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外文翻译水溶性粘结剂高弯曲模注塑粉.doc

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外文翻译水溶性粘结剂高弯曲模注塑粉.doc

附录WATERSOLUBLEBINDERWITHHIGHFLEXURALMODULUSFORPOWDERINJECTIONMOLDINGMINSEOKSONG,MINSOOPARK,JINKONKIM∗NATIONALCREATIVERESEARCHINITIATIVECENTERFORBLOCKCOPOLYMERSELFASSEMBLYANDDEPARTMENTOFCHEMICALENGINEERING,ELECTRONICANDCOMPUTERENGINEERINGDIVISIONS,POHANGUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,KYUNGBUK790784,KOREAILBUMCHO,KYUNGHOKIM,HWANJINSUNG,SANGHOAHNRESEARCHINSTITUTEOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,POHANG,KYUNGBUK790784,KOREAEMAILJKKIMPOSTECHACKRANEWBINDERSYSTEM,CONTAININGTERNARYPOLYMERBLENDSOFPOLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATEPMMA,CELLULOSEACETATEBUTYRATECABANDPOLYETHYLENEGLYCOLPEG,WASINTRODUCEDFORTHEPOWDERINJECTIONMOLDINGOFSTAINLESSSTEELPOWDERSTHEWEIGHTFRACTIONOFPEGINTHEBINDERWASMAINTAINEDTOBE065WHENTHEWEIGHTFRACTIONOFPMMAINTHEBINDERWAS01–025THUSTHEWEIGHTFRACTIONOFCABWAS01–025,THEFEEDSTOCKSWITH56VOLOFSTEELPOWDERSWERESUCCESSFULLYINJECTIONMOLDEDWITHOUTSHOWINGANYJETTINGFURTHERMORE,THEFEEDSTOCKSHAVEMUCHHIGHERFLEXURALMODULUSCOMPAREDWITHTHOSEPREPAREDBYABINDERCONSISTINGONLY35/65WT/WTCAB/PEGBLENDTHREEBINARYBLENDS,PMMA/CAB,PMMA/PEG,ANDCAB/PEG,WERECOMPLETELYMISCIBLEATANINJECTIONMOLDINGTEMPERATUREOF130◦CTHEEXTRACTIONPROCESSEMPLOYEDINTHISSTUDYBECOMESENVIRONMENTALLYFAVORABLEDUETOTHEMAJORCOMPONENTPEGOFTHEBINDERWHICHISEASILYEXTRACTEDBYASOLVENTOFWATERORETHANOLALSO,THESHAPEMAINTENANCEDURINGTHESOLVENTEXTRACTIONWASEXCELLENT,ANDFINALSINTEREDPARTSHADEXCELLENTDIMENSIONALSTABILITYDUETOHIGHFLEXURALMODULUSOFFEEDSTOCKS,THISBINDERSYSTEMCANBEEMPLOYEDFORPREPARINGLARGESIZEDINJECTIONMOLDARTICLES_C2005SPRINGERSCIENCEBUSINESSMEDIA,INC1INTRODUCTIONPOWDERINJECTIONMOLDINGPIMPROCESSINGOFMETALSORCERAMICSHASBEENEMPLOYEDTODEVELOPTINYANDSOPHISTICATEDMETALORCERAMICPARTS,ANDITISAVERYECONOMICPROCESSCOMPAREDWITHACASTINGANDAMACHINING1,2AMONGTHEMANYSTEPSINTHEPIM,THESUITABLECHOICEOFABINDERBECOMESCRUCIALTODETERMINETHEMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFTHEFINALPRODUCTWAXBASEDBINDERSCONTAININGABACKBONEMATERIALOFPOLYETHYLENEORAPOLYETHYLENERANVINYLACETATEHAVEBEEN\\WIDELYUSEDINTHEPOWDERINJECTIONMOLDINGINDUSTRIES