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外文资料--An interchange format for cross-media personalized publishing.pdf

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外文资料--An interchange format for cross-media personalized publishing.pdf

ComputerNetworks332000179–195www.elsevier.com/locate/comnetAninterchangeformatforcrossmediapersonalizedpublishingPatrickvanAmstel,PimvanderEijk,EvertHaasdijk,DavidKuilmanCapGeminiNederlandBV,Daltonlaan400,P.O.Box2575,3500GNUtrecht,NetherlandsAbstractWebsitesarerapidlybecomingthemediumofchoiceforonetoonemarketing,communicationandcommerce.Manycommercialsolutionsinthisareahavethefollowingdrawbackstheyforcecompaniestoimplementsystemswithinasingleframeworkthatishighlyvendorspecificandthatdoesnotallowthemtoreusecontentforothermedia.Inthispaper,weintroduceiDoc,asimpleXMLinterchangeformatforcontentlevelconditionalizationbasedonavariantoftheMILPRF87269standardforclassesIV–VIETMs.ThisformatcanserveasintegrationformatinmultivendorCRMsolutionsandoffersconsistentcrossmediapublishingtomultiplelowerleveldeliverychannelssuchasdirectmail,ASP,JSP,andWML.Personalizationisdeterminedbypropertiesthatcanbeboundtointelligentexternalsystemsanddetermineddynamically.AsashowcaseforiDoc,wehavedevelopedademonstratorofanonlinewineshop,whereiDocservestotransportinformationbetweenadatabaseofproductdescriptionsandgeneratedASPpages.TheWebsiteishighlydynamic,asitsbehavioriscontrolledbypropertiesthatarerecomputedusingpredictivemodelsgeneratedbytheOMEGApredictivedataminingPDMsystem.TheuseofiDocallowscontenttoberapidlyretargetedtowardsotherWebdeliveryplatforms,suchasJSP,directmailormobileInternet.2000PublishedbyElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsCustomerrelationshipmanagementCRMElectroniccommerceExtensiblemarkuplanguageXMLInteractiveelectronictechnicalmanualsIETMPersonalizationPredictivedataminingPDM1.IntroductionCustomerrelationshipmanagementCRMconcernsacquiring,establishingandretainingamutualbusinessrelationshipbasedonknowledgethecompanyhasacquiredfromcustomerbehavior,preferencesandresponse.Couplingknowledgeofcompanyprocessestotheinsightofcustomerbehaviorisakeyfactorforestablishingeffectivecommunication,transactionandprocessingofcustomersessions.Knowing,onthebasisofdataminingtechniquesandpredictivemodeling,howacustomerwantstobetreatedandwhattriggersinterest,isanCorrespondingauthor.Emailpim.vander.eijkcapgemini.nlimportantingredientofCRM.Makingconnectionstobackofficesalesstrategiesandcontentrepositoriescompletestheopportunitytobuildatrueonetooneexperiencewiththecustomer.TheWorldWideWebisrapidlybecomingamediumofchoicetoachievepersonalizedmarketingandcommerce.Withinacompany,onetoonecommunicationaffectsmanydepartmentsandisbeingaddressedatmanyorganizationallevels,rangingfromstrategicsales,marketinganalysisanddecisionmakingdowntoimplementingtheirimplicationsforbackendinformationsystemsandfrontendWebengineering.ArangeofcommercialproductsarepositionedasframeworksfordevelopmentofonetooneWeb13891286/00/–seefrontmatter2000PublishedbyElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.PIIS1389128600000499180P.vanAmsteletal./ComputerNetworks332000179–195communicationsolutions.InSection3,wewillprovideabriefoverviewofthetechnicalapproachsharedbysomeoftheseproducts,andwillarguethattheyhaveseveralimportantdrawbacks.Reachingtheusersoftomorrowwillnotonlyberestrictedtothemeansweknowtoday,butmorelikelytodifferentmediathatwillbeusedtransparentlyinthesituationtheuserisin.Onecouldarguethatcommunicationwillbedrivenbytherequirementsofthecustomer,notbythemeansofcommunication.Ideally,informationinterchangewilladapttotheneedsoftheuser,evenifthepersonisnotevenawareofthisfact.Asanattempttoprovideforthisconcept,wehavedevelopediDoc,anXMLbasedformatthatencodesasnapshotofacompanysportfolioandmarketingstrategy.iDocisheavilybasedonapproachesdevelopedforinteractiveelectronictechnicalmanualsIETM,asdiscussedinSection4.Incontrasttoexistingapproaches,iDocisneitheramarketingdatamanagementsolutionnoradeliveryformatbutaninterchangeformat.DeliveryformatslikeMicrosoftActiveServerPagesASPorJavaServerpagesJSPcanbegeneratedinfullyautomaticfashion,thusofferingsignificantflexibilityindeploymentoptionsatpotentiallylowercost.AsanXMLbasedinterchangeformat,iDocoffersasimpleinterfacetointegrateinformationsystems.Finally,iDocofferssimpleintegrationtointelligentexternalcustomermodelingsystems.Asaparticularlyrelevantexampleofthis,wediscusstheOMEGApredictivedataminingsystem9,whichcanbeusedtogenerateintelligentmodelsforcustomerbehavior.TodemonstratethecapabilitiesofiDoc,wehavedevelopedasampleEcommercesitethatdemonstratesonlinepersonalizedwineselling.InSection5,wewilldiscussthemotivationofthisshowcase,anddiscusshowiDoccontentisgeneratedfromawineproductdatabase,transformedtoASPusinganiDoccompiler,andcombinedwithOMEGAderivedmodelstoofferintelligentpersonalization.2.CRMandcontentmanagementKeytoprovidetheconditionsnecessarytomeetthehighanddiversedemandsweareputtingoninformation,iscontrol.ContentmanagementCMisoftenmentionedinthiscontexttoscopethefunctionaldomainofmanaginginformationinchunksorcomponents,irrespectiveofitspurposeoruseinalaterITlifecycle.BridgingthegapbetweencustomerexpectationandbusinessresponsetoindividualneedsandcircumstancescanonlybeproperlyaddressedwiththefollowingprerequisitescontentmanagementsystemenablingcontrolonarbitraryfinegrainedinformationunitsCMuserprofilingthroughrealtimefeedbackandofflinefeedbacke.g.throughpredictivedataminingdefiningbusinessrulesthatcapturesupplyanddemandmechanismse.g.acustomerprofilewillmatchifaproducthastherightpricingmodelinguserinteractioninaframeworkthatmakesprofiling,couplingofbusinessrulesandcontentcollationpossibleinaconsistentmanner.Whatisneededisthecapabilitytoautomatetheprocessofcollectingandcollatinginformationfromalltheoperationalsystemsthatmanageinteractionwiththecustomer,suchasfrontofficesalesautomationsystems,callcentersincludingtelesalesandtelemarketing,orderprocessing,customersupport,shipping,etc.Astandardtodefinetherelationshipsandenableinterchangebetweensystemsisofparamountimportance.XMLseemslikethemostlikelycontendertoaddressthisneed3.AcontentmanagementsystembasedonXMLofferstheenvironmenttomaintaininformationcomponentsonanarbitraryfinegrainedlevelthatmakesaddressing,queryingandretrievalofcomponentspossibletofusewithbusinessrules.DynamicsanduserdrivencommunicationcanbefurtherextendedwiththeuseofpredictivedataminingPDM.ResultsofinteractionareconstantlyupdatedthroughtheCRMlifecycleknowing,targeting,sellinganddesigningandarestoredorroutedtobusinesslogicrules.OnecanarguethatmodelingofbusinessrulesandcontentmatteronthecomponentlevelconstitutestherequiredbusinessintelligenceandtechnologicalbasisforCRM.Thispaperwillarguethatitisnecessarytoencodebothbusinessrules,objects,logicandcontentinoneplatformindependentformatXML.Fig.1showshowonetoonemarketingisenabledbyacquiringP.vanAmsteletal./ComputerNetworks332000179–195181Fig.1.Prerequisitesforonetoonemarketing.knowledgeaboutcustomersandmanagingcontentascomponents,thatcanbeassembledaccordingtotheprofileoftheindividualcustomer.3.CurrentapproachesSystemsthatareengineeredtoestablishaonetoonerelationwithcustomersareusuallybasedonapplicationareassuchastheWeb,callcenters,directmail,etc.ThetypeofmediadictatesthemixofingredientsandunderlyingarchitectureusedwithintheCRMsystem.Databasesareusedforstoringcustomerprofiles,dataminingtechniquesareappliedtodetectpatternsincustomerbehavior,filteringtechniquesforinformationdisseminationandscriptinglanguagestoconnectdifferentinformationsources.Therearealsomoremonolithicsystemsthatattempttodoallormostofthesethings.Whatislackingisaconsistentapproachthatisindependentofapplicationarea,andcanbetransposedinmultipleapplicationenvironmentssuchastheWeb,WAPanddirectmailsimultaneously.3.1.ScopeofpersonalizedpublishingAnumberofpersonalizationtechniquescanbeusedandrelatedtobusinesslogicrules.Thesetechniqueshavevaryingeffectivenessdependingonsituationandpurposeinmind.Thefollowinglistgivesanideaofpossiblepersonalizationtechniquesrulesbasedmatchingclubmembers,frequentvisitors,Goldcardowners,etc.matchingagentsestablishedprofilecanbematchedwithotherprofilesdisplayingsimilarpurchasingbehaviorfeedbackandlearningfieldsofinterestcommunityratingsothershelpdefinegoodfrombadattributesearchesallbookswithreducedpricesfulltextsearchcollaborativefilteringfeedbackonproductsandservicesdefinesgroupsofindividualswithsimilarinterests.Encodingtheabovetechniquescanbeachievedinmanyways,usuallybasedondedicatedapplicationsoftwareworkingoncontentfragmentsthatsupplytransformedandconvertedcontentelementsonthefly.Withinthecontextofthisdiscussion,wehave182P.vanAmsteletal./ComputerNetworks332000179–195decidedtohandlethesetechniquesasexternalproceduresthatconveyvaluestothecorevariableswithinaniDocseeSection4.5.3.2.WeborientedsystemsTodaysWeborientedsystemsaretoolsthatextendfunctionalityofWebserverapplications.SitemanagementsystemsoffertheinterfacebetweenserverbasedrepositoriestocontrolledclientWebdelivery.Dependingonthelevelofsophisticationofthetool,sitedevelopersareabletobuildserversideapplicationsthatrespondtoclientbehaviorandimplementthecallingoftheseremoteproceduresfromclientWebpages.ASPandJSPtechnologiesarewidelyusedtoencodeintelligencewithinWebpagestodeliverapersonalizedexperience.ToolslikeBroadVisionOnetoOne8andVignetteStoryServerareexamplesofcommercialproductsbasedonthisconcept.TheapproachbothapplicationsshareistheseparationofbusinessrulesandcontentandtheinvocationoftheserulesfromWebpages.Fig.2givesanexampleofsuchcodeembeddedinaWebpage.SomeCDsyoumightwanttocheckoutArtistTitleLabel0{varxforx0xResponse.writeitem.getARTISTResponse.writeitem.getLABEL}}else{Response.writeNocontentavailable}Fig.2.ExampleofBroadVisioninvocationofabusinessruleforpersonalizedmusicadvice.Businessrulesareencodedasmethodsthatuserelationaltabledefinitionsasparameters.Usually,aGUIgeneratesacreationscript,asshowninFig.3.ThesuppliedscriptinglanguagecanmanipulateobjectsthathavebeendefinedintheBusinessManagerworkbench.Theseobjectsareuserdefinedentitiesthatmaptodatabaserecordsandfields.Settingbusinessrulesonbusinessobjectsishandledinaproprietaryfashionconstraintsaredefineddescribingboundariesthatdeterminedeliveredcontenttotheuserorcommunity.MatchingagentsusetherulesorsetsofrulestofillHTMLtemplatesforonetoonepublishing.AgentsareimplementedasserversidemethodsthatareinvokedfromfunctioncallsthatresideinWebtemplates.Withintemplates,ASPscriptingorJSPiscommonlyusedforarithmeticfunctionsanditerationonstoredobjects.Directaccesstoservicesontheservermakesthisapproachveryefficientbutalsoverydependentontheimplementationofthedataandapplicationlayers.Twoseeminglydistinctsetsofinformation,businessrulesandcontentcomponents,arestilltied

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