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机械外文翻译--探秘可弯曲电子.doc

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机械外文翻译--探秘可弯曲电子.doc

1http//www.eetasia.com/Process/ManufacturingElectronicsfollowcurvesPosted03Nov2008Inelectronics,rigidandflatisnormal.Intherealworld,notsomuch.Therearemanyapplicationsinwhichitwouldbeusefulforelectronicstoconformtocurvilinearsurfacesortodeformwithuse,especiallyinsensing.Adetectorarraycouldbemadetoencircletheheart,stretchingwitheachbeat.Anartificialskincouldbestretchedaroundthewingofanaircraft,relayingdetailedlocalinformationwhileinflight.Anartificialretinacouldfitinthecurvedspaceatthebackoftheeyelikethebiologicalsensoritreplaced.Thusfar,however,flexibletechnologieshavelackedtheperformance,manufacturabilityor,well,theflexibilitytomakesuchapplicationsfeasible.ButanewtechnologydemonstratedattheUniversityofIllinoisatUrbanaChampaignUIUCmaybeabletofillthisnicheonethatiscertaintowidenonceengineersareallowedtothinkbeyondflatandrigid.Thenewcircuitsaredesignedtohavelong,thininterconnects,fabricatedusingstandardsemiconductorssilicon,galliumarsenideandsoonandconventionaltechniques,andthentransferredontoastretchedelasticsheet.Oncethesubstrateisrelaxed,theinterconnectswhicharethinenoughtobendwithoutbreakingbuckleunderthestrain.Ifdesignedcorrectly,theycanthenbucklefurtherifcompressedorflattenifstretched.Thus,anelasticcircuitfabriccanbecreatedusingmoreorlessordinaryelectronics.Alternatively,theelasticfabriccanbeusedtoformtheelectronicsinto3Dshapesthatcanbetransferredontoarigidsubstrate.ThisishowtheUIUCteamwasabletocreatethefirsthemisphericalsiliconcamera.BiggestbenefitWhetherflexibilityorshapeisthegoal,theapproachhastheadvantageofleveragingconventionalmicrolithographyandsemiconductorprocessing.John2Rogers,wholedtheUIUCresearch,hassetupSempriusInc.tocommercializethetechnology.Themostimportantadvantage,Rogerssaid,isthatweuseknown,establishedmaterialsandprocessingtechniquestoachievelevelsofperformanceinthecircuitsashighascomparablydesignedwaferbasedsystems,butwithlevelsofstretchabilityapproachingthatofarubberbandupto100percentstrainsandevenlarger.Anassociatedadvantageisthatwecanfullyexploitallexistingelectronicsknowledgeandfabricationfacilities.BobReuss,anindependentconsultantandformerDARPAprogrammanagerandMotorolaseniortechnologist,alsosuggeststhetechnologywill,attheveryleast,findaniche.Toachieveconformaland/orflexibleelectronicswithatleastmoderatefunctionality,Ibelievethetechnologywillbevaluable,ifnotessential.Sosuccesswillmeancreationofanewmarketsegment,hesaid.Further,headded,ElasticSisinmyopinionanexampleofmorethanMoore.ItisnotontheInternationalTechnologyRoadmapforSemiconductorsandperhapsneverwillbe.Rather,itisoneofavarietyoftechnologiesbeingcreatedeithertomoreeffectivelyutilizeICtechnologyforapplicationsbeyondcomputingandcommunications,ortoactuallyreplacetheexistingICinfrastructurewherecostandformfactorarenotcompetitivefortheintendedapplication.ElasticisnotplasticsThebestknownwaytocreateflexibleelectronicsistoprintcircuitsdirectlyontocarbonbasedplastics.Onetargetapplicationforthistechnologyistheelectronicnewspaper,whichisintheprocessofbeingrealizedcommercially.Althoughthetechnologyismaturing,ithasinherentproblemsItreliesonorganicmaterialsthathavemuchpoorerelectronicperformancethansemiconductors.Worse,thedevelopmentofthesematerialsdoesnotcomefreeasabyproductofprogressintheelectronicsindustry.Finally,althoughthesematerialsareflexible,theyarenotelasticTheybend,buttheydontstretch.Anotherapproachistofabricateconventionalchipsandthenthinthewaferstomakethemlighterandlessrigid.Again,stretchingisnotanoption,andevenbendingabilityislimited.Yetanotheroptionistoattachsmallchips3toanelasticsurfaceandcreatewirestoconnectthemafterthefact.Thoughthisoffersbothperformanceandmechanicalflexibility,therearemanynonconventionaland,therefore,expensivefabricationstepsinvolved.ThinisflexibleTheUIUCapproachdependsonthefactthatsilicon,GaAsandothersemiconductorsallbasicallybrittlebecomeflexiblewhendepositedinverythinlayers.MaxLagally,amaterialsscienceandengineeringprofessorattheUniversityofWisconsinMadison,worksintheareaofnanostructuresforelectronics,amongotherthings.Thin,flexibleSiandothersemiconductors,includingGehastremendouspotential,hesaid.Thereistheflexibility,theabilitytotakeadvantageofthethirddimension.Onecanalsostrainthemandthustakeadvantageofbetterelectronicpropertiesonecanstackthemetc.TheUIUCapproach,infact,takeslittleadvantageoftheseproperties,asthecarrieriswhatisflexible,Lagallysaid.Thisisincontrasttoresearcherscreatingfarmoresophisticatedmicroandnanomechanicaldevicesbyengineeringthestraininfabricatedlayersso,whenreleased,theyformcomplexthreedimensionalstructures.Rather,heexplained,thegroupsmostimportantachievement,isthetransfertechnologytheabilitytotransferthesiliconpiecesandconnecttheminsuchawaythattheyendupinthehemisphericalpattern.Itisreallythefirstexampleofahemisphericalphotodetectorinsilicon.However,accordingtoRogers,theUIUCteamwithcolleaguesatNorthwesternUniversityandelsewherehasalsomadeanimportantcontributiontotheunderstandingofmechanicsinsilicon.Thebucklingmechanicsandthemodesofdeformationpushintotheforefrontoftheoreticalmechanics,Rogerssaid.Infact,ourverycarefulexperimentalstudiesofelasticsiliconrevealedaflawedassumptionineverypreviousknowntheoreticaltreatmentofbucklinginstiffmaterialsoncompliantsubstrates.Further,heseesthefutureofelectronicsastakingmechanicsintoaccount.Ithinkthesekindsofsystemsbringmechanicaldesigntotheforefrontofsystemdefinition,atalevelthatmightbeasimportantascircuitdesign,hesaid.Weenvision,infact,akindofmechanicsequivalenttoPspicethatcouldaidinthelayoutofacircuitforoptimalperformanceinanelasticconfiguration.Acombinedmechanics/electronicsdesigntoolmightbe4theultimate.Weworkcloselywiththeoreticalmechaniciansandanalogcircuitdesignerstopursuethistypeofoutcome.PotentialapplicationThereisanentire,untappedworldofapplicationsforelectronicsthatdemandpropertiesunachievablewithconventionaltechnologiesbasedonsemiconductorwafers,Rogerssaid.Themostprominentexamplesfallintotwocategoriesbioinspireddevicesandbiomedicaldevices.Bothrelyonsystemsthathavethelayoutsofbiologicalsystems,noneofwhichhavetherigid,planarnatureofasemiconductorwafer.Inthebiomedicalarea,Rogerssaid,Weareworkingonelectronicsensorpatchesthatconformallyintegratewiththecomplex,curvilinearsurfaceofthehumanbrain.Ourgoal,incollaborationswithProfessorBrianLittinthemedicalschoolatUniversityofPennsylvania,istoprovideasystemthatcandetecttheonsetofaseizureinapersonwhosuffersfromepilepsy,beforetheseizureactuallyoccurs.Thetechnologyhasagoodchanceofsucceedingintheseareas,concursReuss,whobelievesitwillprovelucrativeforinvestors.Whethertoaugment,replaceormonitorbiologicalfunction,flexible/stretchableelectronicswillbeneededtoeffectivelyandcomfortablyachievehumaninterface,hesaid.Giventheagingpopulation,aswellasthedesiretomedicateavarietyofdebilitatingdiseases,thereseemstobeahugeavailablemarketfortherighttechnicalsolutions.Structuralhealthmonitoringandportableelectronics,headded,willalsobeattractiveapplications.However,ReussisnotconvincedthatcommercialsuccesscanbetakenforgrantedIndustryinertiamaybeaproblem.ThereisawellusedexpressionIfitcanbedoneinSi,itwillbedoneinSi,hesaid.SoconventionalICs,perhapsthinnedtolessthan50µm,shouldneverberuledout.Further,headded,theadvantagesofthenewtechnologymaybeoffsetbythehighercostassociatedwithaprocessflowmorecomplexthansimplyprintinginksontoasubstratesuchasplastic.IfinksbecomeavailablethatprovideperformanceclosertoconventionalICs,costvs.performancetradeanalysismaybecomemoredifficult.

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