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外文翻译使用 LEGO Mindstorms 机器人讲授机器人技术.doc

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外文翻译使用 LEGO Mindstorms 机器人讲授机器人技术.doc

英文资料TeachingRoboticsUsingLegoMindStormsAnthonyHirst,JeffreyJohnson,MarianPetre,BlaineA.Price,MikeRichardsDepartmentsofTelematics,DesignandInnovation,andComputingTheOpenUniversity,WaltonHall,MiltonKeynes,MK76AA,UKrobofestaopen.ac.ukAbstractWeaimtoproducearangeofeducationalmaterialstoteachroboticstoavarietyofaudiencesusingtheLEGOMindstormsRoboticsInventionSystemTM.Webrieflyreviewtheprogrammingenvironmentscurrentlyavailableandconsidertheirappropriatenessforourcandidateaudiences.Thereistheusualtradeoffbetweeneaseofuseandpower.Itissuggestedthatnosingleprogrammingenvironmentissuitableforallaudiences.Instead,aprogressionofenvironmentsfrommicroworlds,throughgraphicalprogrammingenvironments,totextuallanguagesseemstoprovidethebestwaytodevelopourteaching.Inthispaperwesynthesiseourthoughts,andpresentthemforconstructivecriticismbytheroboticscommunity.1.IntroductionRoboticshasbeenshownbyanumberofresearcherstobemotivatingandbeneficialinteachingscienceandtechnologyBeeretal.,1999.Webelievethatrobotsareapowerfulwaytomotivatelearning.Theconstructionandprogrammingofrobotsusesawiderangeofscientificandengineeringprinciples–keyskillsinthemoderntechnologicaleconomyWasserman,2002.Thisrangeofskillsnecessitatesteamwork,planningandrecordkeeping.WhatarethebestenvironmentandlanguageforteachingroboticsusingLegoMindStormsGiventhedepthandbreadthofthingsthatweintendtoteachusingMindStorms,fromsimpleprogrammingtoengineeringprinciplesandsimulationandgiventherangeofaudiencesweintendtoserve,fromyoungchildrentomatureuniversitystudents,thelanguageissueisbothcomplexandcrucial.Becausethelargescaleproductionofgoodqualityteachingmaterialsisexpensive,theissuehaseconomicaswellaspedagogicramifications.Inthispaper,wearenotconcernedwiththedivisionbetweenenvironmentandlanguage,andwegiveboththetermslanguageandenvironmentawideinterpretation.Forexample,wetreatadropanddragenvironmentforcreatingcodeasalanguageinthesamewayaconventionaltextuallanguagewithinaneditingenvironment.Thispaperisasynthesisofourresearchandanalysistodate.Wedonotattempttogiveadefinitiveanswertothequestionatthisstage,andweinvitereaderstocontributetothediscourse.2.WhatareweteachingtowhomandwhyThereiscurrentlyawidespreadappealofroboticstoadultsandchildrenofbothsexes.Thisisevidentinthesuccessoftelevisionprogrammesfeaturingrobots,andthegrowingnumberofrobotcompetitions.Wehavebroadeducationalaspirations,andwouldliketoharnesstheinterestandenthusiasmofallgroupsinthisaudienceforwidereducationalpurposes.Theprogrammingenvironmentlanguagechoicemustaccommodatethoseweareteaching,whatwearetryingtoteachthem,andourdeepereducationalaims.Thebreadthofthislistcomplicatesthechoiceofenvironmentandlanguage.Although,weassumethatsomestudentswillcommenceourcoursesasnovicestorobotics,theassumptionswecanmakeaboutexistingskills,speedoflearning,andappropriateconceptuallevelwilldifferamonggroups.Theneedsofnewlyliteratechildrenaredifferentfromthoseofhighlyliterateuniversitystudents,whicharedifferentagainfromtheneedsofmaturestudentsreturningtoeducation.Thissuggeststhatthereisnooneperfectprogrammingenvironment.Ourgoalmustbepragmatictoserveasmanystudentsaspossiblewhilemakingthebestuseofourresources.2.1WhatarewetryingtoteachandwhyOurplanistwofoldtoteachroboticspersetouseroboticsasaspringboardtofurthertomotivatelearning.Roboticsitselfismultidisciplinary,encompassingsubjectssuchasmechanicalengineering,electronics,control,communication,vision,realtimeparallelcomputing,andsystemsdesign.Allthesearerelevantinourteaching.Roboticsisalsoavehiclefordevelopingkeyskillse.g.,teamwork,criticalthinking,planning,scientificobservationandrecordkeepingforreinforcingskillsinelementaryphysics,mathematics,andnumeracyandforintroducingadvancedconceptsinsimulation,ArtificialIntelligenceAI,andcognition.Furthermore,robotsraiseprofoundquestionsaboutourrelationshipwithadvancedtechnologiesandtheirpotentialthatallowustoaddressethicalandsocialissuessurroundingtechnologyuse.2.2UsingrobotstobridgebetweenconceptandpracticeTraditionalmethodsofteachingcomputingtendtobeabstract,andstudentsoftenhavedifficultyreasoningaboutprogrambehaviourandrecognisingtherelevanceoftheiractivities.Thetroubleisthatgeneralpurposelanguagesarecomplex,inordertoaffordnecessaryrichnesstotheprogrammer.Unfortunatelyforthenovice,thisoftenmeansyouneedtoknowalottodoalittle.Manylanguagesrequiretheuserstotypeinalargeamountofcodetoproducerelativelytrivialresults.Eitherstudentshavetolearnthesyntaxbeforetheycanwriteanyprogramswhichisfrustrating,ortheyhavetoentercodethatiseffectivelymeaninglesstothem.Analternativeapproachistouseagraphicalprogrammingenvironment.Programmingwithrobotsusingatailoredenvironmentthatprovidestrongvisualcuesandsupportssyntacticcorrectnessisconcretestudentsprogramthingstheycanhandle,tobehaveinwaystheycanobserveinthephysicalworldisincrementaliscreativeadmitsmanysolutionsallowsmanipulationwithinaconstrainedcontextprovidesimmediatefeedbackhasbehaviourandthusencouragesanthropomorphisationusesavarietyofskillsallowscompletenovicestocreateinterestingoutcomese.g.,gocollectatennisballratherthanprintHello,world.Ourexperiencesofaristhatprogrammingwithrobotshelpslearnerstobridgebetweenconceptandpractice–andtoderiveprinciplesforthemselvesfromtheirownexperience.2.3RobotsareappealingTheappealofrobotsisevidentinthesuccessoftelevisionprogrammesfeaturingrobots,suchasRobotWarsandTechnoGamesintheUK,thatattractlargeaudiencesacrossawiderangeofages.Forover75yearsrobotshavebeenastapleofpopularculture.RecentfilmssuchStevenSpielbergsA.I.havestimulatedpopulardebateaboutthepotentialofrobotics,andthedebutoftheSonyAIBOhasattractedsubstantialmediaattention.Competitionsinvolvingrobotsarepopularwithparticipantsandaudiencesalike.Robotsareattractivetoadultsandchildrenofbothsexes.3.ChoosingaprogrammingenvironmentOurexperienceinteachingcomputingGriffithsetal.,1999,Woodmanetal.,1998,andthecurrenttrendsinsoftwareengineeringandAI,giveussomegeneralguidanceintermsofdesirablecharacteristicsforprogrammingenvironments/languages.Anobjectbasedapproachwouldsupportandintegratewithourexistingcurriculumandisnowconsideredthebasisofsoundsoftwareengineering.ObjectOrientedprogrammingalsomakesiteasytorepresentandpresentcomplexbehaviourstonovicesGriffithsetal.,1999.Weemphasisetheimportanceofprovidingsoftwaresuitablefornovices.Anyprogrammingenvironmentfornovicesmustberobust–itshouldbehavereliablyandconsistently,anditmustnotcrash.Errorsiftheyappearatall,mustbemeaningful.Thehumancomputerinteraction,enduserprogramming,andvisualprogrammingliteraturesgiveussomeguidanceaboutrelevantconceptsinlanguageselection,asfollows.Thesortsofconceptsthatcanbelearnedfromsuchanenvironmentincludethatalgorithmscanbeusedtosolveproblemsthatsolutionscanbedecomposedintorelativelysmallcomponentsthatmosttaskscanbeaccomplishedbyusingsequence,iteration,choiceobjectconceptsMicroworldshavebeenusedontheentrylevelOpenUniversitycourseComputingAnObjectOrientedApproachtoteachtheconceptsbehindobjectorientedOOtechnology.Inanearlyexample,thestudentsareabletosendmessagestoanonscreenfrogtellingittohopleft,rightandupanddown,settingitscolour,andsoon.Inlaterlessonstheycreatesubclassesoffrogswithsomeinheritedpropertiesandsomenovelpropertiesparticulartothesubclass.3.1SimulationseparationofcontrollogicfromphysicalcontrolSimulationisamethodcommonplaceinthefieldofautonomousmobilerobotsforworkingoutandtestingcontrolstrategiesinisolationfromthephysicalsystem.

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