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外文翻译原文-一种对应隧道掘进机的测量黏土附着量的方法.pdf

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外文翻译原文-一种对应隧道掘进机的测量黏土附着量的方法.pdf

ORIGINALPAPERAMETHODFORASSESSINGADHESIONOFCLAYSTOTUNNELINGMACHINESISASSUBURBAUMRECEIVED21DECEMBER2007/ACCEPTED23AUGUST2008/PUBLISHEDONLINE31OCTOBER2008C211SPRINGERVERLAG2008ABSTRACTTUNNELBORINGMACHINESPASSINGTHROUGHCOHESIVESOILSSOMETIMESEXPERIENCESIGNIFICANTCLOGGING,LEADINGTODELAYSANDINCREASEDCOSTSTHEPAPERDESCRIBESATESTTOASSESSTHELIKELIHOODOFADHESIONPROBLEMSOCCURRING,SIMULATINGTHESITUATIONWHEREACLAYSTICKSTOTHECUTTINGWHEELOFTHEMACHINETHERESULTSOFTESTSUSINGKAOLINCLAYSUGGESTTHATTHEADHESIONCHANGESWITHTHECOMPRESSIONFORCEFURTHERSTUDIESAREBEINGUNDERTAKENTOELUCIDATETHEFACTORSWHICHINFLUENCETHIS,INCLUDINGCLAYMINERALOGYANDROUGHNESSOFTHEFACEOFTHECUTTINGWHEELITISHOPEDTHATTHEWORKWILLLEADTOANINDUSTRIALSTANDARDMETHODOFASSESSINGADHESIONWHICHCANBEUSEDINSITEINVESTIGATIONANDONSITEKEYWORDSADHESIONC1CLAYC1SURFACEEFFECTSC1BOUNDARYLAYEREFFECTSC1TUNNELINGC1SOILMECHANICSRESUMELESTUNNELIERSTRAVERSANTDESSOLSCOHESIFSSONTPARFOISSUJETSABLOCAGE,CONDUISANTADESRETARDSETAUGMENTATIONSDECOUˆTSL’ARTICLEDECRITUNTESTPERMETTANTD’EVALUERLESRISQUESD’ENCRASSAGE,SIMULANTLASITUATIONOUUNEARGILECOLLEAUMOLETTEDECOUPEDELAMACHINELESRESULTATSDUTESTEFFECTUEAVECUNEARGILEKAOLINIQUESUGGERENTQUEL’ADHERENCECHANGEAVECL’EFFORTDECOMPRESSIONDENOUVELLESETUDESSONTENTREPRISESPOURIDENTIFIERLESFACTEURSRESPONSABLES,INCLUANTLANATUREMINERALOGIQUEDEL’ARGILEETLARUGOSITEDUMOLETTEDECOUPEONESPEREQUELETRAVAILREALISECONDUIRAALADEFINITIOND’UNESSAINORMALISEPERMETTANTD’EVALUERL’ADHERENCED’UNSOLARGILEUXETPOUVANTEˆTREMISENŒUVRELORSDERECONNAISSANCESDESTERRAINSETSURCHANTIERMOTSCLESADHERENCEC1ARGILEC1EFFETSDESURFACEC1EFFETSDECOUCHELIMITEC1TUNNELIERC1MECANIQUEDESSOLSINTRODUCTIONINUNDERGROUNDCONSTRUCTION,THEADHERENCEOFCLAYSTOTHESTEELSURFACESOFMACHINERYMAYSIGNIFICANTLYREDUCETHEMACHINE’SEFFICIENCYORINDEEDRESULTINATOTALLOSSOFCAPACITYRECENTLY,THISPROBLEMOCCURREDINSOMETUNNELINGPROJECTSDRIVENBYAHYDROSHIELDTBMJANCZECZ1997;THEWES1999FIGURE1SHOWSTHECUTTINGWHEELOFATUNNELBORINGMACHINENEARLYCOMPLETELYCLOGGEDWITHCLAYEYSOILWHENSUCHCLOGGINGOCCURS,THETUNNELDRIVINGPROCESSHASTOBESTOPPEDTOALLOWCLEANINGOFTHECUTTINGWHEELAND/OREXTRACTIONCHAMBER,WITHCONSEQUENTIALDELAYSANDIMPACTONTHEBUDGETITISTHEREFOREIMPORTANTTHATTHEADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFTHESOILSAREDETAILEDINTHEGEOTECHNICALSURVEYREPORTTOPROVIDEBOTHQUALITATIVEANDQUANTITATIVEINFORMATIONTHESEPHENOMENAHAVEBEENINVESTIGATEDSINCE1838INTHEEARLYDAYS,SUCHAGRICULTURALWORKASTILLINGENCOUNTEREDPROBLEMSWITHSTICKYCOHESIVESOILSTHEFIRSTRESEARCHSTUDIESFORTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRYWEREREPORTEDINTHE1960SWHILESYSTEMATICRESEARCHONTHEADHESIONOFSOILSRELATEDTOTUNNELINGHASBEENUNDERTAKENSINCETHELATE1990SDESPITETHIS,THEINTERACTIONOFSOILANDTHESTEELSURFACEISSTILLNOTVERYCLEARAVARIETYOFSOILADHESIONTESTMETHODSANDTESTCONDITIONSWEREDEVELOPEDANDINVESTIGATEDBUTTODATETHEREISNOCOMMONLYACCEPTEDTESTMETHODTOESTABLISHTHEADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFSOILSFUTURETUNNELPROJECTSARELIKELYTOBEUNDERTAKENMOREANDMOREINDIFFICULTADHESIVESOILCONDITIONS,THUSITISISASSC1UBURBAUMTECHNISCHEUNIVERSITATDARMSTADT,SCHNITTSPAHNSTRAE9,64287DARMSTADT,GERMANYEMAILSASSGEOTUDARMSTADTDEUBURBAUMEMAILBURBAUMGEOTUDARMSTADTDE123BULLENGGEOLENVIRON20096827–34DOI101007/S1006400801786IMPORTANTTHATTHEREISANAGREEDINDUSTRIALSTANDARDTESTMETHODWHICHPROVIDESQUALITATIVEANDQUANTITATIVEINFORMATIONABOUTTHEADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFTHESOILWHICHCANBEUSEDBYSITEINVESTIGATION,TENDERINGANDCONSTRUCTIONCONTRACTORSASWELLASFORBUDGETPLANNINGADHESIONOFSOILSADHESIONOCCURSONLYINCOHESIVESOILSWITHSOME10–20MINIMUMCLAYMINERALCONTENT,DEPENDINGONTHESOILTHEADHESIONOFCOHESIVESOILSTOSOLIDSURFACESISFOUNDTOBEDEPENDENTONAWATERFILMINSIDETHESOIL–SOLIDINTERFACEANDCANBEUNDERSTOODASABOUNDARYLAYEREFFECTTHEINTERACTIONBETWEENTHISWATERFILMINTHEINTERFACE,THEWATERCONTENT,THEPOREWATERPRESSURE,THEWATERABSORPTION,THESWELLINGCAPACITY,TENSILESTRENGTH,CAPILLARYFORCESANDOTHERPHYSICALPROPERTIESOFTHESOILANDTHEADHESIONFORCESASWELLASTHEEFFECTSOFTHESTEELSURFACEPROPERTIES,THEWAYINWHICHTHETBMOPERATESANDTHEBORINGSLURRYQUALITYARENOTWELLUNDERSTOODFIG2THEWES1999SUGGESTEDAPHYSICALSOILMODELTOEXPLAINTHEADHESIVEEFFECTBETWEENSOILANDASTEELSURFACETHEPAPERPROPOSESATESTWHICHMAYASSISTINABETTERUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEPHYSICALPROCESSESOFADHESIONCHARACTERISTICSOFASOILADHESIONTESTMETHODALABORATORYSOILADHESIONTESTMETHODAPPROPRIATEASANINDUSTRIALSTANDARDINCONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRIESSHOULDINCLUDEAPRECISELYDEFINEDPARAMETERS;BHIGHRESOLUTIONMEASUREMENT;CHIGHREPRODUCIBILITYINSTANDARDGEOTECHNICALLABORATORIES;DEASYANDQUICKTOPERFORMINGENERALSOILTESTINGLABORATORIES;ESIMPLETESTEQUIPMENT,APPROPRIATEFORSITEUSEFSIMPLETESTPROCEDURE;GTHEUSEOFOTHERESTABLISHEDSTANDARDTESTINGMETHODS,IFPOSSIBLE;HREFERENCETOSTANDARDIZEDSOILPARAMETERSTHETESTMETHODHASTOBEACCEPTABLETOTHEMAINTESTINGINSTITUTIONSASMANYFUTUREPROJECTSWITHADHESIONPROBLEMSMAYBEEXPECTEDWORLDWIDEFORTHISREASON,THETESTEQUIPMENTANDPROCEDURESHOULDBEASSIMPLEASPOSSIBLEANDSHOULDREFERTO/INCLUDEOTHERWELLESTABLISHEDSTANDARDTESTINGMETHODSANDSOILPARAMETERSPRINCIPLESOFSOILADHESIONTESTINGTHREEMAINPRINCIPLESFORTHETESTINGOFTHEBONDINGFORCESBETWEENTWOMATERIALSAREROUTINELYUSEDHABENICHT2006PEELING,SHEARINGANDDIRECTTENSIONPEELINGTESTSAREOFINTERESTFORTHELOOSENINGOFSOILSINEXCAVATIONS,TRENCHING,ETCSHEARTESTSWOULDLEADTORESULTSWHICHINTERFEREWITHTHERESULTSOFTHESHEARSTRENGTHTESTWHICHISTYPICALLYUSEDINSOILMECHANICSITWOULDTHENNOTBEPOSSIBLETODISTINGUISHSHEARSTRENGTHFROMADHESIONFORCEFURTHERMORE,THESTRESSCONDITIONSOFSHEARTESTSMAKETHELOCATIONOFTHESHEARPLANEVERYUNDEFINEDITISLIKELYTHATTHEMATHEMATICALINTERPRETATIONOFSOILTESTSWITHTHESHEARPRINCIPLEWOULDPRODUCEMISLEADINGRESULTSWITHADIRECTTENSIONTESTSIMILARTOANINVERSEUNCONFINEDCOMPRESSIONTESTTHEMATERIALSARESEPARATEDBYFORCESNORMALTOTHEIRSURFACESFORAMONOAXIALLAYOUTOFTHETESTFIG1CUTTINGWHEELOFATBMNEARLYCOMPLETELYCLOGGEDWITHCLAY,SYDNEYAIRPORTRAILLINK,PHOTOCOPYRIGHTFABOUYGUESADHESIONSOILTOSTEELSURFACESOILSURFACE/HANDLINGMANNERGRAINSIZEDISTRIBUTIONMINERALOGICALCOMPOSITIONWATERCONTENTPOROSITYCATIONEXCHANGECAPACITYSPECIFICSURFACEWATERABSORPTIONCAPACITYSWELLINGCAPACITYCONTENTOFSWELLABLECLAYMINERALSPLASTICITYCONSISTENCYCOHESIONANDTENSILESTRENGTHSURFACEROUGHNESSWETTINGOFSURFACEFORCESONSOILPARTICLESPRESSUREFORCESSOILSURFACECONTACTDURATIONSOILSURFACESLURRYPROPERTIESFIG2EFFECTSONADHESION28ISASS,UBURBAUM123THEMAXIMUMTENSIONFORCEINSEPARATINGSOILFROMSTEELISTHEADHESIONFORCEORADHESIONSTRENGTHTHESTRESSSTATEINTHISCASEISVERYWELLDEFINEDANDSIMPLYINTERPRETEDTOCARRYTHISPRINCIPLEOVERINTOTHEFIELDOFSOILMECHANICS,ASOLIDMATERIALHASTOBEPRESSEDONASOILSURFACEANDPULLEDAWAYTHISTESTPRINCIPLEISALREADYUSEDFORSOILADHESIONTESTINGSCHACHBASIAN1890;RIEK1963;SCHLICK1989;FOUNTAINE1954;THEWES1999THEWES1999RECOMMENDEDTHISASANINDUSTRIALSTANDARDTESTINGMETHODONEMAJORPROBLEMWITHTHISTESTPRINCIPLEISTODISTINGUISHADHESIONSTRENGTHINTHEMATERIAL’SINTERFACEFROMTENSILESTRENGTHINTHESOILIFTHERUPTUREISNOTATTHEINTERFACEBETWEENTHESTEELANDTHESOILBUTINSIDETHESOILITSELF,THEADHESIONSTRENGTHISHIGHERTHANTHETENSILESTRENGTHOFTHESOILANDHENCECANNOTBEMEASUREDONLYIFTHEREISNOSOILLEFTONTHESOLIDSURFACECANTHEADHESIONBEMEASUREDADHESIONTESTADHESIONTESTEQUIPMENTTHESUGGESTEDADHESIONTESTDEVICECONSISTSOFASTEELSAMPLERINGOF90CMDIAMETERANDAHEIGHTOF49CM,WHICHISHELDBETWEENABASEPLATEANDAHEADPLATEFIGS3,4THESOILSAMPLEISPLACEDINTOTHERINGUNDERDEFINEDCONDITIONS,EGWATERCONTENT,COMPACTION,COAGULATEDORSINGLEGRAINED,ETCA62CMDIAMETERADHESIONTESTCYLINDERISUSEDASTHESURFACETOWHICHTHESOILADHERESTHECROSSSECTIONSURFACEAREAOFTHECYLINDERIS302CM2THISTESTARRANGEMENTCANBEUSEDFORVARIOUSMATERIALS,EGMETAL,CERAMICS,PLASTICS,ETCADHESIONTESTPROCEDUREFOLLOWINGSOMEPRELIMINARYINVESTIGATIONSTOESTABLISHTHEBESTPRACTICEFORINSTALLINGTHECOHESIVESOILSAMPLESINTHESOILSAMPLERINGHUG2007;HEMPEL2008,ITWASFOUNDTHATTHESOILISBESTPLACEDINTHREELAYERS,COMPACTEDASINTHESTANDARDPROCTORTESTUSINGTHE25KGRAMMERAFTERCOMPACTION,THESURFACEOFTHESOILISCAREFULLYLEVELLED/SMOOTHEDANDTHESAMPLEPLACEDINTHECOMPRESSIONANDTENSIONTESTINGMACHINEFIG5WITHTHEADHESIONTESTCYLINDERTHETESTPROCEDUREISASFOLLOWSTHESOILSURFACEISWETTEDWITHDEIONIZEDWATERITISESSENTIALTOUSEDEIONIZEDWATERTOAVOIDUNCONTROLLEDEVAPORATIONANDTOPRODUCEANADHESIONFILMBETWEENTHESTEELOFTHECYLINDERANDTHESOILTHEWATERISDEIONIZEDTOAVOIDUNDEFINEDIONFIG3ADHESIONTESTDEVICE,CROSSSECTIONS11AND22FIG4ADHESIONTESTRIGTHEMEASUREMENTOFADHESIVEPROPERTIESOFCOHESIVESOILS29123EXCHANGEINTHECLAYFRACTIONOFTHESOILSAMPLE,ALTHOUGHINTHEORYTHISTESTCANBECARRIEDOUTWITHOTHERFLUIDS,EGTUNNELBORINGORDRILLINGFLUIDSTHEADHESIONTESTCYLINDERISTHENPRESSEDVERTICALLYONTOTHEWETTEDSOILSURFACE,USINGACONTROLLEDFORCEWHICHSHOULDBEMAINTAINEDFORASPECIFICPERIODOFTIMETHEADHESIONTESTCYLINDERISTHENPULLEDAWAY,WHILECAREFULLYMONITORINGTHEFORCEANDVELOCITYMEASUREMENTSANDINTERPRETATIONOFTESTRESULTSTOINTERPRETTHETESTRESULTS,THEMEASUREMENTSRECORDEDDURINGTHETENSIONPHASESAREPLOTTEDONAFORCE–TIMEDIAGRAMFIG6THEDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHEMAXIMUMTENSILEFORCEANDTHEABSCISSAIFTHEDEADWEIGHTOFTHEADHESIONTESTCYLINDERISINCORPORATEDINTHETESTPROGRAMPROVIDESTHEADHESIONFORCEORTHETENSILEFORCEOFTHESOILSAMPLEIFTHEFAILUREISOBSERVEDINTHESOILITSELFTOCOMPARETHERESULTSWITHTHOSEREPORTEDBYOTHERAUTHORS,THEFORCESWERECONVERTEDTOSTRESSESBYDIVIDINGTHEFORCESBYTHEAREAOFSURFACEOFTHEADHESIONTESTCYLINDERSURFACETOVALIDATETHETESTMETHOD,ASERIESOFADHESIONTESTSWEREUNDERTAKENONINDUSTRIAL,HOMOGENEOUSCLAYSINEACHCASE,ONLYONETESTPARAMETEREGCONSISTENCYWASVARIEDWITHTHEOTHERSPARAMETERSKEPTTHESAMESYSTEMTESTSTHEFIRSTTESTSERIESWERECARRIEDOUTTOCHECKTHEOPERATIONOFTHEADHESIONTESTDEVICEANADHESIONTESTCYLINDERWITHAROUGHNESSOF01LMWASPUTONANOTHERADHESIONTESTCYLINDEROFTHESAMEROUGHNESSTHESURFACEOFTHEADHESIONTESTCYLINDERWASWETTEDWITHPUREWATERFIGURE7SHOWSTHETESTSTATEJUSTBEFORETHETWOCYLINDERSARECONNECTEDANDJUSTBEFORETHEWATERFILMINTHEINTERFACEISSEPARATEDFROMONECYLINDERTHEMEASUREDSTRESSTIMERELATIONSHIPISSHOWNINFIG8THEMEASUREDADHESIONSTRESSESWEREBETWEEN53AND49KN/M2WITHANAVERAGEVALUEOF51KN/M2ANDASTANDARDDEVIATIONOF013KN/M2EQUALTO27OFTHEAVERAGEVALUETHESERESULTSSHOWTHATADHESIONSTRESSOCCURSWHENAWATERFILMISPRESENTANDITCANBEMEASUREDVERYPRECISELYADHESIONTESTSONCLAYTESTCLAYTHETESTEDCLAYWASINDUSTRIALPOWDEREDKAOLINOFMEDIUMPLASTICITYWITHACLAYGRADECONTENTOFCIRCA50THEFIG5ADHESIONTESTRIGWITHSOILSAMPLEINACOMPRESSIONANDTENSIONTESTINGMACHINETENSIONMAXIMUMTENSILEFORCEDEAD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