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外文资料--Evaluation of an Authentic Examination System (AES).pdf

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外文资料--Evaluation of an Authentic Examination System (AES).pdf

EVALUATIONOFANAUTHENTICEXAMINATIONSYSTEMAESFORPROGRAMMINGCOURSESTORBJRNJONSSON,POURIALOGHMANIANDSIMINNADJMTEHRANIDEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERANDINFORMATIONSCIENCELINKPINGUNIVERSITY,SWEDEN{TORJO,POULO,SIMIN}IDALIUSEABSTRACTTHISPAPERDESCRIBESOUREXPERIENCEWITHANAUTHENTICEXAMINATIONSYSTEMFORPROGRAMMINGCOURSESWEBRIEFLYDESCRIBETHEARCHITECTUREOFTHESYSTEM,ANDPRESENTRESULTSOFEVALUATINGTHESYSTEMINREALEXAMINATIONSITUATIONSSOMEOFTHEFACTORSSTUDIEDINDETAILARETHEONLINEINTERACTIONSBETWEENTHESTUDENTSANDEXAMINERS,THERESPONSETIMESANDTHEIREFFECTSONTHEPRESSUREEXPERIENCEDBYSTUDENT,THEACCEPTANCEOFTHEMETHODAMONGTHESTUDENTS,ANDWHETHERTHEEXAMINATIONFORMISGENDERNEUTRALINTRODUCTIONASEXPERIENCEDTEACHERSINPROGRAMMINGCOURSESWEHAVENOTICEDTHEDRAWBACKSINTHETRADITIONALEXAMINATIONFORMUSEDINPROGRAMMINGCOURSESTHESTUDENTSLEARNTOPROGRAMVIALABORATORYEXERCISES,BUTTHEFINALEVALUATIONOFTHEIRABILITIESANDTHEGRADINGOFTHEEXAMINATIONAREINAFORMTHATUSESPAPERANDPENINSTEADOFCOMPUTERSCONSIDERINGTHATTHESTUDENTWILLNEVERUSETHISMODEFORPRODUCINGAPROGRAMTHROUGHTHEPROFESSIONALLIFE,WECONSIDERTHISTOBENOTASUITABLEMETHODATTHEDEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERSCIENCEATLINKPINGUNIVERSITY12FUNDAMENTALPROGRAMMINGCOURSESFORAPPROXIMATELY1000STUDENTSINDIFFERENTEDUCATIONALPROGRAMSARETAUGHTANNUALLYTHISPAPERDEALSWITHANEWPEDAGOGICALVIEWINTHESEPROGRAMMINGCOURSES,WHICHCANBEAPPLIEDTOANYPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGE,TYPEOFSTUDENTANDEDUCATIONALPROGRAMTHEIDEAISBASEDONEXTENSIVESTUDIESAROUNDDIFFERENTEXAMINATIONFORMS,WHEREINDIVIDUALGRADING,EFFICIENTANDUSEFULFEEDBACKANDTHEAUTHENTICITYOFTHEEXAMINATIONFORMAREUSEDASBASICCRITERIAFORTHECHOICEOFEXAMINATIONMETHODWEBELIEVETHATTHECHOICEOFMETHODTOGETHERWITHTHEADDEDEFFICIENCYINTHEASSESSMENTPROCESSIMPROVESTHEQUALITYOFOURSTUDYPROGRAMMESINPARTICULAR,WEBELIEVETHATITWILLCHANGETHEEXAMINATIONPROCESSFROMASUMMATIVETOANORMATIVEASSESSMENTOCCASION1FORANUMBEROFYEARSWEHAVEEXPERIMENTEDWITHTESTINGTHESTUDENTSVIACOMPUTERAIDEDEXAMINATIONSINSOMEPILOTCOURSES–ANAUTHENTICEXAMINATIONFORMFORTHISTYPEOFCOURSEHOWEVER,THISEXAMINATIONFORMHASNOTBECOMEMOREWIDESPREADDUETOINSUFFICIENTSUPPORTFORTHECOMPUTERENVIRONMENTNECESSARYFORTHISKINDOFEXAMINATIONDURINGTHEPASTYEARANEWAUTHENTICEXAMINATIONSYSTEMAESHASBEENDEVELOPED,WHEREALLTHESTUDENTSANDTHEEXAMININGTEACHERSARECONNECTEDTOTHESAMESYSTEMTHEPROCESS,INCLUDINGCOMMUNICATIONANDGRADING,ISSUPPORTEDBYTHISENVIRONMENTINTHISPAPERWEDESCRIBETHEEXAMINATIONSYSTEMANDOURINITIALEVALUATIONSOFTHISSYSTEMINANUMBEROFRELATIVELYLARGEEXAMINATIONSESSIONSTHECOURSESINQUESTIONCOVEREDPROGRAMMINGINADAANDWERETAKENBYFIRSTANDSECONDYEARSTUDENTSDURINGTHEPASTYEARWEHAVEEVALUATEDTHEAESTHEINSTRUMENTSUSEDFORTHEEVALUATIONCONSISTEDOFQUESTIONNAIRESFILLEDBY231STUDENTSOVERAPERIODOF3MONTHSAND4EXAMINATIONSTHEPAPERISORGANISEDASFOLLOWSINSECTION1WEDESCRIBEWHYTHETYPEOFEXAMINATIONWEPROPOSEISTHEMOSTAPPROPRIATEFORPROGRAMMINGCOURSESANDCOMPARETOSOMERELATEDSYSTEMSSECTION2INCLUDESABRIEFTECHNICALDESCRIPTIONOFTHEEXAMINATIONSYSTEMS,INCLUDINGITSARCHITECTURALDESIGNINSECTION3WEDESCRIBEHOWTHECOMPUTERSYSTEM,THATMANAGESTHEEXAMINATIONPROCESSONLINE,HASTOBEAUGMENTEDBYRULESSETUPINEACHPARTICULARCOURSESECTION4COVERSOUREVALUATIONMETHODSANDISFOLLOWEDBYEVALUATIONRESULTSINSECTION5SECTION6CONCLUDESTHEPAPER1EXAMINATIONFORMSEVERYEXAMINATIONMETHODHASSPECIFICCHARACTERISTICSTHATMAKEITMOREORLESSAPPROPRIATETOAPARTICULARCOURSESETTINGHKANOSWALDSSONSTUDIEDTHERANGEOFPOSSIBLEEXAMINATIONFORMSFORATYPICALPROGRAMMINGCOURSEPRIORTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHECURRENTEXAMINATIONSYSTEMINOURDEPARTMENT5WHILESEVERALMODESOFEXAMINATIONCANBECONSIDEREDASEFFECTIVEMEANSFORENHANCEDLEARNINGEGHOMEASSIGNMENTS,ORALEXAMINATIONSFOLLOWINGADESIGNASSIGNMENT,ETC,THEREARENOTMANYEXAMINATIONTYPESTHATCOMBINETHENEEDFORASUMMATIVEASSESSMENT,WITHADEQUATEFEEDBACKTOINDUCELEARNINGCOMBINEDWITHTHELARGENUMBEROFSTUDENTSTHATWEARECURRENTLYTEACHING,DESIGNOFANIDEALEXAMINATIONSETTINGISATRULYCHALLENGINGTASKTHEWORKBYDAWSONHOWEISANEARLYATTEMPTTOBRINGCOMPUTERSUPPORTINTOTHEPROCESSOFPROGRAMMINGASSIGNMENTEVALUATIONANDADMINISTRATION2THENEEDFORAUTOMATEDEXAMINATIONSYSTEMSHASBECOMEMOREPERTINENTDURINGTHELATE90’SWITHTHEADVENTOFDISTANCEANDLIFELONGLEARNINGFOREXAMPLE,ATTHEOPENUNIVERSITYINUKTHEREHAVEBEENATTEMPTSTOEXCHANGESTUDENTASSIGNMENTS,ANDTHEIRSUBSEQUENTCORRECTIONANDASSESSMENTBYEXAMINERSVIAMSWORDDOCUMENTS8HOWEVER,THEAVAILABLEREPORTSEGTHEWORKBYPRICEANDPETRECONCENTRATEONTHEEASEOFADMINISTRATIONFORCOURSEASSIGNMENTANDGRADING,RATHERTHANTHEPEDAGOGICALFEEDBACKINANONLINEAUTHENTICEXAMINATIONINRECENTYEARSSEVERALAUTHORSREPORTONAUTOMATICASSESSMENTSYSTEMS,MOSTLYCONCENTRATINGONPRESENTATIONOFTHETECHNICALASPECTSOFTHESYSTEMANDTHERESULTSOFTHESTUDENTSINTERMSOFGRADING4,5,7,8WHILEWESHARETHEASPIRATIONOFTHESERESEARCHTEAMSANDCONDUCTSIMILARSTUDIES,OURFOCUSHASBEENONTHEFORMALEVALUATIONOFHOWTHESTUDENTSPERCEIVEDTHEEXAMINATIONENVIRONMENTINADDITIONWEHAVESTUDIEDHOWTHEYWEREAFFECTEDBYFACTORSSPECIFICTOAUTHENTICEXAMINATIONS,HOWTHESYSTEMPERFORMANCEANDTHEEXAMINERS’ONLINEBEHAVIOURAFFECTSTHEPERCEIVEDLOADONTHESTUDENT,ANDOTHERSUCHASPECTS2TECHNICALDESCRIPTIONOFTHEAESAESHASBEENDEVELOPEDUSINGTHEJ2EEPLATFORMTHISREPRESENTSASINGLESTANDARDFORIMPLEMENTINGANDDEPLOYINGCOMPLEXENTERPRISEAPPLICATIONSHAVINGBEENDESIGNEDTHROUGHANOPENPROCESS,J2EEMEETSAWIDERANGEOFENTERPRISEAPPLICATIONREQUIREMENTS,INCLUDINGDISTRIBUTIONSPECIFICMECHANISMSSUCHASMESSAGINGSYSTEM,SCALABILITYANDMODULARITYTHECLIENTSAREBASEDONTHEMODELVIEWCONTROLLERMVCAPPLICATIONARCHITECTURE,WHICHSEPARATESTHREEDISTINCTFORMSOFFUNCTIONALITYWITHINTHEAPPLICATIONTHEMODELREPRESENTSTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEDATAINTHEAPPLICATION,ASWELLASAPPLICATIONSPECIFICOPERATIONONDATATHEVIEWACCESSESDATAFROMTHEMODELANDSPECIFIESHOWTHATDATASHOULDBEPRESENTEDVIEWSINTHEAESCONSISTOFSTANDALONEAPPLICATIONSTHATPROVIDEVIEWFUNCTIONALITYTHECONTROLLERTRANSLATESUSERACTIONSONTHEMODELANDSELECTSTHEAPPROPRIATEVIEWBASEDONUSERPREFERENCESTHEAESISDESIGNEDASASETOFLOOSELYCOUPLEDMODULES,WHICHARETIGHTLYCOUPLEDINTERNALLYGROUPINGFUNCTIONALITYINTOMODULESPROVIDESINTEGRATIONBETWEENCLASSESTHATCOOPERATE,YETDECOUPLESCLASSESTHATREFERTOEACHOTHEROCCASIONALLYMODULARDESIGNSUPPORTSTHEDESIGNGOALTHATSOFTWAREWILLBEREUSABLEEACHMODULEHASANINTERFACETHATDEFINESTHEMODULESFUNCTIONALREQUIREMENTSANDPROVIDESAPLACEWHERELATERCOMPONENTSMAYBEINTEGRATEDTHEAESINCLUDESMODULESFORSTUDENTACCOUNTSTEACHERACCOUNTSEXAMSEXAMINATIONPROCESSINGMESSAGINGSTATISTICSTHEAESDESIGNISDIVIDEDINTOMULTIPLETIERSTHECLIENTTIER,THEMIDDLETIERCONSISTINGOFONEORMORESUBTIERS,ANDTHEBACKENDTIERSEEFIGURE21PARTITIONINGTHEDESIGNINTOTIERSALLOWSUSTOCHOOSETHEAPPROPRIATETECHNOLOGYFORAGIVENSITUATIONMULTIPLETECHNOLOGIESCANEVENBEUSEDTOPROVIDETHESAMESERVICEINDIFFERENTSITUATIONSFOREXAMPLE,HTMLPAGES,JSPPAGES,ANDSTANDALONEAPPLICATIONSCANALLBEUSEDINTHECLIENTTIEREACHOFTHETHREETIERSPLAYSASPECIFICROLEINTHEDESIGNTHECLIENTTIERISRESPONSIBLEFORPRESENTINGDATATOTHEUSER,INTERACTINGWITHTHEUSER,ANDCOMMUNICATINGWITHTHEOTHERTIERSOFTHESYSTEMINTHISCASETHECLIENTTIERISTHEONLYPARTOFTHESYSTEMVISIBLETOTHEUSERTHEAESCLIENTTIERCONSISTSMAINLYOFASTANDALONEAPPLICATIONTHATCOMMUNICATESWITHTHEOTHERTIERSTHROUGHWELLDEFINEDINTERFACESAMESSAGEORIENTEDAPPROACHBASEDONJMSJAVAMESSAGINGSYSTEMHASBEENCHOSENTOTAKECAREOFTHECOMMUNICATIONBETWEENTHECLIENTTIERANDTHEMIDDLETIERTHEMIDDLETIERISRESPONSIBLEFORANYPROCESSINGINVOLVINGENTERPRISEJAVABEANSENTERPRISEJAVABEANSARESOFTWARECOMPONENTSTHATEXTENDSERVERSTOPERFORMAPPLICATIONSPECIFICFUNCTIONALITYTHEINTERFACEBETWEENTHESECOMPONENTSANDTHEIRCONTAINERSISDEFINEDINTHEENTERPRISEJAVABEANSSPECIFICATIONTHECONTAINERSPROVIDESERVICESTOTHEENTERPRISEJAVABEANSINSTANCESTHEYCONTAIN,SUCHASCONTROLLINGTRANSACTIONS,MANAGINGSECURITY,THREADOROTHERRESOURCEPOOLING,ANDHANDLINGPERSISTENCE,AMONGOTHERHIGHLEVELSYSTEMTASKSTHEBACKENDTIERISTHESYSTEMINFORMATIONINFRASTRUCTURETHISTIERINCLUDESONEORMORERELATIONALDATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMSANDPOTENTIALLYOTHERINFORMATIONASSETSTHATCOULDBEUSEFUL,EGTHECENTRALUNIVERSITYCOURSERESULTSADMINISTRATIONSYSTEMLADOKTHEEISTIERALSOENFORCESSECURITYANDOFFERSSCALABILITYTHEBACKENDTIERPROVIDESALAYEROFSOFTWARETHATMAPSEXISTINGDATAANDMIDDLETIERJNDIJAVANAMINGANDDIRECTORYINTERFACEBACKENDTIERCLIENTTIEREJBCONTAINERENTERPRISEBEANSMESSAGEDRIVENBEANSJMSJAVAMESSAGINGSERVICECLIENTSTANDALONESWINGAPPLICATIONRDBMSFIGURE21THEAESDESIGNAPPLICATIONRESOURCESINTOTHEDESIGNOFAESINANIMPLEMENTATIONNEUTRALWAYTHESYSTEMISSEPARATEDINTOFIVEDIFFERENTFUNCTIONALLAYERS,EACHWITHITSOWNRESPONSIBILITIESANDITSOWNAPITHESELAYERSAREPHYSICALLYSPLITACROSSTHETHREEDIFFERENTTIERSTHEPERSISTENCELAYER,FOREXAMPLE,PROVIDESTHEMECHANISMSNECESSARYTOPERMANENTLYSAVEOBJECTSTATEITPROVIDESBASICCRUDCREATE,READ,UPDATE,DELETESERVICESANDALSODEALSWITHTHEOBJECTTORELATIONALMAPPINGISSUESTHISLEADSTOAMOREFLEXIBLEANDMAINTAINABLESYSTEM,EGLAYERSCANBECHANGEDWITHNOEFFECTONOTHERLAYERS,ASLONGASTHEAPIREMAINSCONSTANT3EXAMINATIONSETUPTHEEXAMINATIONSYSTEMISONLYONEPARTOFTHEEXAMINATIONPROCESSTHESECONDPARTISTHESETUPTHERULESWEHAVEFORTHESTUDENTSWEHAVETRIEDAFEWSETUPSOVERANUMBEROFYEARSUSINGAPROTOTYPEFORTHESYSTEMFOR56YEARS31THEFIRSTSETUPTHEFIRSTVERSIONALLOWEDTHESTUDENTSTOWRITETHEPROGRAMSUSINGACOMPUTERINSTEADOFWRITINGONPAPERWEFOUNDTHISMETHODTOBEANIMPROVEMENTBECAUSEWEDIDNOTHAVETOREAD“ILLEGIBLE”TEXTSANDTHESUBMITTEDSOLUTIONSCOULDBETESTEDAFTERWARDSGRADESWEREBASEDONTHENUMBEROFCORRECTLYSOLVEDEXERCISESAPROBLEMWITHTHISSETUPWASTHATALLTHEGRADINGSTILLHADTOBEDONEAFTERTHEEXAMWASFINISHEDMOSTOFTHESTUDENTSWAITEDTOSENDINTHESOLUTIONSUNTILTHELASTMINUTEOFTHEEXAM32THESECONDSETUPOURINTENTIONWASTOHAVEANEXAMINATIONWHERETHESTUDENTSSHOULDHAVEARESPONSEFROMTHEEXAMINERSWITHINAFEWMINUTESANDWHEREGRADESWEREGIVENTOTHESTUDENTSWHENTHEYLEFTTHEEXAMWEALSOINTENDEDTOPROVIDETHESTUDENTWITHTHEPOSSIBILITYOFGETTINGARESPONSEFOREACHEXERCISEWITHINAFEWMINUTES,SOTHEYCOULDCORRECTANEARLYCORRECTSOLUTIONTHESECONDSETUPWHICHWEUSETODAYISBASEDONBOTHNUMBEROFCORRECTLYSOLVEDEXERCISESANDTHEAMOUNTOFTIMETAKENTOSOLVETHEMANUMBEROFDEADLINESAREGIVENIFTHESTUDENTWANTSAHIGHGRADEHE/SHEHASTOSOLVEANUMBEROFEXERCISESWITHINAPRESPECIFIEDTIMELIMITTHECURRENTEXAMINATIONPROCESSFOLLOWSAFEWSTEPS1THESTUDENTSENDSANEXAMINATIONREQUESTFORANEXERCISETOTHEEXAMINERS2THEEXAMINERSCANRETURNONEOFTHEFOLLOWINGRESULTSPASSEDTHESOLUTIONISCORRECTINCOMPLETETHESOLUTIONHASERRORS,ANDMUSTBECORRECTEDIT’SPOSSIBLETOMAKEANEWATTEMPTLATERFAILTHESOLUTIONISINCORRECTANDTHESTUDENTISNOTALLOWEDTOC

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