHICHAREDIFFERENTAGAINFROMTHENEEDSOFMATURESTUDENTSRETURNINGTOEDUCATIONTHISSUGGESTSTHATTHEREISNOONEPERFECTPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTOURGOALMUSTBEPRAGMATICTOSERVEASMANYSTUDENTSASPOSSIBLEWHILEMAKINGTHEBESTUSEOFOURRESOURCES21WHATAREWETRYINGTOTEACHANDWHYOURPLANISTWOFOLDTOTEACHROBOTICSPERSE;TOUSEROBOTICSASASPRINGBOARDTOFURTHERTOMOTIVATELEARNINGROBOTICSITSELFISMULTIDISCIPLINARY,ENCOMPASSINGSUBJECTSSUCHASMECHANICALENGINEERING,ELECTRONICS,CONTROL,COMMUNICATION,VISION,REALTIMEPARALLELCOMPUTING,ANDSYSTEMSDESIGNALLTHESEARERELEVANTINOURTEACHINGROBOTICSISALSOAVEHICLEFORDEVELOPINGKEYSKILLSEG,TEAMWORK,CRITICALTHINKING,PLANNING,SCIENTIFICOBSERVATIONANDRECORDKEEPING;FORREINFORCINGSKILLSINELEMENTARYPHYSICS,MATHEMATICS,ANDNUMERACY;ANDFORINTRODUCINGADVANCEDCONCEPTSINSIMULATION,ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEAI,ANDCOGNITIONFURTHERMORE,ROBOTSRAISEPROFOUNDQUESTIONSABOUTOURRELATIONSHIPWITHADVANCEDTECHNOLOGIESANDTHEIRPOTENTIALTHATALLOWUSTOADDRESSETHICALANDSOCIALISSUESSURROUNDINGTECHNOLOGYUSE22USINGROBOTSTOBRIDGEBETWEENCONCEPTANDPRACTICETRADITIONALMETHODSOFTEACHINGCOMPUTINGTENDTOBEABSTRACT,ANDSTUDENTSOFTENHAVEDIFFICULTYREASONINGABOUTPROGRAMBEHAVIOURANDRECOGNISINGTHERELEVANCEOFTHEIRACTIVITIESTHETROUBLEISTHATGENERALPURPOSELANGUAGESARECOMPLEX,INORDERTOAFFORDNECESSARYRICHNESSTOTHEPROGRAMMERUNFORTUNATELYFORTHENOVICE,THISOFTENMEANS‘YOUNEEDTOKNOWALOTTODOALITTLE’MANYLANGUAGESREQUIRETHEUSERSTOTYPEINALARGEAMOUNTOFCODETOPRODUCERELATIVELYTRIVIALRESULTSEITHERSTUDENTSHAVETOLEARNTHESYNTAXBEFORETHEYCANWRITEANYPROGRAMSWHICHISFRUSTRATING,ORTHEYHAVETOENTERCODETHATISEFFECTIVELYMEANINGLESSTOTHEMANALTERNATIVEAPPROACHISTOUSEAGRAPHICALPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTPROGRAMMINGWITHROBOTSUSINGATAILOREDENVIRONMENTTHATPROVIDESTRONGVISUALCUESANDSUPPORTSSYNTACTICCORRECTNESSISCONCRETESTUDENTSPROGRAMTHINGSTHEYCANHANDLE,TOBEHAVEINWAYSTHEYCANOBSERVEINTHEPHYSICALWORLDISINCREMENTALISCREATIVEADMITSMANYSOLUTIONSALLOWSMANIPULATIONWITHINACONSTRAINEDCONTEXTPROVIDESIMMEDIATEFEEDBACKHASBEHAVIOURANDTHUSENCOURAGESANTHROPOMORPHISATIONUSESAVARIETYOFSKILLSALLOWSCOMPLETENOVICESTOCREATEINTERESTINGOUTCOMESEG,“GOCOLLECTATENNISBALL”RATHERTHAN“PRINT‘HELLO,WORLD’OUREXPERIENCESOFARISTHATPROGRAMMINGWITHROBOTSHELPSLEARNERSTOBRIDGEBETWEENCONCEPTANDPRACTICE–ANDTODERIVEPRINCIPLESFORTHEMSELVESFROMTHEIROWNEXPERIENCE23ROBOTSAREAPPEALINGTHEAPPEALOFROBOTSISEVIDENTINTHESUCCESSOFTELEVISIONPROGRAMMESFEATURINGROBOTS,SUCHASROBOTWARSANDTECHNOGAMESINTHEUK,THATATTRACTLARGEAUDIENCESACROSSAWIDERANGEOFAGESFOROVER75YEARSROBOTSHAVEBEENASTAPLEOFPOPULARCULTURERECENTFILMSSUCHSTEVENSPIELBERG’SAIHAVESTIMULATEDPOPULARDEBATEABOUTTHEPOTENTIALOFROBOTICS,ANDTHEDEBUTOFTHESONYAIBOHASATTRACTEDSUBSTANTIALMEDIAATTENTIONCOMPETITIONSINVOLVINGROBOTSAREPOPULARWITHPARTICIPANTSANDAUDIENCESALIKEROBOTSAREATTRACTIVETOADULTSANDCHILDRENOFBOTHSEXES3CHOOSINGAPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTOUREXPERIENCEINTEACHINGCOMPUTINGGRIFFITHSETAL,1999,WOODMANETAL,1998,ANDTHECURRENTTRENDSINSOFTWAREENGINEERINGANDAI,GIVEUSSOMEGENERALGUIDANCEINTERMSOFDESIRABLECHARACTERISTICSFORPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTS/LANGUAGESANOBJECTBASEDAPPROACHWOULDSUPPORTANDINTEGRATEWITHOUREXISTINGCURRICULUMANDISNOWCONSIDEREDTHEBASISOFSOUNDSOFTWAREENGINEERINGOBJECTORIENTEDPROGRAMMINGALSOMAKESITEASYTOREPRESENTANDPRESENTCOMPLEXBEHAVIOURSTONOVICESGRIFFITHSETAL,1999WEEMPHASISETHEIMPORTANCEOFPROVIDINGSOFTWARESUITABLEFORNOVICESANYPROGRAMMINGENVIRONMENTFORNOVICESMUSTBEROBUST–ITSHOULDBEHAVERELIABLYANDCONSISTENTLY,ANDITMUSTNOTCRASHERRORSIFTHEYAPPEARATALL,MUSTBEMEANINGFULTHEHUMANCOMPUTERINTERACTION,ENDUSERPROGRAMMING,ANDVISUALPROGRAMMINGLITERATURESGIVEUSSOMEGUIDANCEABOUTRELEVANTCONCEPTSINLANGUAGESELECTION,ASFOLLOWSTHESORTSOFCONCEPTSTHATCANBELEARNEDFROMSUCHANENVIRONMENTINCLUDETHATALGORITHMSCANBEUSEDTOSOLVEPROBLEMSTHATSOLUTIONSCANBEDECOMPOSEDINTORELATIVELYSMALLCOMPONENTSTHATMOSTTASKSCANBEACCOMPLISHEDBYUSINGSEQUENCE,ITERATION,CHOICEOBJECTCONCEPTSMICROWORLDSHAVEBEENUSEDONTHEENTRYLEVELOPENUNIVERSITYCOURSECOMPUTINGANOBJECTORIENTEDAPPROACHTOTEACHTHECONCEPTSBEHINDOBJECTORIENTEDOOTECHNOLOGYINANEARLYEXAMPLE,THESTUDENTSAREABLETOSENDMESSAGESTOANONSCREENFROGTELLINGITTOHOPLEFT,RIGHTANDUPANDDOWN,SETTINGITSCOLOUR,ANDSOONINLATERLESSONSTHEYCREATESUBCLASSESOFFROGSWITHSOMEINHERITEDPROPERTIESANDSOMENOVELPROPERTIESPARTICULARTOTHESUBCLASS31SIMULATIONSEPARATIONOFCONTROLLOGICFROMPHYSICALCONTROLSIMULATIONISAMETHODCOMMONPLACEINTHEFIELDOFAUTONOMOUSMOBILEROBOTSFORWORKINGOUTANDTESTINGCONTROLSTRATEGIESINISOLATIONFROMTHEPHYSICALSYSTEM

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