3,4HOWEVER,ORGANICSOLVENTSUCHASHEXANEANDHEPTANE,WHICHISNOTANENVIRONMENTALLYFAVORABLESOLVENT,SHOULDBEUSEDTOEXTRACTTHEWAXTOAVOIDUSINGHEXANEORHEPTANEDURINGTHEEXTRACTION,EFFORTSHAVEBEENFOCUSEDONFINDINGNEWTYPESOFBINDERSTHATWOULDBEREMOVEDBYANENVIRONMENTALLYFAVOREDSOLVENTSUCHASWATER5–11DAVIESANDCOWORKERS7,8INTRODUCEDAPOLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE/POLYETHYLENEGLYCOLPMMA/PEGBINDERSYSTEMFORSTAINLESSSTEELPOWDERSALTHOUGHAVERYHIGHMOLECULARWEIGHT∼1,000,000OFPMMAWASUSED,THEBINDERWASMIXEDWITHSTEELPOWDERINTHEPRESENCEOFWATER,BECAUSEWATERISASOLVENTOFLOWERMOLECULARWEIGHT1500PEGANDANEMULSIONMEDIUMOFPMMAHOWEVER,WITHOUTUSINGEMULSIONCONTAININGWATERFORPMMAPARTICLES,ABINDERCONSISTINGOFPMMAANDPEGMIGHTNOTBEMIXEDEFFECTIVELYWITHSTEELPOWDERSPREVIOUSLY,WEINTRODUCEDAWATERSOLUBLEBINDERCONSISTINGOFCELLULOSEACETATEBUTYRATECABANDVARIOUSMOLECULARWEIGHTSOFPEGWEFOUNDTHATTHECRYSTALLIZATIONOFPEGDEPENDINGUPONTHEMOLECULARWEIGHTAFFECTEDPROFOUNDLYTHESHAPEMAINTENANCEDURINGSOLVENTEXTRACTION12,13NAMELY,WHENTHEMOLECULARWEIGHTOFPEGWASLARGERTHAN3400,CRACKSWEREFOUNDINGREENPARTSAFTERTHESOLVENTEXTRACTIONALTHOUGHBINDERSOFCAB/PEGWITHMOLECULARWEIGHTLESSTHAN2000COULDBEINJECTIONMOLDED,JETTINGRESULTINGFROMLOWVISCOSITYOFPEGWASSOMETIMESOBSERVEDALSO,MECHANICALPROPERTIESSUCHASFLEXURALSTRENGTHOFGREENPARTSAREPOOR,WHICHRESTRICTSONETOMAKINGLARGESIZEDINJECTIONMOLDEDARTICLESINORDERTOOVERCOMETHESEDISADVANTAGES,WEADDEDPMMATOCABASTHEBACKBONEMATERIALTHERATIONALBEHINDCHOOSINGPMMAISTHATIPMMAISMISCIBLEWITHBOTHCABANDPEGATAPROCESSINGTEMPERATUREOF130◦C;IIITSHOWSGOODADHESIONWITHMETALPOWDERDUETOHAVINGAPOLARGROUP,WHICHPREVENTSBINDERSEPARATIONDURINGINJECTIONMOLDING;ANDIIIITPROVIDESGOODMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFGREENPARTSWECOULDUSEHIGHERMOLECULARWEIGHTOFPEGUPTO8,000WHENPMMAWASEMPLOYEDABINDERCONSISTINGOFPMMA/CAB/PEGTERNARYBLENDSEXHIBITEDHIGHERFLEXURALMODULUSANDSUITABLERHEOLOGICALPROPERTIESFORINJECTIONMOLDING;THUSALARGESIZEDINJECTIONMOLDEDARTICLEWASSUCCESSFULLYPREPAREDALSO,WEOBSERVEDTHATTHESHAPEMAINTENANCEDURINGTHEEXTRACTIONWASEXCELLENT,ANDFINALSINTEREDPARTSHADEXCELLENTDIMENSIONALSTABILITY2EXPERIMENTAL21MATERIALSPMMAWASALSOKINDLYSUPPLIEDBYLGMMACO,ANDTHEMOLECULARWEIGHTANDPOLYDISPERSITYOFPMMAWEREDETERMINEDBYUSINGGELPERMEATIONCHROMATOGRAPHYWATERSCOWITHPMMASTANDARDSCABWITH54MOLBUTYRATESIDEGROUPWASPURCHASEDFROMACROSCOANDPEGWITHDIFFERENTMOLECULARWEIGHTSWASKINDLYSUPPLIEDBYKOREAPOLYOLCOKOREATHEMOLECULARCHARACTERISTICSOFTHESEMATERIALSAREGIVENINTABLEICABANDPMMAAREAMORPHOUSMATERIALSWITHAGLASSTRANSITIONTEMPERATUREOF94◦CAND100◦C,RESPECTIVELY,MEASUREDBYDSCPERKINELMERDSC7SERIESATAHEATINGRATEOF20◦C/MINTHEMETALLICPOWDERWASSTAINLESSSTEEL174PH,MITSUBISHISTEELMFGCOHAVINGIRREGULARSHAPEANDAMEDIANPARTICLESIZEOF886ΜM22SAMPLEPREPARATIONANDRHEOLOGICALPROPERTIESTHEFEEDSTOCK,AMIXTUREOFTHEBINDERANDMETALLICPOWDER,WASFIRSTPREPAREDBYMIXINGAT130◦CFOR1HBYUSINGTHEKNEADINGBLADETYPEMIXERIKAVISCCO;THENITWASSHAPEDINTOARECTANGULARBAR7022712357MMLWTBYUSINGA180TONPRECISIONINJECTIONMOLDINGMACHINESODICKPLUSTECHCO;JAPANAT130◦CANDMOLDTEMPERATUREOF25◦CANADVANCEDRHEOMETRICSEXPANSIONSYSTEMARESUSINGTHEDYNAMICOSCILLATORYMODEWITHPARALLELPLATEFIXTURE25MMDIAMETERWASUSEDTOMEASURETHEVISCOSITYOFTHEBINDERITSELFTHESTRAINAMPLITUDEWAS5,WHICHLIESINLINEARVISCOELASTICITYRANGETABLEIMOLECULARCHARACTERISTICSOFBLENDCOMPONENTSEMPLOYEDINTHISSTUDYMNPOLYDISPERSITYINDEXTGORTM◦CPMMA63000147TG100CAB11,00023TG94PEG11,500115TM43PEG22,000110TM50PEG33,350114TM54PEG88,000116TM5623TURBIDITYEXPERIMENTOFPMMA/CABBLENDVARIOUSBLENDCOMPOSITIONSOFPMMAANDCABFORTURBIDITYTEMPERATURETBMEASUREMENTWEREPREPAREDBYDISSOLVINGAPREDETERMINEDAMOUNTOFTHEMIXTUREINTOLUENE10WTANDSLOWLYEVAPORATINGTHESOLVENTOVER8HATROOMTEMPERATURETHESAMPLETHICKNESSWAS10ΜMEACHSPECIMENWASANNEALEDINTHEHOMOGENEOUSSTATE∼120◦CFOR4HTHETBOFEACHCOMPOSITIONWASMEASUREDFROMTHESUDDENINCREASEINLIGHTSCATTERINGINTENSITYATASCATTERINGANGLEOF30◦UPONHEATINGTHEMIXTUREFROM120◦CATARATEOF01◦C/MINONCETHETBOFASPECIMENWASESTIMATED,THEEXACTTBWASDETERMINEDBYTHENAKEDEYEUPONATEMPERATUREINCREMENTBY05◦CNEARTHETEMPERATUREOFINTERESTTHESPECIMENWASHELDATEACHTEMPERATUREFOR1HTHEMAXIMUMERRORINTHEVALUESOFTBDETERMINEDWAS05◦C24DEBINDINGANDSINTERINGTWOSTEPSOFDEBINDINGOFGREENPARTSWERECONDUCTEDTHEFIRSTSTEPWASTOEXTRACTPEGOUTOFGREENPARTSBYDISTILLEDWATERATROOMTEMPERATUREFOR24HTHESECONDSTEPWASREFERREDTOASTHETHERMALDEBINDING,WHERETHEBACKBONESCOMPOSEDOFPMMAANDCABWERECOMPLETELYREMOVEDANDPRESINTERINGOFMETALPOWDERSOCCURREDFINALLYTHESINTERINGOFMETALPOWDERSWASCARRIEDOUTTHERMALDEBINDINGANDSINTERINGWERECARRIEDOUTINATUBETYPEFURNACELENTONTHERMALDESIGNLTDUNDERHYDROGENATMOSPHEREBYUSINGTHESAMETHERMALHISTORYASREF123RESULTSANDDISCUSSION31MISCIBILITYBETWEENBINDERCOMPONENTSTHEBINDEREMPLOYEDINPIMHASAMULTICOMPONENTSYSTEMAABACKBONEPOLYMERTHATPROVIDESSHAPEMAINTENANCEDURINGSOLVENTEXTRACTION;BANEXTRACTABLEPOLYMERTHATISREMOVEDDURINGTHEFIRSTSTEPOFTHEDEBINDINGPROCESS,ANDCASURFACTANTTOBRIDGEBETWEENTHEBINDERANDPOWDER1ITISNECESSARYTHATALLCOMPONENTSSHOULDBEMISCIBLEATPROCESSINGTEMPERATURESOTHERWISE,THEBINDERCOMPONENTSBECOMEMACROPHASESEPARATEDPREVIOUSLY,WESHOWEDTHATABINARYBLENDOFCAB/PEGHAVINGAMOLECULARWEIGHTMOF35000SHOWEDLOWERCRITICALSOLUTIONTEMPERATURELCSTOF168◦C13SINCEMOFPEGEMPLOYEDINTHISSTUDYISLESSTHAN8000,WEFOUNDTHATTHECAB/PEGMIXTUREDOESNOTBECOMEPHASESEPARATEDUPTO250◦CTHEPMMA/PEGBLENDBECOMESCOMPLETELYMISCIBLEATTEMPERATURESGREATERTHANTHEMELTINGTEMPERATUREOFPEG14FIG1GIVESTHEPHASEBEHAVIOROFTHEPMMA/CABBLEND,FROMWHICHTHELCSTWAS142◦CAT20/80W/WPMMA/CABCOMPOSITIONTHUS,WECONCLUDETHATMACROPHASESEPARATIONAMONGALLTHREEBINARYBLENDSPMMA/PEG,CAB/PEG,ANDPMMA/CABBLENDSDOESNOTOCCURATAPROCESSINGTEMPERATUREOF130◦C,WHICHISTHEMIXINGANDINJECTIONMOLDINGTEMPERATURESALSO,WHENTHEAMOUNTOFPMMAWASCHANGEDFROM15TO25WTATAFIXEDAMOUNTOFPEG65WT,NOTURBIDITYWASDETECTEDUPTO200◦CFIGURE1PHASEDIAGRAMSOFPMMA/CABBLEND32RHEOLOGICALPROPERTIESITISKNOWNTHATFEEDSTOCKSSHOULDHAVEALOWENOUGHVISCOSITYTOBEPROCESSEDBYINJECTIONMOLDINGHOWEVER,WHENTHEVISCOSITYBECOMESTOOSMALL,JETTINGOCCURSDURINGTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGPROCESS;THUSTHEEXACTSHAPEOFMOLDEDARTICLEISIMPOSSIBLEFIG2GIVESTHECOMPLEXVISCOSITYΗASAFUNCTIONOFFREQUENCYFORTHEBINDERSCOMPOSEDOFVARIOUSCOMPOSITIONSOFPMMA/CAB/PEGSWITHTWODIFFERENTMOLECULARWEIGHTSOFPEGSITSHOWSTHATASTHECONTENTOFPMMAANDMOFPEGINCREASE,THEVISCOSITYBECOMESLARGERWHENTHEBINDERSDONOTCONTAINCAB,ABINDERCONSISTINGOF35/65WT/WTPMMA/PEGHASZEROSHEARVISCOSITYΗOOF100PAS,REGARDLESSOFMOLECULARWEIGHTSOFPEGITISKNOWNTHATWHENΗOOFABINDERISLARGERTHAN∼20PAS,THEFEEDSTOCKSINCLUDINGHIGHVOLUMEOFPOWDERSCOULDNOTBEMOLDEDBYINJECTIONMOLDING1THEREFORE,ITISCONSIDEREDTHATFEEDSTOCKSCONSISTINGOF15/20/65AND25/10/65WT/WT/WTPMMA/CAB/PEG8BINDERAND56VOLOFSTEELPOWDERSCOULDBEINJECTIONMOLDED

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