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文献翻译--数控加工切削.doc

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文献翻译--数控加工切削.doc

Figure912Toolnoseradiuscompensationallowsustoprogramthepart,notthetoolpath.Themathematicalcalculationsthatareneededtoprogramapartprofilewithanglesandradii,withouttheaidofcutterdiametercompensation,canbeveryinvolved.onaturningcenter.WhenwesettheXandZaxesofthetool,wecreateasquarepointonthetool.Mostofthetoolsweuseforturninghaveradii.Tocompensatefortheradii,weneedtouseTNRcompensation,whichsavesusfromhavingtomathematicallycalculatethecutterpathseeFigure912.TNRcompensationalsoletsususethesameprogramforavarietyoftooltypes.WithTNRcompensationcapabilities,theinsertradiussizecanbeignoredandthepartprofilecanbeprogrammed.Theexactsizeofthecuttingtooltobeusedisenteredintotheoffsetfile,andwhentheoffsetiscalled,thetoolpathwillautomaticallybeoffsetbythetoolradius.Toolnoseradiuscompensationcanbetotherightorleftofthepartprofile.Todeterminewhichoffsetyouneed,imagineyourselfwalkingbehindthecuttingtool.DoyouwantthetooltotheleftoftheprogrammedpathortotherightseeFigure913Figure913Toolnosecompensation.CompensationdirectioniscontrolledbyaGcode.Whenacompensationtotheleftisdesired,aG41isused.Whenacompensationtotherightisneeded,aG42isused.Whenusingthesecuttercompensationcodes,youneedtospecifyhowmuchthecontrolleristooffset.Thesizeoftheradiusisplacedinthenoseradiusoffsettable,whichistypicallylocatedadjacenttothetoolfileunderthetoolnumberbeingused.Toolnoseradiusinformationcanbedeterminedfromcatalogsortheinsertpackage.Otherinformationneededtoinsurepropercompensationisthetoolnosedirectionvector.Thetooltiporimaginarytooltipofturningtoolshasaspecificlocationordirectionfromthecenterofthetoolnoseradius.Thetoolnosevectortellsthecontrolwhichdirectionitmustcompensateforindividualtypesoftools.StandardtoolnosedirectionvectorsareshowninFigure14.Thedirectionvectornumberisusuallyplacedinthesametooloffsettableastheradiusvalue.Figure914Toolnoseradiusdirectionvectors.Toinvokecompensation,theprogrammerwillhavetomakeamachinemoverampon.Thismoveallowsthecontroltoevaluateitspresentpositionandmakethenecessaryadjustmentfromtooledgepositioningtotoolnoseradiuspositioning.Thisadjustmentmovemustbegreaterthantheradiusvalueofthetool.Tocancelthecuttercompensationandreturntocutteredgeprogramming,theprogrammermustmakealinearmoverampofftoinvokeacuttercompensationcancellationG40.Figure915illustratesatypicalpartthatusestoolnoseradiuscompensation.Theprogramforthepartfollowsthefigure.N0001G90G20N0005G40N0010T0101N0015G92X5.800Z10.250N0020G96S400M03N0025GOOG42Xl.30Z.100RapidpositionramponmoveandTNRcompensationtotherightN0035GOOX.375ProfileofthepartN0045G01Z0.0F.01ProfileofthepartN0050G01X.500Z.0625ProfileofthepartN0055G01Z1.00ProfileofthepartN0060G02Xl.00Z1.251.25K0.0ProfileofthepartN0065G01X1.25ProfileofthepartN0070G40G00X2.0Z2.0TNRcompensationcancelandrapidpositionrampoffmoveN0075G28N0080T0100N0085M30Figure915Programthatutilizestoolnoseradiuscompensation.CANNEDCYCLESFORTURNINGCENTERSCannedcyclesfixedcyclesareusedtosimplifytheprogrammingofrepetitiveturningoperations,suchasroughturning,threading,andgrooving.Cannedcyclesaresetsofpreprogrammedinstructionsthateliminatetheneedformanylinesofprogramming.Programmingasimplepartwithouttheuseofacannedcyclecantakeuptofourorfivetimesthenumberoflinesneededforapartprogrammedwithcannedcycles.Thinkofthelinesthatareneededtoproduceathread1positiontheXandZaxestothepropercoordinateswitharapidtraversemoveG00,2positionthetoolfortheproperleadangle,3feedthetoolacross,4rapidpositionthetoolbacktotheclearanceplan,5feedthetoolacross.Thatisonlytwothreadingpasses.Withacannedthreadingcycle,athreadcanbedonewithonelineofprogramming.Standardcannedcycles,orfixedcycles,arecommontomostCNCmachines.SeeFigure94foragenerallistofthemostcommonlyusedcannedcyclesforturningcenters.ROUGHINGORTURNINGCYCLEG71TheG71automaticallytakesroughingpassestoturndownaworkpiecetoaspecificdiameterataspecifieddepthofcut.TheG71cyclereadsaspecifiednumberofblockstodeterminethepartprofileanddetermineseachpass,thedepthofcutforeachpass,andthenumberofrepeatpassesforthecycle.CuttingisaccomplishedthroughparallelmovesofthetoolintheZaxisdirection.Acertainprocedureneedstobefollowedwhenusingcannedcycles.Inthefirstprocedure,thetoolneedstobepositionedtotheroughstockboundaries.Thisprocedurehasatwofoldpurposeittellsthecontrolhowbigthestockis,anditcreatesaZclearancepositionthatthetoolrapidsbacktooneachpass.TheG71usesletterstogivethecontrollerinformationonthepartprofile,theamountofstockwearegoingtoleaveforfinishing,thedepthofcut,andthefeedrate.AG71roughingcyclecommandfollows.N0010G71P40Q85U.03W.010D750F.012G71istheroughingcyclecall.P40istheblockorlinenumberthatdesignatesthestartofthepartprofile.Q85istheblockorlinenumberthatdesignatestheendofthepartprofile.U.03tellsthecontrollerthatwewanttoleave.03ofaninchstockontheXaxisoftheprofileforfinishing.W.O1tellsthecontrollerthatwewanttoleave.01ofaninchstockontheZaxisoftheprofileforfinishing.D750tellsthecontrollerwewanttotake.0750ofaninchperpasspersidedepthofcut.Noticethatthedecimalpointwasleftoff.Nodecimalpointinputispossiblefordepthofcut.WhentheDiscommandedthecontrollerreadsfromtherightanddecideswhatthedepthofcutwillbe.Eachnumberineachdecimalpositiongetsavalue.Ifwewantedtotake.0500depthofcutperside,wewouldwriteitasD500.Thefirstzerofromtherighthas0tenthsofathousandthsvalue.Thenextzerofromtherighthas0thousandthsofaninchvalue.The5inthethirdpositionfromtherighthas5tenthousandthsofaninchvalueor50thousandthsofaninch.F.O12isthefeedrateoftheroughingpasses.NextwetaketheexampleprogramfromFigure915andconvertittoaprogramthatutilizesaroughingcannedcycleseeFigure16.WewilleliminatetheTNRcompensationjustforeaseofunderstanding.N0001Gg0G20N0005G40N0010T0101

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