会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > PDF文档下载

外文资料-Engineering Design Knowledge Management in De-centralised Virtual Enterprises(2008,5(6):787-800).pdf

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:681.91KB   全文页数:15页
  • 资源格式: PDF        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

外文资料-Engineering Design Knowledge Management in De-centralised Virtual Enterprises(2008,5(6):787-800).pdf

ComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,787800787ComputerAidedDesignandApplications©2008CADSolutions,LLChttp//www.cadanda.comEngineeringDesignKnowledgeManagementinDecentralisedVirtualEnterprisesHayderAziz1,JamesGao2andZhengXiLi31AlMuthannaUniversity,SamawaIraq,hayderuruki.com2UniversityofGreenwich,j.gaogre.ac.uk3NorthChinaUniversityofTechnology,lzxncut.edu.chABSTRACTTheproblemsofcollaborativeengineeringdesignandknowledgemanagementattheconceptualstageinanetworkofdissimilarenterpriseswasinvestigated.ThisissueinengineeringdesignisaresultofthesupplychainandvirtualenterpriseVEorientedindustrythatdemandsfastertimetomarketandaccuratecost/manufacturinganalysisfromconception.ThesolutionconsistedofadecentralisedsuperpeernetarchitecturetoestablishandmaintaincommunicationsbetweenenterprisesinaVE.Inthesolutionoutlinedbelow,theenterprisesareabletoshareknowledgeinacommonformatandnomenclatureviathebuildingblockshareablesuperontologythatcanbetailoredonaprojectbyprojectbasis,whilstmaintainingthecommonnomenclatureofthesuperontologyeliminatingknowledgeinterpretationissues.Thetwotierarchitecturelayoutofthesolutiongluestogetherthepeerpeerandsuperontologiestoformacoherentsystemforbothinternalandvirtualenterpriseknowledgemanagementandproductdevelopment.Keywordsvirtualenterprise,PLM,ontology,peertopeer,STEP.DOI10.3722/cadaps.2008.7878001.INTRODUCTIONCollaborativeengineeringdesignandmanagementinalargenetworkofdissimilarenterpriseshasbecomeanecessityinthenewworldofglobalizationandoutsourcingwithintheengineeringindustries.Formulatingtechniquesandtechnologiesinthisareahavebeenevaluatedindepth1.Intheirreviewofcollaborativeconceptualdesigntoolsandtechniques,highlightingthegapthatexistsbetweentheneedforcollaborationandtheavailabletoolswhichenablesimplesharingofdesignknowledge,theauthorsconcludedthatthereisamajorgapinthetechniquestoenablerealtimecollaborationinaheterogeneousenvironment.PreviousresearchonthetopichadstudiedvariousaspectsoftheproblemincludingthePaloAltoCollaborativeTestbedPACTbytheAdvancedResearchProjectsAgencyARPAwhereexistingengineeringtoolswereintegratedusinganencapsulatingagentuponwhichanumberofdevelopmentsweredevelopedbyresearchteamsincludingJATLite,aJavabasedagentinfrastructure2andMETAMORPHagentbasedarchitecture3allofwhichsharedthesameprincipleofcreatingagentsintegratedwiththeindividualapplicationstohandlethecollaborationbetweentools.ThecollaborationaspectsofVirtualEnterprisesVEinmanufacturingwerecoined4asthevirtualcorporation.Thiswasfurtherevolvedintotheideaspresentedby5asanarchitectureforthevirtualenterprisewhichlaidoutthelogicalsequencesfortheestablishment,operationanddissolutionofaVE.Furtherelaborationonby6wherethebasicfeaturesofaVEwerelaidout,andtechniquesutilizingtheStandardfortheExchangeofProductmodelsSTEPstandardandclientserverwebbasedinternetforenablingavirtualcollaboration.ComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,787800788OtherperspectivesonVEsinclude7,ontheotherhand8realizedtheinherentlydecentralizednatureofaVEandformulatedprocessesforcreatingandmanagingtheVEswithoutactuallysuggestingatechnicalimplementationforVEs.Reidsformulation8fortheinherentdecentralizednatureofavirtualenterpriseformsthefoundationfor9whichdevelopedthepotentialtopologyusingasuperpeernetarchitecturetoovercomethelimitationsofapurepeertopeersystembutwithoutthestructuralandownershipissuesarisingfromcentralizationofknowledge.CollaborationwithinthecontextofengineeringdesignisthesharingofexistingengineeringdesignexpertisebetweenindividualsfromwithinaVEthatiscomposedofentitiesthatarecollaboratinginaoneoffventureandhavenotcollaboratedpreviously.Theentitiesarepresumedtobedissimilar,meaningthattheyhaveadifferentinternalcompanyoperation,productdevelopmentprocessandtoolstotheotherparticipantsintheVE.EngineeringcompanieswithavarietyofOriginalEquipmentManufacturersOEMscustomersfaceahugeproblemwithmeetingtheindividualrequirementsoftheirclients.Interactionwithclientandproductdefinitionprimarilytakesplaceduringtheearlyconceptstageofproductdevelopment.ThusitisimperativethatparticipantsintheVEnetworkclients,engineers,andVEentitiescaninteracteffectivelyandproduceconceptdesignsfortheproductthatarepracticaltomanufacture,costeffectiveanddonotrepeatthesamemistakesmadeinearlierprojectsthisofcoursedoesnotprecludetheadditionofnewdesignandthoughtflaws.Conceptualdesignisanessentialpartoftheproductlifecycle,whichhasadisproportionateeffectonthecosts,andeventualsuccess,oftheartefact.Traditionallythisphaseoftheprojectiscarriedoutinfacetofacemeetingsandbrainstormingsessionswithmanydelegates,fromthedifferentdisciplinesintheenterprise,withexternalcustomersandsuppliersalsotakingpart.ProblemariseswhenenterpriseswishtocollaboratewithalargenumberofsuppliersandoriginalequipmentmanufacturerOEMcustomersbylargenumber,thisresearchassumesamanymanyrelationship.CurrentapplicationsenablecollaborationusingbusinesstobusinessB2Bprotocols.However,thesedonottakeintoaccountthatdisparateenterprisesdonothaveunifieddatamodelsorworkflows.ThislackofstandardizationresultsinalotoftimeandmoneyspentmappingB2Blinksbetweendifferentvendorssystemsaswellastheuniquelycustomizeddatamodelsandworkflowsimplementedontopofvendorspecificapplications.WithinthesettingofaVirtualEnterpriseVE,wherealliancescanincludedozensofenterprisesandoftenlastforonlyasingleproject,thesecostswouldbeprohibitivebecauseitwouldineffectentailrepeatingthetaskofinterenterpriseintegrationbetweeneachenterprisecollaboratingintheVE.ThisisastrongfactorinreducingtheabilityoflargeenterprisestoparticipateinoneoffVEpartnerships,reducingagilityandpotentiallylosingbusiness.SomesolutionshaveincludedtheuseofapplicationserviceprovidersASPorenablingalargeenterprisesdatasystemtofunctionasanASPfortheircollaboratorsbenefitinaVEsetting.Howevertheproblemwiththistypeofsystemisthemanagementofintellectualpropertyoftheindividualenterprisesandwhetherenterprisescangiveupcontroloftheirinformationtoapartner,whomay,especiallyinthecaseofsmallandspecializedenterprises,alsobecollaboratingwiththeircompetitorssimultaneously.SuchfearscanpotentiallyhindertheformationofVEsbetweenenterprisesofanysize.KnowledgeManagement.Theenterprisesprimeasset,itsknowledge,whilststoredinanelectronicformat,isnotmanagedcoherentlythusperpetuatinganinvisiblelimitonthecompanysknowledge,basedontheimpulseofknowledgeworkersrecollectionsofpreviousexperience.Researchersandvendorshaveinvariablyattemptedtosolvetheproblemofcoherencythroughcentralizationhoweverthisisnotapplicableinacollaborativeanddistributeddevelopmentenvironmentwhichisinherentlydecentralized.Theattemptsatinterenterprisecollaborationarefurthercomplicatedwhenenterpriseswithdifferentdepthofdetailintheirdatamodelsanddifferenttaxonomiesinthisresearch,taxonomyisatermusedtodenotethedatamodel,ormodels,usedinternallybyanenterprisetomanageitsproductandprojectdatacollaboratetogether.Creatingasituationinwhichdetailislostinthetransferfromhightolowdetailenterprisedatasystems.Finally,theprimereasonforthisinvestigationisthatSMEshaveuptonowbeenleftoutofdevelopmentsinPLM,knowledgemanagementandVEdevelopmentsinspiteofformingthemajorityoftheworldsengineeringcommunity.ThisnegativelyaffectstheabilityofSMEstomanagetheirknowledge,reuseexistingexpertise,collaboratewithotherSMEsinthevirtualenterprisesettingsandcollaboratewiththelargerenterprisesthatformtheircustomerbase.ThisweaknessaffectsnotonlytheSMEsbutalsothelargeenterprisesthatutilizeSMEswithintheirsupplychainorVEnetwork.ComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,7878007892.FORMATANDMEDIUMOFINTERENTERPRISECOLLABORATIONOneofthefoundationsofeffectivecollaborationiscommunication.Communication,withinthecontextofthisresearchisthoughtofascomposedofamediumandaformat.Oncemediumsandformatsareformallyestablished,comprehensiblecommunicationbetweentwoentitiesmaytakeplace.Thisisapplicabletoanytypeofcommunication.ForexampleaconversationbetweentwopersonswouldbeMediumOralfaceface.FormatLanguageknowntoboth.OranotherexamplewouldbewrittencommunicationbetweengroupsofpeoplewouldbeMediumpaperandink.Formatalphabeticalcharactersincommonlanguage.Naturallyboththeseelementsmustmatchatallcollaboratingpartiesformutuallyunderstandablecommunicationstotakeplace.Thiscomponentoftheresearchaimedtosolvethekeyproblemofestablishingcommunicationlinksbetweengeographicallyseparateandorganizationallyunrelatedentities,rapidlyandatlowcost,withtheaimofthecommunicationbeingthecollaborativedevelopmentofengineeringproducts.Whilstthismaysoundlikeasimpleproblemintodaysworldofstandardizeddatatelecoms,thelackofendtoendstandardizationoftaxonomies,authentication/accesscontrolsystemsandformatsbetweenenterpriseshasbeenaglaringshortcomingofmodernBusinesstoBusinessapplications.IneffectthishasbeenoneofthemajordrawbacksthathasstuntedthegrowthandspreadofPLMandKMtechnologiestosmallerenterprisestoday.Figure1illustratestheholisticoperationofthesystemincludingtheheterogeneousontologies,themediumtotransportthedatabetweentheontologiesandtheformatforunderstandingthecommunication.OntologyforenterpriseAcontainsthebusinessandprocessknowledgeforcompanyAwithinthevirtualenterprise.SimilarlyOntologyforenterpriseBcontainsthedomainontologywhichisinthisinstanceDIFFERENTfromtheontologyinenterpriseA.ThemediuminthisfigureissimplythemeansbywhichcommunicationstakesplaceinthisinstanceviaTCP/IPi.e.overtheinternetTheredlinedenotingtheformatofthetaxonomydenotesthefileformatsusedtoencodetheontologiesofenterprisesAandB.FinallytheworkflowprocessesaimtogluethedisparatebusinessprocessesfromtheunrelatedenterprisestoenabletheautomationofthebusinessprocessesintheVE.Fig.1Format,medium,ontologyandworkflow.Theformataspectofcollaborationbetweenenterprisesisindependentofthemediumused.Howeverthekeyproblem,withinthecontextofthisresearch,oftheformatiscreatingauniversallanguageandtaxonomytaxonomyinthiscontextisthenomenclatureusedinacollaborativeengineeringsettingthatwillmeetthefollowingchallengingcriteria,whichareasubsetoftheoverallaimoftheresearchOntologyofenterpriseAOntologyofenterpriseBMEDIUMTCP/IPWorkflowprocessesbetweencollaboratorsFormatoftaxonomyComputerAidedDesignApplications,56,2008,787800790Providingasupersetofallpossibletaxonomiesinusetodayorinthefutureforinterenterprisecollaborationbetweenengineeringorientedentities.Providingaformatthatcanbeusedcommonlybyallandatnocosttoenabletherapiddisseminationandimplementationbyallpartiesinacollaborativeventure.Enablingtherapidauthenticationandaccessmanagementofallparticipants.Providingamethodtorapidlyresolvesyntacticdifferencesbetweendifferententerprisesdatastructures.Theabovementionedrequirementshaveproventobeatoughchallengeforresearchersinthepastasshownbythedisparatetechnologieswhichonlylookatpartiallysolvingtheproblems.ThesolutionsinexistencetodayincludewellestablishedInternationalStandardsOSIIEEE802fornetworklinksanddatacommunicationsprotocolssuchasTransportControlProtocol/InternetProtocolTCP/IP.HowevereventhoughthereareclearlyestablishedguidelinesandevenstandardizedformatssuchasXMLandRDFstandardsthereremainsapracticaldisconnectinthesphereofstandardizednomenclatureortaxonomiesforcollaborationbetweendisparateenterprises.Sincenotwoenterprisesarethesame,theideaofusingXMLbasedmessagingforinterenterprisecollaborationisnoteasyasthecollaboratingcompaniesXMLschemashavetobemappedtoeachother.Inordertoachievespeedyinteroperability,astandardhastobesetforbasicmessaging.ThereareaplethoraofstandardsindevelopmentbyvariousgroupsincludingRosettaNet,anendlesslistofXMLschemasanddatatypedefinitions.Thesestandardsimplementdifferentlevelsofdetailintheontology.SomelikeSTEPPDMattempttoimplementthecompleteinformationstructureoftheengineeringenterprise.OtherslikeJuxtaPoseJXTAimplementonlythemessagingcomponents.Thechoiceofstandardstousedependsonthelevelofstandardizationthatallenterprisescanadhereto.However,withliterallymillionsofenterprises,largeandsmall,eachwithitsowncompanyspecificdatastructuresandpeculiarities,itcanbesafelyassumedthatradicallyalteringtheinternalworkingsofallenterprises,toadheretoasinglestandardizedtaxonomyanddatatransfermediumisanimprobablepropositiononthegroundsoftheunsuitabilityofastandardizedtaxonomyforallcompaniesworkingneedsandalackoflegislationforcingcompaniestoadheretoanystandardizedmedium.Tohaveaholisticoverviewoftheproblem,detailsofvariouscompanytaxonomiesandstandardsdesignedforinterenterprisecollaborationwerecollated.TheseareArvinMeritortaxonomyanddatamodelsTier1automotivesupplierISO90012000managementstandardsguidelinessimplemanagementstandardISOSTEPPDMwww.iso.ch,STEPstandardtaxonomydefininganinternationallyagreedupontaxonomyforengineeringProductDatamanagement,thisstandardcomplementstheISO10303STEPbelow.ISO10303STEP,basicengineeringproductdata,differentApplicationProtocolsdefinethedatamodelsfordifferentindustries.seewww.iso.chforfulldetails,generallymodeledinEXPRESS,andstoredinplaintextformatRosettaNet–XMLbasedgenericB2BstandardizationmodelJXTA,www.jxta.orgopensourcegenericlowlevelauthenticationanddatamanagementnomenclatureforalltypesofapplicationsbasedonXMLformatTaxonomiesaboveprovideddetailsofdifferentcharacteristicsofanenterprisesdatamodel,andnoneofthemcanbeconsideredtobeacompleterepresentationofacompanysdatamodelnoneofthemclaimtobe,withtheexceptionofSAPsmassivetaxonomies.Therestofthetaxonomieshowevereachprovidedasubsetofoverlappingfunctionsthatcanbenormalizedtoprovideastandardsbasedenterprisedatamodelusablebyall.ExcellentexamplesoftaxonomiesaretheApplicationProtocol2xxstandardsoftheISO10303STEPstandard.Fortheactualformatsofthedata,thefollowingstandardswerelookedatXML–eXtensiblemarkuplanguage,aplaintextformatmarkuplanguageusedtodefineindustryspecificmarkuplanguagessomeofwhicharedefinedabove.BizTalk,MathMLandRosettaNetareexamplesoftaxonomiesimplementedwithXMLmarkupOWL,WebOntologyLanguageisthedefinitiveXML/RDFbasedontologymodellingandmanipulationformatincorporatingDescriptionLogicsandconstraints.

注意事项

本文(外文资料-Engineering Design Knowledge Management in De-centralised Virtual Enterprises(2008,5(6):787-800).pdf)为本站会员(淘宝运营)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5