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外文资料翻译--高压静电电源应用.doc

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外文资料翻译--高压静电电源应用.doc

1HIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESFORELECTROSTATICAPPLICATIONSCLIFFSCAPELLATI,VICEPRESIDENTOFENGINEERINGABSTRACTHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESAREAKEYCOMPONENTINELECTROSTATICAPPLICATIONSAVARIETYOFINDUSTRIALANDSCIENTIFICAPPLICATIONSOFHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESAREPRESENTEDFORTHESCIENTIST,ENGINEER,SPECIFIERANDUSEROFELECTROSTATICSINDUSTRIALPROCESSES,FOREXAMPLE,REQUIRESIGNIFICANTMONITORINGOFOPERATIONALCONDITIONSINORDERTOMAXIMIZEPRODUCTOUTPUT,IMPROVEQUALITY,ANDREDUCECOSTNEWADVANCESINPOWERSUPPLYTECHNOLOGYPROVIDEHIGHERLEVELSOFMONITORINGANDPROCESSCONTROLSCIENTIFICEXPERIMENTSCANALSOBEINFLUENCEDBYPOWERSUPPLYEFFECTSOUTPUTACCURACY,STABILITY,RIPPLEANDREGULATIONAREDISCUSSEDCONTRIBUTINGEFFECTSSUCHASOUTPUTACCURACY,STABILITY,RIPPLEANDREGULATIONAREDISCUSSEDIINTRODUCTIONTHEUSEOFHIGHVOLTAGEINSCIENTIFICANDINDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONSISCOMMONPLACEINPARTICULAR,ELECTROSTATICSCANBEUTILIZEDFORAVARIETYOFEFFECTSBROADLYSTATED,ELECTROSTATICSISTHESTUDYOFEFFECTSPRODUCEDBYELECTRICALCHARGESORFIELDSTHEAPPLICATIONSOFELECTROSTATICSCANBEUSEDTOGENERATEMOTIONOFAMATERIALWITHOUTPHYSICALCONTACT,TOSEPARATEMATERIALSDOWNTOTHEELEMENTALLEVEL,TOCOMBINEMATERIALSTOFORMAHOMOGENEOUSMIXTUREANDOTHERPRACTICALANDSCIENTIFICUSESBYDEFINITION,THEABILITYOFELECTROSTATICEFFECTSTODOWORKREQUIRESADIFFERENCEINELECTRICALPOTENTIALBETWEENTWOORMOREMATERIALSINMOSTCASES,THEENERGYREQUIREDTOFORCEAPOTENTIALDIFFERENCEISDERIVEDFROMAHIGHVOLTAGESOURCETHISHIGHVOLTAGESOURCECANBEAHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLYTODAYSHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESARESOLIDSTATE,HIGHFREQUENCYDESIGNS,WHICHPROVIDEPERFORMANCEANDCONTROLUNATTAINABLEONLYAFEWYEARSAGOSIGNIFICANTIMPROVEMENTSINRELIABILITY,STABILITY,CONTROL,SIZEREDUCTIONS,COSTANDSAFETYHAVEBEENACHIEVEDBYBEINGMADEAWAREOFTHESEIMPROVEMENTS,THEUSEROFHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESFORELECTROSTATICAPPLICATIONSCANBENEFITADDITIONALLY,UNIQUEREQUIREMENTSOFHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESSHOULDBEUNDERSTOODASTHEYCANAFFECTTHEEQUIPMENT,EXPERIMENTS,PROCESSORPRODUCTTHEYAREUSEDINIIOPERATIONALPRINCIPLESOFHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIES2ASIMPLIFIEDSCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFAHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLYISSHOWNINFIG1THEINPUTVOLTAGESOURCEMAYHAVEAWIDERANGEOFVOLTAGECHARACTERISTICSACSOURCESOF50HZTO400HZAT24VTO480VARECOMMONDCSOURCESRANGINGFROM5VTO300VCANALSOBEFOUNDITISCRITICALFORTHEUSERTOUNDERSTANDTHEINPUTVOLTAGEREQUIREMENTASTHISWILLIMPACTOVERALLSYSTEMUSEANDDESIGNREGULATORYAGENCIESSUCHASUNDERWRITERSLABORATORY,CANADIANSTANDARDSASSOCIATION,IECANDOTHERSAREHIGHLYINVOLVEDWITHANYCIRCUITSCONNECTEDTOTHEPOWERGRIDINADDITIONTOPOWERINGTHEMAININVERTERCIRCUITSOFTHEPOWERSUPPLY,THEINPUTVOLTAGESOURCEISALSOUSEDTOPOWERAUXILIARYCONTROLCIRCUITSANDOTHERANCILLARYPOWERREQUIREMENTSTHEINPUTFILTERSTAGEPROVIDESCONDITIONINGOFTHEINPUTVOLTAGESOURCETHISCONDITIONINGISUSUALLYINTHEFORMOFRECTIFICATIONANDFILTERINGINACSOURCES,ANDADDITIONALFILTERINGINDCSOURCESOVERLOADPROTECTION,EMI,EMCANDMONITORINGCIRCUITSCANALSOBEFOUNDTHEOUTPUTOFTHEINPUTFILTERISTYPICALLYADCVOLTAGESOURCETHISDCVOLTAGEPROVIDESTHEENERGYSOURCEFORTHEINVERTERTHEINVERTERSTAGECONVERTSTHEDCSOURCETOAHIGHFREQUENCYACSIGNALMANYDIFFERENTINVERTERTOPOLOGIESEXISTFORPOWERSUPPLIESTHEHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLYHASUNIQUEFACTORSWHICHMAYDICTATETHEBESTINVERTERAPPROACHTHEINVERTERGENERATESAHIGHFREQUENCYACSIGNALWHICHISSTEPPEDUPBYTHEHVTRANSFORMERTHEREASONFORTHEHIGHFREQUENCYGENERATIONISTOPROVIDEHIGHPERFORMANCEOPERATIONWITHREDUCEDSIZEOFMAGNETICSANDRIPPLEREDUCTIONSTORAGECAPACITORSAPROBLEMISCREATEDWHENATRANSFORMERWITHAHIGHSTEPUPRATIOISCOUPLEDTOAHIGHFREQUENCYINVERTERTHEHIGHSTEPUPRATIOREFLECTSAPARASITICCAPACITANCEACROSSTHEPRIMARYOFTHEHIGHVOLTAGETRANSFORMERTHISISREFLECTEDASANSECNPRI2FUNCTIONTHISLARGEPARASITICCAPACITORWHICHAPPEARSACROSSTHEPRIMARYOFTHETRANSFORMERMUSTBEISOLATEDFROMTHEINVERTERSWITCHINGDEVICESIFNOT,ABNORMALLYHIGHPULSECURRENTSWILLBEPRESENTINTHEINVERTERANOTHERPARAMETERWHICHISCOMMONTOHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIESISAWIDERANGEOFLOADOPERATIONSDUETOTHEPRESENCEOFHIGHVOLTAGE,INSULATIONBREAKDOWNIS3COMMONPLACETHEINVERTERROBUSTNESSANDCONTROLLOOPCHARACTERISTICSMUSTACCOUNTFORVIRTUALLYANYCOMBINATIONOFOPENCIRCUIT,SHORTCIRCUITANDOPERATINGLOADCONDITIONSTHESECONCERNSASWELLASRELIABILITYANDCOST,MUSTBEADDRESSEDINTHEHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLYINVERTERTOPOLOGYTHEHIGHFREQUENCYOUTPUTOFTHEINVERTERISAPPLIEDTOTHEPRIMARYOFTHEHIGHVOLTAGESTEPUPTRANSFORMERPROPERHIGHVOLTAGETRANSFORMERDESIGNREQUIRESEXTENSIVETHEORETICALANDPRACTICALENGINEERINGUNDERSTANDINGOFMAGNETICSDESIGNMUSTBEAPPLIEDALONGWITHMATERIALANDPROCESSCONTROLSMUCHOFTHESPECIFICEXPERTISEINVOLVESMANAGINGTHEHIGHNUMBEROFSECONDARYTURNS,ANDTHEHIGHSECONDARYVOLTAGESDUETOTHESEFACTORS,COREGEOMETRY,INSULATIONMETHODSANDWINDINGTECHNIQUESAREQUITEDIFFERENTTHANCONVENTIONALTRANSFORMERDESIGNSSOMEAREASOFCONCERNAREVOLTS/TURNRATINGSOFTHESECONDARYWIRE,LAYERTOLAYERINSULATINGRATINGS,INSULATINGMATERIALDISSIPATIONFACTOR,WINDINGGEOMETRYASITISCONCERNEDWITHPARASITICSECONDARYCAPACITANCEANDLEAKAGEFLUX,IMPREGNATIONOFINSULATINGVARNISHTOWINDINGLAYERS,CORONALEVELANDVIRTUALLYALLOTHERCONVENTIONALCONCERNSSUCHASTHERMALMARGINS,ANDOVERALLCOSTTHEHIGHVOLTAGEMULTIPLIERCIRCUITSARERESPONSIBLEFORRECTIFICATIONANDMULTIPLICATIONOFTHEHIGHVOLTAGETRANSFORMERSECONDARYVOLTAGETHESECIRCUITSUSEHIGHVOLTAGEDIODESANDCAPACITORSINACHARGEPUMPVOLTAGEDOUBLERCONNECTIONASWITHTHEHIGHVOLTAGETRANSFORMER,HIGHVOLTAGEMULTIPLIERDESIGNREQUIRESSPECIFICEXPERTISEINADDITIONTORECTIFICATIONANDMULTIPLICATION,HIGHVOLTAGECIRCUITSAREUSEDINTHEFILTERINGOFTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGE,ANDINTHEMONITORINGOFVOLTAGEANDCURRENTFORCONTROLFEEDBACKOUTPUTIMPEDANCEMAYINTENTIONALLYBEADDEDTOPROTECTAGAINSTDISCHARGECURRENTSFROMTHEPOWERSUPPLYSTORAGECAPACITORSTHESEHIGHVOLTAGECOMPONENTSARETYPICALLYINSULATEDFROMGROUNDLEVELTOPREVENTARCOVERTHEINSULATIONMATERIALSVARYWIDELY,BUTTYPICALMATERIALSAREAIR,SF6,INSULATINGOIL,SOLIDENCAPSULANTSRTV,EPOXY,ETCTHEINSULATINGMATERIALSELECTIONANDPROCESSCONTROLMAYBETHEMOSTIMPORTANTASPECTOFARELIABLEHIGHVOLTAGEDESIGNCONTROLCIRCUITSKEEPALLOFTHEPOWERSTAGESWORKINGTOGETHERCIRCUITCOMPLEXITYCANRANGEFROMONEANALOGICTOALARGENUMBEROFICSANDEVENAMICROPROCESSORCONTROLLINGANDMONITORINGALLASPECTSOFTHEHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERHOWEVER,THEBASICREQUIREMENTWHICHEVERYCONTROLCIRCUITMUSTMEETISTOPRECISELYREGULATETHEOUTPUTVOLTAGEANDCURRENTASLOAD,INPUTPOWER,ANDCOMMAND4REQUIREMENTSDICTATETHISISBESTACCOMPLISHEDBYAFEEDBACKCONTROLLOOPFIG2SHOWSHOWFEEDBACKSIGNALSCANBEUSEDTOREGULATETHEOUTPUTOFTHEPOWERSUPPLYCONVENTIONALREGULATIONOFVOLTAGEANDCURRENTCANBEACHIEVEDBYMONITORINGTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGEANDCURRENTRESPECTIVELYTHISISCOMPAREDTOADESIREDREFERENCEOUTPUTSIGNALTHEDIFFERENCEERRORBETWEENTHEFEEDBACKANDREFERENCEWILLCAUSEACHANGEINTHEINVERTERCONTROLDEVICETHISWILLTHENRESULTINACHANGEOFPOWERDELIVEREDTOTHEOUTPUTCIRCUITSINADDITIONTOTHEVOLTAGEANDCURRENTREGULATION,OTHERPARAMETERSCANBEPRECISELYREGULATEDCONTROLLINGOUTPUTPOWERISEASILYACCOMPLISHEDBYANXYZFUNCTION,VIW,ANDCOMPARINGITTOTHEDESIREDOUTPUTPOWERREFERENCEINDEED,ANYVARIABLEFOUNDWITHINOHMSLAWCANBEREGULATED,RESISTANCE,VOLTAGE,CURRENTANDPOWERINADDITION,ENDPROCESSPARAMETERSCANBEREGULATEDIFTHEYAREEFFECTEDBYTHEHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLYIECOATINGS,FLOWRATES,ETCIIIHIGHVOLTAGEREGULATIONTHEIMPORTANCEOFAREGULATEDSOURCEOFHIGHVOLTAGEAND/ORCONSTANTCURRENTISCRITICALTOMOSTAPPLICATIONSINVOLVINGELECTROSTATICSVARIATIONSINOUTPUTVOLTAGEORCURRENTCANHAVEDIRECTEFFECTSONTHEENDRESULTSAND,THEREFORE,MUSTBEUNDERSTOODASASOURCEOFERRORINHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIES,THEVOLTAGEREFERENCESTHATAREUSEDTOPROGRAMTHEDESIREDOUTPUTCANBEELIMINATEDASASOURCEOFSIGNIFICANTERRORBYTHEUSEOFHIGHLYSTABLEVOLTAGEREFERENCEICSTYPICALSPECIFICATIONSOFBETTERTHAN5PPM/CAREROUTINESIMILARLY,ANALOGICSOPAMPS,A/DD/AS,ETCCANBEELIMINATEDASASIGNIFICANTSOURCEOFERRORBYCAREFULSELECTIONOFTHEDEVICESTHEREREMAINSONECOMPONENT,UNIQUETOHIGHVOLTAGEPOWERSUPPLIES,WHICHWILLBETHEMAJORSOURCEOFSTABILITYERRORSTHEHIGHVOLTAGEFEEDBACKDIVIDERASSEENINFIG1,THEHIGHVOLTAGEFEEDBACKDIVIDERCONSISTSOFARESISTIVEDIVIDERNETWORK

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