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机械外文翻译--应用于电气系统的可编程序控制器.doc

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机械外文翻译--应用于电气系统的可编程序控制器.doc

本科毕业论文(设计)外文资料翻译学生姓名所在院系机电学院所学专业机电技术教育导师姓名完成时间ProgrammabledesignedforelectropneumaticsystemscontrollerAbstractThisprojectdealswiththestudyofelectropneumaticsystemsandTheprogrammablecontrollerthatprovidesaneffectiveandeasywaytoControlthesequenceofthepneumaticactuatorsmovementandthestatesofpneumaticsystem.Theprojectofaspecificcontrollerforpneumaticapplicationsjointhestudyofautomationdesignandthecontrolprocessingofpneumaticsystemswiththeelectronicdesignbasedonmicrocontrollerstoimplementtheresourcesofthecontroller.1.IntroductionTheautomationsystemsthatuseelectropneumatictechnologyareformedmainlybythreekindsofelementsactuatorsormotors,sensorsorbuttonsandcontrolelementslikevalves.Nowadays,mostofthecontrolelementsusedtoexecutethelogicofthesystemweresubstitutedbytheProgrammableLogicControllerPLC.Sensorsandswitchesarepluggedasinputsandthedirectcntrolvalvesfortheactuatorsarepluggedasoutputs.Aninternalprogramexecutesallthelogicnecessarytothesequenceofthemovements,simulatesothercomponentslikecounter,timerandcontrolthestatusofthesystem.WiththeuseofthePLC,theprojectwinsagility,becauseitispossibletocreateandsimulatetheaystemasmanytimesasnended.therefore,timecanbesaved,riskofmistakesreducedandcomplexitycanbeincreasedusingthesameelements.AconventionalPLC,thisispossibletofindonthemarketfrommanycompanies,offersmanyresourcestocontrolnotonlypneumaticsystems,butallkindsofsystemthatuseselectricalcomonents.thePLCcanbeveryversatileandrobustbeappliedinmanykindsofapplicationintheindustryorevensecuritysystemandautomationofbuildings.Becauseofthosecharacteristics,insomeapplicationsthePLCofferstomuchresourcesthatarenotevenusedtocontrolthesystem,electropneumaticsystemisoneofthiskindofapplication.TheuseofPLC,especiallyforsmallSizesystems,canbeveryexpensivefortheautomationproject.Analterativeinthiscaseistocreateaspecificcontrollerthatcanoffertheexactlysizeandresourcesthattheprojectnends.thiscanbemadeusingmicrcontrollersasthebaseofthiscontroller.Thecontroller,basedonmicrocontroller,canbeveryspecificandadaptedtoonlyOnekindofmachineoritcanworkasagenericcontrollerthatcanbeprogrammed.AsausualPLCandworkwithlogicthatcanbechanged.Allthecharacteristicsdependonwhatisneededandhowmuchexperiencethedesignerhaswithdevelopinganelectroniccircuitandfirmwareformicrocontroller.Butthemainadvantageofdesignthecontrollerwiththemicrocontrolleristhatthedesignerhasthetotalknowledgeofhiscontroller,whichmakesitpossibletocontrolthesizeofthecontroller,changethecomplexityandtheapplicationofit.Itmeansthattheprojectgetsmoreindependencefromothercompanies,butatthesametimetheresponsibilityofthecontrolofthesystemstaysatthedesignerhands.2.ElectropneumaticsystemOnautomationsystemonecanfindthreebasiccomponentsmentionedbefore,plusAlogiccircuitthatcontrolsthesystem.Anadequatetechniqueisneededtoprojectthelogiccircuitandintegrateallthenecessarycomponentstoexecutethesequenceofmovementsproperly.Forasimpledirectsequenceofmovementanintuitivemethodcanbeused1,5,butforindirectormorecomplexsequencestheintuitioncangenerateaverycomplicatedcircuitandsignalmistakes.Itisnecessarytouseanothermethodthatcansavetimeoftheproject,makeacleancircuit,caneliminateoccasionalsignaloverlappingandredundantcircuits.Thepresentedmethodiscalledstepbysteporlgorithmic,itisvalidforpneumaticandelectropneumaticsystemsanditwasusedasabaseinthiswork.Themethodconsistsofdesigningthesystemsbasedonstandardcircuitsmadeforeachchangeonthestateoftheactuators,thesechangesarecalledsteps.Thefirstpartistodesignthosekindsofstandardcircuitsforeachstep,thenexttaskistolinkthestandardcircuitsandthelastpartistoconnectthecontrolelementsthatreceivesignalsfromsensors,switchesandthepreviousmovements,andgivetheairorelectricitytothesupplylinesofeachstep.InFigs.1and2thestandardcircuitsaredrawnforpneumaticandelectropneumaticsystem.Itispossibletoseetherelationswiththepreviousandthenextsteps.3.themethodappliedinsidethecontrollerTheresultofthemethodpresentedbeforeisasequenceofmovementsoftheactuatorthatiswelldefinedbystepas.Itmeansthateachchangeonthepositionoftheactuatorsisanewstateofthesystemandthetransitionbetweenstatesiscalldstep.Thestandardcircuitdescribedbeforehelpsthedesignertodefinethestatesofthesystemsandtodefinetheconditiontoeachchangebetweenthestates.Intheendofthedesign,thesystemisdefinedbyasequencethatneverchancesandstatesthathavetheinputsandtheoutputswelldefined.Theinputsaretheconditionforthetransitionandtheoutputsaretheresultofthetransition.Alltheconfigurationofthosestepsstaysinsideofthemicrocontrollerandisexecutedthesamewayitwasdesigned.Thesequenceofstringsareprogrammedinsidethecontrollerwith5byteseachstringhastheconfigurationofonestepoftheprocessTherearetwobytesfortheinputs,onebytefortheoutputsandtwomorefortheotherconfigurationsandauxiliaryfunctionsofthestep.Afterprogramming,thissequenceofstringsissavedinsideofanonvolatilMemoryofthemicrocontroller,sotheycanbereadandexecuted.ThecontrollertaskisnottoworkinthesamewayasaconventionalPLC,butthepurposeofitistobeanexampleofaversatilecontrollerthatisdesignforanspecificarea.AconventionalPLCprocessthecontrolofthesystemusingacyclewhereitmakesanimageoftheinputs,executealltheconditionsdefinedbytheconfigurationprogrammedinside,andthenupdatethestateoftheoutputs.Thiscontrollerworksinadifferentway,whereitreadtheconfigurationofthestep,waittheconditionofinputstobesatisfied,thenupdatethestateortheoutputsandafterthatjumptothenextstepandstarttheprocessagain.Itcangeneratesomelimitations,asthefactthatthiscontrollercannotexecute,insidetheprogram,movementsthatmustberepeatedforsometime,butthisproblemcanbesolvedwithsomeexternallogiccomponents.Anotherlimitationisthatthecontrollercannotbeappliedonsystemsthathavenosequence.Theselimitationsareacharacteristicofthesystemthatmustbeanalyzedforeachapplication.

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